Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Visualizing phonetic segment frequencies with density-equalizing maps

  • Jeff Mielke (a1)
Abstract

A method is demonstrated for creating density-equalizing maps of IPA consonant and vowel charts, where the size of a cell in the chart reflects information such as the crosslinguistic frequency of the consonant or vowel. Transforming the IPA charts in such a way allows the visualization of interactions between phonetic features. Density-equalizing maps are used to illustrate a range of facts about consonant and vowel inventories, including the frequency of consonants and vowels and the frequency of common diacritics, and to illustrate the frequency of deletion and epenthesis involving particular consonants and vowels. Solutions are proposed for issues involving genealogical sampling, counting pairs of very similar phones, and counting diacritics in relation to basic symbols.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Appel A., Evangelisti C. & Stein A.. 1983. Animating quantitative maps with cellular automata. IBM Technical Discovery Bulletin 26, 953956.
Bickel Balthasar. 2008. A refined sampling procedure for genealogical control. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 61, 221233.
Bickel Balthasar & Nichols Johanna. 1996. The AUTOTYP database. http://www.autotyp.uzh.ch/ (accessed 15 June 2009).
Blevins Juliette. 2005. The typology of geminate inventories: Historical explanations for recurrent sound patterns. Seoul Linguistics Forum 2005, 121137. Seoul: Language Education Institute, Seoul National University.
Blevins Juliette. 2008. Consonant epenthesis: Natural and unnatural histories. In Good Jeff (ed.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Explaining Linguistic Universals, 79107. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Browman Catherine & Goldstein Louis. 1992. Articulatory phonology: An overview. Phonetica 49, 155180.
Catford J. C. 1977. Fundamental problems in phonetics, vol. 1. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Edinburgh.
Chanard Christian. 2006. Systèmes alphabétiques des langues africaines. http://sumale.vjf.cnrs.fr/phono/ (accessed 4 February 2017).
Chiu Chenhao & Gick Bryan. 2013. Producing whole speech events: Anticipatory lip compression in bilabial stops. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, vol. 19, 060252.
Clements G. N. 2003. Feature economy in sound systems. Phonology 20 (3), 287333.
Clements G. N. 2009. The role of features in speech sound inventories. In Raimy Eric & Cairns Charles (eds.), Architecture and representations in phonological theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Crothers John H., Lorentz James P., Sherman Donald A. & Vihman Marilyn M.. 1979. Handbook of phonological data from a sample of the world's languages (A report of the Stanford Phonology Archive). Stanford, CA: Stanford University.
de Boer Bart. 2001. The origins of vowel systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dorling Daniel, Newman Mark & Barford Anna. 2008. The atlas of the real world: Mapping the way we live. London: Thames & Hudson.
Dorling Danny [Daniel], Barford Anna & Newman Mark. 2006. Worldmapper: The world as you've never seen it before. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 12, 757764.
Dougenik James A., Chrisman Nicholas R. & Niemeyer Duane R.. 1985. An algorithm to construct continuous area cartograms. Professional Geographer 37, 7581.
Dryer Matthew S. & Haspelmath Martin (eds.). 2013. The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://wals.info (accessed 19 February 2017).
Flemming Edward S. 2002. Auditory representations in phonology. New York: Routledge.
Gastner Michael T. & Newman M. E. J. [Mark]. 2004. Diffusion-based method for producing density equalizing maps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101, 74997504.
Gick Bryan, Stavness Ian & Chiu Chenhao. 2013. Coarticulation in a whole event model of speech production. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, vol. 19, 060207.
Gick Bryan, Stavness Ian, Chiu Chenhao & Fels Sidney. 2011. Categorical variation in lip posture is determined by quantal biomechanical–articulatory relations. Canadian Acoustics 39, 178179.
Gusein-Zade Sabir M. & Tikunov Vladimir S.. 1993. A new technique for constructing continuous cartograms. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems 20, 167173.
Hall Daniel Currie. 2011. Phonological contrast and its phonetic enhancement: Dispersedness without dispersion. Phonology 28, 154.
Halle Morris & Clements G. N.. 1983. Problem book in phonology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hammarström Harald, Forkel Robert, Haspelmath Martin & Bank Sebastian. 2015. Glottolog 2.6. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. http://glottolog.org (accessed 5 October 2015).
Hardcastle William J. & Roach Peter J.. 1979. An instrumental investigation of coarticulation in stop consonant sequences. In Hollien Harry & Hollien Patricia (eds.), Current issues in the phonetic sciences, vol. 15, 531540. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hartell Rhonda L. (ed.). 1993. Alphabets des langues africaines. UNESCO and Société Internationale de Linguistique.
Hume Elizabeth & Bromberg Ilana. 2005. Predicting epenthesis: An information-theoretic account. Presented at the 7th Annual Meeting of the French Network of Phonology.
Kawasaki Haruko. 1982. An acoustical basis for universal phonotactic constraints. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
Keating Patricia [A.]. 1984. Physiological effects on stop consonant voicing. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 59, 2934.
Kocmoud Christopher James. 1997. Constructing continuous cartograms: A constraint-based approach. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University.
Liljencrants Johan & Lindblom Bjöorn. 1972. Numerical simulation of vowel quality systems: The role of perceptual contrast. Language 48, 839862.
Lindblom Björn & Maddieson Ian. 1988. Phonetic universals in consonant systems. In Hyman Larry M. & Li Charles N. (eds.), Language, speech, and mind: Studies in honour of Victoria Fromkin, 6278. London: Routledge.
Mackie Scott & Mielke Jeff. 2011. Feature economy in natural, random, and synthetic inventories. In Clements G. N. & Ridouane Rachid (eds.), Where do phonological contrasts come from?, 4368. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Maddieson Ian. 1984. Patterns of sounds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Maddieson Ian. 1997. Phonetic universals. In Hardcastle William J. & Laver John (eds.), The handbook of phonetic sciences, 619639. Oxford: Blackwell.
Maddieson Ian. 2001. Typological patterns – geographical distribution and phonetic explanation. Presented at the Conference on the Phonetics–Phonology Interface, Berlin.
Maddieson Ian. 2014. LAPSyD: Lyon–Albuquerque Phonological Systems Database. Lyon: CNRS. http://www.lapsyd.ddl.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/lapsyd/ (accessed 4 February 2017).
Maddieson Ian & Precoda Kristin. 1990. Updating UPSID. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 74, 104111.
Michael Lev, Stark Tammy & Chang Will. 2012. South American Phonological Inventory Database. http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~saphon/en/ (accessed 4 February 2017).
Mielke Jeff. 2008. The emergence of distinctive features (Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mielke Jeff. 2009. Segment inventories. Blackwell Language and Linguistics Compass 32, 700718.
Mielke Jeff & Brohan Anthony. 2013. P-base 3. http://pbase.phon.chass.ncsu.edu. [Electronic database]
Mielke Jeff, Magloughlin Lyra & Hume Elizabeth. 2011. Evaluating the effectiveness of Unified Feature Theory and three other feature systems. In Goldsmith John, Hume Elizabeth & Wetzels Leo (eds.), Tones and features: In honor of G. Nick Clements, 223263. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Moran Steven. 2012. Phonetics information base and lexicon. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington.
Moran Steven, McCloy Daniel & Wright Richard. 2014. Phoible online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://phoible.org (accessed 3 October 2015).
Newman Mark. 2006. Cart: Computer software for making cartograms. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/cart/doc/ (accessed 17 September 2011). [Online documentation]
Ohala John J. 1983. The origin of sound patterns in vocal tract constraints. In MacNeilage Peter F. (ed.), The production of speech, 189216. New York: Springer.
Pierrehumbert Janet & Talkin David. 1992. Lenition of /h/ and glottal stop. In Docherty Gerard J. & Ladd D. Robert (eds.), Papers in Laboratory Phonology II: Gesture, segment, prosody, 90117. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
R Core Team. 2015. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing., https://www.R-project.org (accessed 4 February 2017).
Simpson Adrian P. 1999. Fundamental problems in comparative phonetics and phonology: Does UPSID help to solve them? 14th International Congress of the Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS XIV), San Francisco, 349–352.
Steriade Donca. 2001. Directional asymmetries in place assimilation: A perceptual account. In Hume Elizabeth & Johnson Keith (eds.), Perception in phonology, 219250. New York: Academic Press.
Stevens Kenneth. 1972. The quantal nature of speech: Evidence from articulatory-acoustic data. In David Edward E. & Denes Peter B. (eds.), Human communication: A unified view, 5166. New York: McGraw Hill.
Stevens Kenneth. 1989. On the quantal nature of speech. Journal of Phonetics 17, 345.
Tobler Waldo R. 1963. Geographic area and map projections. Geographical Review 53, 5978.
Tobler Waldo R. 1973. A continuous transformation useful for districting. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 219, 215220.
Vaux Bert. 2002. Consonant epenthesis and the problem of unnatural phonology. Presented at Yale University Linguistics Colloquium.
Westbury John R. & Keating Patricia A.. 1986. On the naturalness of stop consonant voicing. Journal of Linguistics 22, 145166.
Winter Mark J. 2011. Diffusion cartograms for the display of periodic table data. Journal of Chemical Education 88, 15071510.
Zuraw Kie. 2011. Marginal contrasts in Tongan loanword phonology. Colloquium talk, University of Ottawa.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Phonetic Association
  • ISSN: 0025-1003
  • EISSN: 1475-3502
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-phonetic-association
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 15
Total number of PDF views: 109 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 368 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 14th March 2017 - 17th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.