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Computer Coding of the IPA: Extensions to the IPA

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 February 2009

Martin J. Ball
Department of Behavioural and Communication Studies, Polytechnic of Wales, Pontypridd, Mid Glamorgan, CF371DL, UK


Esling (1990) reports on the computer coding of the IPA as amended to 1989. The coding system consists of three-digit numbers, divided into groups for consonants, vowels, and diacritics by the first digit. The set of coding numbers in the series 6nn was reserved for the symbols for voice quality and pathological speech listed in the Extensions to the IPA drawn up by the Group working on these symbols at the Kiel IPA Convention.

Phonetic Representation Extensions
Copyright © Journal of the International Phonetic Association 1991

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Duckworth, M., Allen, G., Hardcastle, W. and Ball, M. J. (1990). Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for the transcription of atypical speech. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 4, 273–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar