Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-rbzxz Total loading time: 0.373 Render date: 2022-05-20T23:39:15.982Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Incidence of ship strikes of large whales in Washington State

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 March 2008

Annie B. Douglas*
Affiliation:
Cascadia Research Collective, 218 1/2 W Fourth Avenue, Olympia, WA, 98501, USA
John Calambokidis
Affiliation:
Cascadia Research Collective, 218 1/2 W Fourth Avenue, Olympia, WA, 98501, USA
Stephen Raverty
Affiliation:
Animal Health Center, British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Food, 1767 Angus Campbell Road, Abbotsford, BC V3G 2M3Canada
Steven J. Jeffries
Affiliation:
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, 7801 Phillips Road SW, Lakewood, WA, 98498, USA
Dyanna M. Lambourn
Affiliation:
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, 7801 Phillips Road SW, Lakewood, WA, 98498, USA
Stephanie A. Norman
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195USA
*
Correspondence should be addressed to: Annie B. Douglas, Cascadia Research Collective, 218 1/2 W Fourth Avenue, Olympia, WA, 98501, USA email: abdouglas@cascadiaresearch.org

Abstract

Ship strikes of large whales cause mortalities worldwide, but there is uncertainty regarding the frequency and species involved. We examined 130 records (from 1980–2006) of large whale strandings in Washington State. Nineteen strandings (seven species) had evidence of ship-strikes. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) had the highest incidence of ante-mortem ship strike (five of seven, with the remaining two possibly post-mortem) and all but one occurring since 2002. Six grey whales (Eschrichtius robustus) suffered ‘possible ship strike’ injuries, likely the result of their large numbers in the area, rather than high levels of ship strikes. Only one possible ship-struck humpback whale was recorded, despite concentrations of humpbacks feeding within shipping lanes in this region. This study shows dramatic differences in occurrences of ship-struck large whales by species, which we believe results from a combination of species' vulnerability to ship strikes, and how likely a struck whale is to be caught up on the bow of a ship and brought to waters where it can be examined.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aguilar, A. and Lockyer, C.H. (1987) Growth, physical maturity, and mortality of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) inhabiting the temperate waters of the northeast Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Zoology 65, 253264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allison, P.A., Smith, C.R., Kukert, H., Deming, J.W. and Bennett, B.A. (1991) Deep-water taphonomy of vertebrate carcasses: a whale skeleton in the bathyal Santa Catalina Basin. Paleobiology 17, 7889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andre, M., Terada, M. and Watanabe, Y. (1997) Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) behavioural response after the playback of artificial sounds. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47, 499504.Google Scholar
Angliss, R.P. and Outlaw, R.B. (2005) Alaska marine mammal stock assessments, 2005. NOAA-TM-AFSC-16, 10 pp.Google Scholar
Appler, J., Barlow, J. and Rankin, S. (2004) Marine mammal data collected during the Oregon, California and Washington line–transect expedition (ORCAWALE) conducted aboard the NOAA ships McArthur and David Starr Jordan, July–December 2001. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-359, 38 pp.Google Scholar
Barlow, J. (2003) Preliminary estimates of cetacean abundance off the U.S. West Coast: 1991–2001. Administrative Report LJ-03-03. Available from Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, 8604 La Jolla Shores Directorate, La Jolla, CA. 26 pp.Google Scholar
Barlow, J. (1997) Preliminary estimates of cetacean abundance off California, Oregon, and Washington based on a 1996 ship survey and comparisons of passing and closing modes. Southwest Fisheries Science Center Administrative Report, LJ-97-11. 25 pp.Google Scholar
Calambokidis, J. and Barlow, J. (2004) Abundance of blue and humpback whales in the eastern North Pacific estimated by capture-recapture and line-transect methods. Marine Mammal Science 20, 6385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calambokidis, J., Steiger, G.H., Ellifrit, D.K., Troutman, B.L. and Bowlby, C.E. (2004) Distribution and abundance of humpback whales (Megapter novaeangliae) and other marine mammals off the northern Washington Coast. Fisheries Bulletin 102, 563580.Google Scholar
Calambokidis, J., Steiger, G.H., Evenson, J.R., Cubbage, J.C. and Osborne, R.W. (1991) Gray whales in Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca (Eschrichtius robustus). In Proceedings of Puget Sound Research, Seattle, WA, 4–5 January 1991. Puget Sound Water Quality Authority, Olympia, WA, pp. 414422.Google Scholar
Chandler, T.E. and Calambokidis, J. (2003) 2002 Aerial surveys for harbor porpoise and other marine mammals off Oregon, Washington and British Columbia. Report to the National Marine Mammal Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, Washington, 25 pp.Google Scholar
Carretta, J.V., Forney, K.A., Lowry, M.S., Barlow, J., Baker, J., Hanson, B. and Muto, M.M. (2007) Draft U.S. Pacific marine mammal stock assessments: 2007. US Department of Commerce, NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC. 176 pp.Google Scholar
Carretta, J.V., Forney, K.A., Muto, M.M., Barlow, J., Baker, J., Hanson, B. and Lowry, M.S. (2006) U.S. Pacific marine mammal stock assessments: 2005. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-388. 318 pp.Google Scholar
Everitt, R.D., Fiscus, C.H. and Delong, R.L. (1979) Marine mammals of northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, a report on investigations 1 November 1977–31 October 1978. US Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum. ERL MESA-41.Google Scholar
Falcone, E., Calambokidis, J., Steiger, G.H., Malleson, M. and Ford, J. (2005) Humpback whales in the Puget Sound/Georgia Strait Region. Proceedings of the 2005 Puget Sound Georgia Basin Research Conference, 4 pp.Google Scholar
Felix, F. and Waerebeek, K.V. (2005) Whale mortality from ship strikes in Ecuador and West Africa. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 4, 5560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forney, K.A. (2007) Preliminary estimates of cetacean abundance along the U.S. west coast and within four National Marine Sanctuaries during 2005. U.S. Department of Commerce NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC.Google Scholar
Fraser, F.C. (1937) Giant fishes, whales and dolphin Norman, J.R. and Fraser, F.C. (eds). pp. 201349. London: Putnam & Sons. (Also reported as pp. 289–294).Google Scholar
Gabriele, C.M., Jensen, A.S., Neilson, J.L. and Straley, J.M. (2007) Preliminary summary of reported whale–vessel collisions in Alaskan waters: 1978–2006. 59th Annual International Whaling Commission, SC/59/BC/. 5 pp.Google Scholar
Green, G.A., Brueggeman, J.J., Grotefendt, R.A., Bowlby, C.E., Bonnell, M.L. and Balcomb, K.C. III (1992) Cetacean distribution and abundance off Oregon and Washington, 1989–1990. In Brueggeman, J.J. (ed.) Oregon and Washington: marine mammal and seabird survey. Final report for Pacific OCS Region, minerals Management Services, OCS Study 91-0093 by Ebasco Environmental and Ecological, Bellevue, WA. 100 pp.Google Scholar
Heyning, J.E. and Dahlheim, M.E. (1990) Strandings, incidental kills and mortality patterns of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus). Paper SC/A90/G2 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee Special Meeting on the Assessment of Gray Whales, Seattle, April 1990, unpublished. [Paper available from the office of the Journal of Cetacean Research Management.]Google Scholar
IFAW (2006) Report of the second workshop on right whale acoustics: practical applications in conservation Leaper, R. and Gillespie, D. (eds). International Fund for Animal Welfare, Yarmouth Port, MA 02675, USA, 29 pp.Google Scholar
Jackson, S. and Forney, K. (2006a) Collaborative survey of cetacean abundance and the pelagic ecosystem (CSCAPE 2005). Cruise report. Cruise numbers: DS-05-07, Southwest Fisheries Science Center Cruise Number: 1628. 15 pp.Google Scholar
Jackson, S. and Forney, K. (2006b) Collaborative survey of cetacean abundance and the pelagic ecosystem (CSCAPE 2005). Cruise report. Cruise numbers: AR-05-04 and AR-05-06, Southwest Fisheries Science Center Cruise Number: 1627. 14 pp.Google Scholar
Jensen, A.S. and Silber, G.K. (2003) Large whale ship strike database. US Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-OPR-, 37 pp.Google Scholar
Laist, D.W., Knowlton, A.R., Mead, J.G., Collet, A.S. and Podesta, M. (2001) Collisions between ships and whales. Marine Mammal Science 17, 3575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lammers, M.O., Pack, A.A. and Davis, L. (2007) Trends in whale/vessel collisions in Hawaiian waters. Available from Oceanwide Science Institute. 31 pp.Google Scholar
Moore, J.M., Knowlton, A.R., Kraus, S.D., McLellan, W.A. and Bonde, R.K. (2004) Morphometry, gross morphology and available histopathology in North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) mortalities (1970–2002). Journal of Cetacean Research Management 6, 199211.Google Scholar
Moore, S.E., Stafford, K.M., Dahlheim, M.E., Fox, C.G., Braham, H.W., Polovin, J.J. and Bain, D.E. (1998) Seasonal variation in reception of fin whale calls at five geographic areas in the North Pacific. Marine Mammal Science 14, 617627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norman, S.A., Bowlby, C.E., Brancato, M.S., Calambokidis, J., Duffield, D., Gearin, P.J., Gomall, T.A., Gosho, M.E., Hanson, B., Hodder, J., Jeffries, S.J., Lagerquist, B., Lambourn, D.M., Mate, B., Norberg, B., Osboren, R.W., Rash, J.A., Riemer, S. and Scordino, J. (2004) Cetacean strandings in Oregon and Washington between 1930 and 2002. Journal of Cetacean Research Management 6, 8799.Google Scholar
Norris, L. (1980) Blue whale struck by freighter. Cetus 2, 2.Google Scholar
OCS (2007) Title 33: Navigation and navigable waters part 164—Navigation safety regulations. 164.25. http://chartmaker.ncd.noaa.gov/NSD/CP2/CP2-36ed-Ch02_2.pdf. Office of Coast Survey. Website accessed 9 April 2007.Google Scholar
Ohsumi, S. and Wada, S. (1974) Status of whale stocks in the North Pacific, 1972. Report of the International Whaling Commission 25, 114126.Google Scholar
Oleson, E.M., Hildebrand, J.A., Calambokidis, J., Schorr, G. and Falcone, E. (2007) 2006 Progress report on acoustic and visual monitoring for cetaceans along the outer Washington coast. Report NPS-OC-07-003 to Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Ca. 30 pp. (Available from www.cascadiaresearch.org).Google Scholar
Panigada, S., Pesante, G., Zanardelli, M., Caoulade, F., Gannier, A. and Weinrich, M.T. (2006) Mediterranean fin whales at risk from fatal ship strikes. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52, 12871298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pluta, P.J. (2002) Traffic separation schemes: in the Strait of Juan de Fuca and its approaches; in Puget Sound and its approaches; and in Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia. United States Environmental Protection Agency. FR Document 02-217785. Billing code 4910-15-P. http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2002/August/Day-27/i21785.htmGoogle Scholar
Port of Long Beach (2007) TEUS Archive since 1995. http://www.polb.com/about/port_stats/teus_archive_since_1995.asp. Website accessed 9 April 2007.Google Scholar
Port of Seattle (2007) Seattle harbor 10-year history of cargo volumes handled: 1997–2006. http://www.portseattle.org/seaport/statistics/pos10yearhistory.shtml. Website accessed 9 April 2007.Google Scholar
Port of Tacoma (2007) Port of Tacoma cargo volumes. http://www.portoftacoma.com/files/cargostatistics.pdf. Website accessed 9 April 2007.Google Scholar
Port of Vancouver (2007) Port of Vancouver five year summaries. http://www.portvancouver.com/statistics/2006_statistical.html. Website accessed 9 April 2007.Google Scholar
Rauch, S.D. (2006). Endangered Fish and Wildlife; Proposed Rule to Implement Speed Restrictions to Reduce the Threat of Ship Collisions with North Atlantic Right Whales; Extension of Public Comment Period FR 71 (156): 46440.Google Scholar
Reed, B. (2005) Puget Sound harbor safety and security committee. Marine Exchange of Puget Sound. http://www.marineexchangesea.com/PSHSC_SafetyPlan.htmlGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, J.E., Alexander, V. and Dayton, P.K. (2005) Other species of special concern, North Atlantic right whales. Marine Mammal Commission Annual Report to Congress 2005 33, 5567.Google Scholar
Rice, D.W. (1963) Progress report on biological studies of the larger cetaceans in the waters off California. Norsk Hvalfangst-Tidende 52(7), 181187.Google Scholar
Rugh, D.J., Muto, M.M., Moore, S.E. and DeMaster, D.P. (1999) Status review of the eastern north Pacific stock of gray whales. US Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-AFSC-103, 93 pp.Google Scholar
Russell, B.A. (2001) Recommended measures to reduce ship strikes of North Atlantic right whales. International fund for animal welfare, Submitted to NMFS. 30 pp.Google Scholar
Slijper, E.J. (1979) Whales. London: Hutchinson. 511 pp.Google Scholar
Stark, H., Parthasarathy, P. and Johnson, R.N. (2002) Considerations in designing a marine mammal–ship collision avoidance system based on aerial imagery by an unmanned airborne vehicle. Optical Engineering 42, 1117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Von Saunder, A. and Barlow, J. (1999) A report of the Oregon, California and Washington line-transect experiment (ORCAWALE) conducted in west coast waters during the summer/fall 1996. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-264, 53 pp.Google Scholar
Watkins, W.A., Daher, M., Reppucci, G.M., George, J.E., Martin, D.L., DiMarzio, N.A. and Gannon, D.P. (2000) Seasonality and distribution of whale calls in the North Pacific. Oceanography 13, 6267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiley, D.N., Asmutis, R.A., Pitchford, T.D. and Gannon, D.P. (1995) Stranding and mortality of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in the mid-Atlantic and southeast United States, 1985–1992. Fishery Bulletin 93, 196205.Google Scholar
Yablokov, A.V., Zemsky, V.A., Mikhalev, Y.A., Tormosov, V.V. and Berzin, A.A. (1998) Data on Soviet whaling in the Antarctic in 1947–1972 (population aspects). Russian Journal of Ecology 29, 4348.Google Scholar
29
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Incidence of ship strikes of large whales in Washington State
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Incidence of ship strikes of large whales in Washington State
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Incidence of ship strikes of large whales in Washington State
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *