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Impact of harmful algal blooms (Dinophysis acuminata) on the immune system of oysters and mussels from Santa Catarina, Brazil

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 December 2014

Erik Simões
Affiliation:
Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genética, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil
Renato Campos Vieira
Affiliation:
Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genética, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil
Mathias Alberto Schramm
Affiliation:
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina, Campus Itajaí, Rua Tijucas 55, 88301-360 Itajaí, SC, Brazil
Danielle Ferraz Mello
Affiliation:
Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genética, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil
Vitor De Almeida Pontinha
Affiliation:
Departamento de Aquicultura, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil
Patrícia Mirella da Silva*
Affiliation:
Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus I, 58059-900João Pessoa, PB, Brazil
Margherita Anna Barracco
Affiliation:
Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genética, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil
*
Correspondence should be addressed to: P.M. da Silva, Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Natureza, Jardim Universitário s/n, Bairro Castelo Branco, CEP 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB, Brazil email: mirella_dasilva@hotmail.com

Abstract

Blooms of the harmful alga Dinophysis acuminata, which produces okadaic acid (OA), are becoming recurrent in Santa Catarina coast, where most of the shellfish marine farms in Brazil are located. We evaluated the impact of D. acuminata blooms on various haemato-immunological parameters and on tissue integrity of cultivated oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Perna perna). Animals were sampled during two natural algal blooms, one at Praia Alegre (PA: 2950 cells l−1) and the other at Praia de Zimbros (PZ: 4150 cells l−1). Control animals were sampled at the same sites, 30 days after the end of the bloom. The assayed parameters were: total (THC) and differential (DHC) haemocyte counts, percentage of apoptotic haemocytes (AH), phenoloxidase activity (PO), agglutinating titre (AT) and total protein concentration in haemolymph (PC). Histological analyses were carried out in oysters from PZ. The results showed that some immune parameters were modulated during the toxic blooms, but not in a consistent manner, especially in mussels that accumulated more OA (10×) than oysters. For example, mussel THC decreased significantly (54%) during the bloom at PA, whereas it augmented markedly (64%) at PZ. PO activity was significantly altered by the algal blooms in both bivalve species, while PC increased significantly (66%) only in mussels from PZ bloom. The other parameters (DHC, AH and AT) did not vary in both bivalve species. Histological analyses showed an intense haemocytic infiltration throughout the oyster digestive epithelium, particularly into the stomach lumen during the algal bloom.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2014 

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Impact of harmful algal blooms (Dinophysis acuminata) on the immune system of oysters and mussels from Santa Catarina, Brazil
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