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Russian

  • Irena Yanushevskaya (a1) and Daniel Bunčić (a2)
Extract

Russian (ISO 639-3 rus) is an Indo-European East Slavic language spoken by about 162 million people as their first language and about another 110 million as their second language (Lewis, Simons & Fennig 2013), mainly in the Russian Federation (where it is the native language of about 80% of the population, see Berger 1998, Federal’naja služba gosudarstvennoj statistiki (Federal State Statistics Service) 2012: 228–232) and in the other former republics of the USSR (among which it is co-official in Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan). Large groups of Russian speakers (so-called heritage speakers) also live in Europe (especially Germany: almost 3 million or 3.5% of the population, Brehmer 2007: 166–167), Israel (about 1 million or 20%, Glöckner 2008) and the United States (850,000 or 0.3%, Shin & Kominski 2010: 6).

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References
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Avanesov, Ruben Ivanovič. 1974. Russkaja literaturnaja i dialektnaja fonetika [Russian literary and dialectal phonetics]. Moscow: Prosveščenie.
Berger, Tilman. 1998. Das Russische. In Rehder, Peter (ed.), Einführung in die slavischen Sprachen, 4993. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
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Bolla, K. 1981. A conspectus of Russian speech sounds. Budapest: Académiai Kiadó.
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Bondarko, Liya V[asilʼevna]. 2005. Phonetic and phonological aspects of the opposition of ʻsoftʼ and ʻhardʼ consonants in the modern Russian language. Speech Communication 47 (1–2), 714.
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Federal’naja Služba Gosudarstvennoj Statistiki [Federal State Statistics Service]. 2012. Itogi vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda [Results of the All-Russian Census of 2010], vol. 4: Nacionalʼnyj sostav i vladenie jazykami, graždanstvo [National composition and command of language, citizenship]. Moscow: Statistika Rossii.
Glöckner, Olaf. 2008. Russische Juden in Israel. In Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung (ed.), Dossier Israel. http://www.bpb.de/internationales/asien/israel/45119/russische-juden (retrieved 28 December 2014).
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Knjazev, Sergej Vladimirovič. 2006. Struktura fonetičeskogo slova v russkom jazyke: sinxronija i diaxronija [The structure of the phonetic word in Russian: Synchrony and diachrony]. Moscow: MAKS Press.
Ladefoged, Peter & Maddieson, Ian. 1996. The sounds of the worldʼs languages. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lewis, M. Paul, Simons, Gary F. & Fennig, Charles D. (eds.). 2013. Ethnologue: Languages of the world, 17th edn. Dallas, TX: SIL International.
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Odé, Cecilia. 2008. Transcription of Russian Intonation, ToRI, an interactive research tool and learning module on the Internet. In Houtzagers, Peter, Kalsbeek, Janneke & Schaeken, Jos (eds.), Dutch contributions to the Fourteenth International Congress of Slavists, 431449. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi.
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Journal of the International Phonetic Association
  • ISSN: 0025-1003
  • EISSN: 1475-3502
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-phonetic-association
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Russian sound files
Sound files zip. These audio files are licensed to the IPA by their authors and accompany the phonetic descriptions published in the Journal of the International Phonetic Association. The audio files may be downloaded for personal use but may not be incorporated in another product without the permission of Cambridge University Press

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