Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Alien Sipuncula species in the Mediterranean Sea

  • Sermin Açik (a1)

The compilation of data on alien Sipuncula species reported from the Mediterranean Sea to date yields a total of eight species belonging to four families. Four species have become established in the area, while two species are classified as casual and two as cryptogenic. The pathways of the introduction of alien Sipuncula species were shipping and the Suez Canal. The eastern basin had the higher number of alien Sipuncula species (seven species) mainly due to its proximity to the Suez Canal and dense shipping traffic. Among these species, Aspidosiphon (A.) mexicanus has a wide distributional range in the region, but was considered as a cryptogenic species. The majority of alien Sipuncula species were found on soft subtrata in the region. Brief descriptions of the alien Sipuncula species and their distributional and ecological characteristics are given.

Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: S. Açik, Dokuz Eylul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology, Inciralti, 35340, Izmir, Turkey email:
Hide All
S. Açik (2007) Observations on the population characteristics of Apionsoma (Apionsoma) misakianum (Sipuncula: Phascolosomatidae), a new species for the Mediterranean fauna. Scientia Marina 71, 571577.

S. Açik (2010b) Sipunculan fauna in the Fethiye-Göçek Specially Protected Area (Eastern Mediterranean). Mediterranean Marine Science 11, 105116.

S. Açik (2014) Checklist of Sipuncula from the coasts of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology 38, 723733.

S. Açik , G.V.V. Murina , M.E. Çinar and Z. Ergen (2005) Sipunculans from the coast of Northern Cyprus. Zootaxa 1077, 123.

T.M. Blackburn , P. Cassey , R.P. Duncan , K.L. Evans and K.J. Gaston (2004) Avian extinction and mammalian introductions on oceanic islands. Science 305, 19551958.

M.E. Çinar , M. Bilecenoğlu , B. Ozturk , T. Katağan , M.B. Yokeş , V. Aysel , E. Dağli , S. Açik , T. Ozcan and H. Erdoğan (2011) An updated review of alien species on the coasts of Turkey. Mediterranean Marine Science 12, 257315.

M.E. Çinar , T. Katagan , B. Öztürk , Ö. Egemen , Z. Ergen , A. Kocatas , M. Önen , F. Kirkim , K. Bakir , G. Kurt , E. Dagli , A. Kaymakçi , S. Açik , A. Dogan and T. Özcan (2006) Temporal changes of soft bottom zoobenthic communities in and around Alsancak Harbor (Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea), with special attention to the autoecology of exotic species. Marine Ecology 27, 229246.

L.M. Ferrero-Vicente , Y. Del-Pilar-Ruso , J.A. De-La-Ossa-Carretero and J.L. Sánchez-Lizaso (2013a) Distribution of Sipuncula in the Gulf of Valencia and Cape Nao (western Mediterranean). Zootaxa 3646, 235250.

L.M. Ferrero-Vicente , A. Loya-Fernández , C. Marco-Méndez , E. Martínez–García , J.I. Saiz- Salinas and J.L. Sánchez-Lizaso (2012) First record of the sipunculan worm Phascolion (Phascolion) caupo Hendrix, 1975 in the Mediterranean Sea. Mediterranean Marine Science 13, 8992.

L.M. Ferrero-Vicente , C. Marco-Méndez , A. Loya-Fernández and J.L. Sánchez-Lizaso (2013b) Limiting factors on the distribution of shell/tube-dwelling sipunculans. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 446, 345354.

M. Gaertner , A.D. Breeyen , C. Hui and D.M. Richardson (2009) Impacts of alien plant invasions on species richness in Mediterranean-type ecosystems: a meta-analysis. Progress in Physical Geography 33, 319338.

M. Hejda , P. Pyšek and V. Jarošík (2009) Impact of invasive plants on the species richness, diversity and composition of invaded communities. Journal of Ecology 97, 393403.

M.A. McGeoch , S.H.M. Butchart , D. Spear , E. Marais , E.J. Kleynhans , A. Symes , J. Chanson and M. Hoffman (2010) Global indicators of biological invasion: species numbers, biodiversity impact and policy responses. Diversity and Distribution 16, 95108.

D. Minchin , B.S. Galil , M. David , S. Gollasch and S. Olenin (2006) Overall introduction. In S. Gollash , B.S. Galil and A.N. Cohen (eds) Bridging divides: maritime canals as invasion corridors. The Netherlands: Springer, pp. 14.

G.V.V. Murina (1984) Ecology of Sipuncula. Marine Ecology Progress Series 17, 17.

G.V.V. Murina , M.A. Pancucci-Papadopoulou and A. Zenetos (1999) The phylum Sipuncula in the eastern Mediterranean: composition, ecology, zoogeography. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 79, 821830.

A. Occhipinti Ambrogi (2001) Transfer of marine organisms: a challenge to the conservation of coastal biocoenoses. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 11, 243251.

M. Peyrot-Clausade , P. Hutchings and G. Richard (1992) Temporal variations of macroborers in massive Porites lobata on Moorea, French Polynesia. Coral Reefs 11, 161166.

P. Pyšek and D.M. Richardson (2010) Invasive species environmental change and management and health. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 35, 2555.

J.D. Taylor (1989) The diet of coral-reef Mitridae (Gastropoda) from Guam; with a review of other species of the family. Journal of Natural History 23, 261278.

A. Zenetos , S. Gofas , M. Verlaque , M.E. Çinar , J.E. García Raso , C.N. Bianchi , C. Morri , E. Azzuro , M. Bilecenoglu , C. Froglia , I. Siokou , D. Violanti , A. Sfriso , G. San Martín , A. Giangrande , T. Katagan , E. Ballesteros , A. Ramos-Esplá , F. Mastrototaro , O. Ocaña , A. Zingone , M.C. Gambi and N. Streftaris (2010) Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution. Mediterranean Marine Science 11, 381493.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • ISSN: 0025-3154
  • EISSN: 1469-7769
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 8
Total number of PDF views: 22 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 120 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 11th May 2017 - 19th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.