Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

A phonetically versatile contrast: Pulmonic and glottalic voicelessness in Scottish English obstruents and voice quality

  • Olga B. Gordeeva (a1) and James M. Scobbie (a2)
Abstract

This paper presents impressionistic, electroglottographic and acoustic data exploring the distribution of glottalic and pulmonic airstream in word-final Scottish English obstruents. We explore the relationship between these airstream mechanisms and aspirated or glottalised phonatory settings of individual speakers near this obstruent locus. We address the hypothesis that the tendency for pre-stop glottalisation found in some British English varieties can explain the occurrence of glottalically-released stops. This hypothesis suggests that ejectives would appear as an occasional artefact of mistimed glottalisation. We also investigate whether a glottalic airstream acts as a potential contrast enhancement mechanism, through association with /−voice/ as opposed to /+voice/ stops. We show that glottalisation and aspiration can readily co-occur in the same speaker, and that local phonatory setting (with glottalised or aspirated articulation) can be consistently used as a secondary correlate of obstruent /−voice/, in the context of stops and fricatives respectively. The results show that although glottalisation as a secondary correlate of /−voice/ stops often co-occurs with an ejective release, they are not necessarily bound together. These results argue against a simple epiphenomenal explanation for the appearance of ejective stops in English, while also showing that they are not (yet) a systematic phonological enhancement in this variety.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Boersma, Paul & Weenink, David. 2009. Praat: Doing phonetics by computer [computer program], Version 5.1. http://www.praat.org/ (retrieved 17 February 2009).
Catford, J. C. 1982. Fundamental problems in phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Chirrey, Deborah. 1999. Edinburgh: Descriptive material. In Foulkes & Docherty (eds.), 223–229.
Docherty, Gerard J. 1992. The timing of voicing in British English obstruents (Netherlands Phonetics Archives 9). Berlin: Foris.
Docherty, Gerard J. & Foulkes, Paul. 2005. Glottal variants of /t/ in the Tyneside variety of English. In Hardcastle & Mackenzie Beck (eds.), 173–200.
Esling, John H. 1978. The identification of features of voice quality in social groups. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 8, 1823.
Esling, John H. & Harris, Jimmy G.. 2005. States of the glottis: An articulatory phonetic model based on laryngoscopic observations. In Hardcastle & Mackenzie Beck (eds.), 347–384.
Everett, Caleb. 2013. Evidence for direct geographic influences on linguistic sounds: The case of ejectives. PLoS ONE 8 (6): e65275. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065275.
Fabricius, Anne. 2000. T-glottalling: Between stigma and prestige. A sociolinguistic study of modern RP. Ph.D. dissertation, Copenhagen Business School.
Paul, Foulkes & Docherty, Gerard J. (eds.). 1999. Urban voices: Accent studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold.
Fourcin, Adrian. 2000. Precision stroboscopy, voice quality and electrolaryngography. In Kent, Raymond D. & Ball, Martin J. (eds.), Voice quality measurement, 285306. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.
Fuchs, Susanne, Toda, Martine & Żygis, Marzena (eds.). 2010. Turbulent sounds: An interdisciplinary guide. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Gordeeva, Olga B. 2007. Learnability of laryngeal abduction gesture in voiceless fricatives: Cross-linguistic evidence. In Trouvain, Jürgen & Barry, William J. (eds.), 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS XVI), Saarbrücken, 433436.
Gordeeva, Olga B. & Scobbie, James M.. 2010. Preaspiration as a correlate of word-final voice in Scottish English fricatives. In Fuchs et al. (eds.), 167–208.
Gordeeva, Olga B. & Scobbie, James M.. 2011. Laryngeal variation in the Scottish English voice contrast: Glottalisation, ejectivisation and aspiration. In Scobbie, James M., Mennen, Ineke & Watson, Jocelynne (eds.), CASL Research Centre Working Paper, WP–19, 118. Edinburgh: Queen Margaret University.
Gordon, Matthew & Ladefoged, Peter. 2001. Phonation types: A cross-linguistic overview. Journal of Phonetics 29, 383406.
Grawunder, Sven, Simpson, Adrian P. & Khalilov, Madzhid. 2010. Phonetic characteristics of ejectives – samples from Caucasian languages. In Fuchs et al. (eds.), 209–244.
Haggard, Mark. 1978. The devoicing of voiced fricatives. Journal of Phonetics 6, 95102.
Hardcastle, William J. & Beck, Janet Mackenzie (eds.). 2005. A figure of speech: A Festschrift for John Laver. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Hawkins, Sarah. 2010. Phonological features, auditory objects, and illusions. Journal of Phonetics 38, 6089.
Hillenbrand, James, Cleveland, Ronald A. & Ericson, Robert L.. 1994. Acoustic correlates of breathy vocal quality. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 37, 769778.
Honikman, Beatrice. 1964. Articulatory settings. In Abercrombie, David, Fry, D. B., MacCarthy, P. A. D., Scott, N. C. & Trim, J. L. M. (eds.), In honour of Daniel Jones: Papers contributed on the occasion of his eightieth birthday 12 September 1961. London: Longmans, Green & Co.
Klatt, Dennis H. & Klatt, Laura C.. 1990. Analysis, synthesis, and perception of voice quality variations among female and male talkers. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 87 (2), 820857.
Ladefoged, Peter. 1993. A course in phonetics, 3rd edn.Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace.
Ladefoged, Peter & Maddieson, Ian. 1996. The sounds of the world's languages. Oxford: Blackwell.
Laver, John. 1994. Principles of phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lindau, Mona. 1984. Phonetic differences in glottalic consonants. Journal of Phonetics 12, 147155.
Mackenzie Beck, Janet. 2005. Perceptual analysis of voice quality: The place of vocal profile analysis. In Hardcastle & Mackenzie Beck (eds.), 285–322.
Maddieson, Ian. 2011. Glottalized consonants. In Dryer, Matthew S. & Haspelmath, Martin (eds.), The world atlas of language structures online. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library.
Marasek, Krzysztof. 1997. Electroglottographic description of voice quality. Habilitationschift, Universität Stuttgart.
McCarthy, Owen. 2011. A sociophonetic study of the realization of word-final velar plosives by female pupils in a Glasgow high school. MPhil dissertation, University of Glasgow.
McCarthy, Owen & Stuart-Smith, Jane. 2013. Ejectives in Scottish English: A social perspective. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (3), 273298.
Milroy, James, Milroy, Lesley, Hartley, Sue & Walshow, David. 1994. Glottal stops and Tyneside glottalization: Competing patterns of variation and change in British English. Language Variation and Change 5 (3), 327357.
Ogden, Richard. 2009. An introduction to English phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Roach, Peter J. 1979. Laryngeal-oral coarticulation in glottalized English plosives. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 9 (1), 26.
Roberts, Sean & Winters, James. 2013. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: Lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits. PLoS ONE 8 (8): e70902. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070902.
Scobbie, James M., Hewlett, Nigel & Turk, Alice. 1999. Standard English in Edinburgh and Glasgow: The Scottish vowel length rule revealed. In Foulkes & Docherty (eds.), 230–245.
Scobbie, James M., Turk, Alice & Hewlett, Nigel. 1999. Morphemes, phonetics and lexical items: The case of the Scottish vowel length rule. In Ohala, John J., Hasegawa, Yoko, Ohala, Manjari, Granville, Daniel & Bailey, Ashlee C. (eds.), 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS XIV), San Francisco, 16171620.
Simpson, Adrian P. 2007. Acoustic and auditory correlates of non-pulmonic sound production in German. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (2), 173182.
Simpson, Adrian P. In press. Ejectives in English and German – linguistic, sociophonetic, interactional, epiphenomenal? In Celata, Chiara & Calamai, Silvia (eds.), Advances in sociophonetics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Smith, Caroline L. 1997. The devoicing of /z/ in American English: Effects of local and prosodic context. Journal of Phonetics 25, 471500.
Stuart-Smith, Jane. 1999. Glasgow: Accent and voice quality. In Foulkes & Docherty (eds.), 203–222.
Vicenik, Chad. 2010. An acoustic study of Georgian stop consonants. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (1), 5992.
Wells, John. 1982. Accents of English, vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Phonetic Association
  • ISSN: 0025-1003
  • EISSN: 1475-3502
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-phonetic-association
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Gordeeva Supplementary Material
Gordeeva Supplementary Sound File 4

 Unknown (165 KB)
165 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Gordeeva Supplementary Material
Gordeeva Supplementary Sound File 3

 Unknown (65 KB)
65 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Gordeeva Supplementary Material
Gordeeva Supplementary Sound File 2

 Unknown (76 KB)
76 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Gordeeva Supplementary Material
Gordeeva Supplementary Sound File 1

 Unknown (119 KB)
119 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed