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Punjabi (Lyallpuri variety)

  • Qandeel Hussain (a1) (a2), Michael Proctor (a3), Mark Harvey (a4) and Katherine Demuth (a5)


Punjabi (Western, ISO-639-3 pnb) is an Indo-Aryan language (Indo-European, Indo-Iranian) spoken in Pakistan and India, and in immigrant communities in the UK, Canada, USA, and elsewhere. In terms of number of native speakers, it is ranked 10th among the world’s languages, with more than 100 million speakers (Lewis, Simons & Fennig 2016). Aspects of the phonology of different varieties of Punjabi have been described in Jain (1934), Arun (1961), Gill & Gleason (1962), Singh (1971), Dulai & Koul (1980), Bhatia (1993), Malik (1995), Shackle (2003), and Dhillon (2010). Much of this literature is focused on Eastern varieties, and the phonology of Western Punjabi dialects has received relatively less attention (e.g. Bahri 1962, Baart 2003, 2014).



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Arun, Vidya B. 1961. A comparative phonology of Hindi and Panjabi. Ludhiana: Panjabi Sahitya Akademi.
Baart, Joan L. G. 2003. Tonal features in languages of northern Pakistan. In Baart, Joan L. G. & Sindhi, Ghulam H. (eds.), Pakistani languages and society: Problems and prospects, 132144. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University.
Baart, Joan L. G. 2014. Tone and stress in North-West Indo-Aryan: A survey. In Caspers, Johanneke, Chen, Yiya, Heeren, Willemijn, Pacilly, Jos, Schiller, Niels O. & van Zanten, Ellen (eds.), Above and beyond the segments: Experimental linguistics and phonetics, 113. Amsterdam & Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
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Bhatia, Tej K. 1993. Punjabi: A cognitive descriptive grammar. London & New York: Routledge.
Bhatia, Tej K. 2006. Punjabi. In Brown, & Ogilvie, (eds.), 885889.
Bukhari, Tanveer. 2008. Punjabi Urdu lughat [Punjabi Urdu dictionary]. Lahore: Urdu Science Board.
Campbell, George L. 1981. The Panjabi language: A descriptive grammar (originally written in Russian by Tolstaya, T. I.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Dhillon, Rajdip K. 2010. Stress and tone in Indo-Aryan languages. Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University.
Dulai, Narinder K. 1989. A pedagogical grammar of Punjabi. Patiala: Indian Institute of language studies.
Dulai, Narinder K. & Koul, Omkar N.. 1980. Punjabi phonetic reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian languages.
Gill, Harjeet S. 1960. Panjabi tonemics. Anthropological Linguistics 2(6), 1118.
Gill, Harjeet S. & Gleason, Henry A. Jr. 1962. A reference grammar of Panjabi. Hartford, CT: The Hartford Seminary Foundation.
Grierson, George A. 1916. Linguistic survey of India, vol. 9: Specimens of Western Hindi and Punjabi. New Delhi: D. K. Publishers and Distributors.
Hussain, Qandeel. 2015. Temporal characteristics of Punjabi word-medial singletons and geminates. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 138(4), EL388-EL392.
Hussain, Qandeel. 2018. A typological study of Voice Onset Time (VOT) in Indo-Iranian languages. Journal of Phonetics 71, 284305.
Hussain, Qandeel, Proctor, Michael, Harvey, Mark & Demuth, Katherine. 2017. Acoustic characteristics of Punjabi retroflex and dental stops. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 141(6), 45224542.
Jain, Banarasi D. 1934. A phonology of Panjabi as spoken about Ludhiana and a Ludhiani phonetic reader. Lahore: The University of the Panjab.
Lewis, M. Paul, Simons, Gary F. & Fennig, Charles D. (eds.). 2016. Ethnologue: Languages of the world, 19th edn. Dallas, TX: SIL International.
Malik, Amar N. 1995. The phonology and morphology of Panjabi. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.
Shackle, Christopher. 1977. Siraiki: A language movement in Pakistan. Modern Asian Studies 11(3), 379403.
Shackle, Christopher. 1979. Problems of classification in Pakistan Punjab. Transactions of the Philological Society 77(1), 191210.
Shackle, Christopher. 2003. Punjabi. In Cardona, George & Jain, Dhanesh (eds.), The Indo-Aryan languages, 581621. London: Routledge.
Shackle, Christopher. 2006. Lahnda. In Brown, & Ogilvie, (eds.), 635.
Singh, Narinder. 1971. Some aspects of the generative phonology of Punjabi. M. Phil. thesis, University of York.
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Hussain et al. supplementary material
Hussain et al. supplementary material 1

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