Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

A Comparative Study of the Setae of Pogonophora and Polychaetous Annelida

  • J. David George (a1) and Eve C. Southward (a1)

Pogonophora are long thin tube-dwelling invertebrates similar in size to polychaetous annelids, but lacking both mouth and gut, and found mainly in the deep sea. Current discussion of their systematic position had revealed a need for more information about particular aspects of their morphology and embryology (Southward, 1971a). The earlier attribution of Pogonophora to the echinoderm-chordate group, Deuterostomia, based mainly on their apparently tricoelomate structure, has been questioned recently, following the discovery of the previously unknown posterior end (Webb, 1964a; Ivanov, 1965). This posterior end is a small and delicate structure composed of several coelomate segments separated by septa and provided with short bristles. It has such a strong resemblance to the posterior end of an annelid, though of course it does not contain a gut, that there has been much speculation about the possibility of a relationship between Pogonophora and Annelida and some reconsideration of the features thought to indicate affinity to the Deuterostomia (Livanov & Pornrieva, 1967; Webb, 1969b; Ivanov, 1970; Norrevang, 1970a, b; Southward, 1971a).

Hide All
Belcher R., Nutten A. J. & Sambrook C. M., 1954. The determination of glucosamine. Analyst. London, 79, 201–8.
Blackwell J., Parker K. D. & Rudall K. M., 1965. Chitin in pogonophore tubes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 45, 659–61.
Blackwell J., Parker K. D. & RUDALL K. M., 1967. Chitin fibres of the diatoms Thalassiosira fluviatilis and Cyclotella cryptica. Journal of Molecular Biology, 28, 383–5.
Bobin G., 1944. Morphogénése des soies chez les Annélides Polychétes. Annales de l'institut Oceanographique, Monaco. 22, 1106.
Bobin G. & Mazoue H., 1944. Topographie, histologie, caracteres physiques et chimiques des soies d’ Aphrodite aculeata L. (Annelide Polychete). Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France, 69, 125–34
Bouligand Y., 1966. Sur l'ultrastructure des soies et des cellules associees chez une Annélide Polychéte Haplosyllis depressa. Contpte rendu hebdomadaire des Séances de I'Academie des sciences, 263, 378–81.
Bouligandj Y., 1967. Les soies et les cellules associées chez deux Annélides Polychétes. Étude en microscopie photonique á contraste de phase et en microscopie électronique. Zeitschrift fur Zellforschung und mikroskopische Anatomic, 79, 332–63.
Brown C. H., 1950. A review of the methods available for the determination of the types of forces stabilizing structural proteins in animals. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 91, 331–9.
Brunet P. C. J. & Carlisle D. B., 1958. Chitin in Pogonophora. Nature, London, 182, 1689.
Caullery M., 1944. Siboglinum Caullery. Type nouveau d'invertébrés d'affinités á préciser. Siboga Expeditie. 138, 126.
Clark R. B., 1964. Dynamics in metazoan evolution, 313 pp. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Croll N. A., 1970. The Behaviour of Nematodes their activity, senses and responses, 117pp. London: Edward Arnold.
Dawydoff C, 1959. Classe des Echiuriens. In Traite de Zoologie, Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie (ed. Grasse P. P), 5, 855907. Paris: Masson & Cie.
Florkin M., 1966. A Molecular Approach to Phytogeny. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Co.
Foucart M. F., Bricteux-Gregoire S. & Jeuniaux C, 1965. Composition chimique du tube d'un pogonophore (Siboglinum sp.) et des formations squelettiques de deux pterobranchs. Sarsia, 20, 3541.
Gallagher I. H. C., 1964. Chemical composition of hooks isolated from hydatid scolices. Experimental Parasitology, 15, 110–17.
Gupta B. L. & Little C., 1970. Studies on Pogonophora. 4. Fine structure of the cuticle and epidermis. Tissue and Cell, 2, 637–96.
Hackman R. H., 1953. Chemistry of insect cuticle. I. The water-soluble proteins. Biochemical Journal 54, 362–7.
Hartman O., 1954. Pogonophora Johansson, 1938. Systematic Zoology, 3, 183–5.
Hass G. M., 1956. Pathological calcification. In The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone (ed. Bourne G. H), pp. 767810. New York: Academic Press.
Hedley R. H., 1960. The iron-containing shell of Gromia oviformis (Rhizopoda). Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 101, 279–93.
Hedley R. H., 1963. Cement and iron in the arenaceous Foraminifera. Micropaleontology, 9, 433–41.
Hunt D., 1970. Polysaccharide-Protein Complexes in Invertebrates. 329 pp. London: Academic Press.
Ivanov A. V., 1963. Pogonophora. London: Academic Press.
Ivanov A. V., 1964. On the structure of the hind region of the body in Pogonophora. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 43, 581–9 (in Russian).
Ivanov A. V., 1965. Structure de la région postérieure sétigere du corps des pogonophores. Cahiers de biologie marine, 6, 311–23.
Ivanov A. V., 1970. Verwandtschaft und Evolution der Pogonophoren. Zietschrift fur die Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung,8, H. 2, 109–19.
Ivanov A. V., 1971. New Pogonophora from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Journal of Zoology, 164, 271304.
Jägersten G., 1936. Zur Kenntnis der Parapodialborsten bei Myzostomum. Zoologiska bidrag fran Uppsala, 16, 283–99.
Jägersten G., 1956. Investigations on Siboglinum ekmani n.sp., encountered in Skagerak with some general remarks on the group Pogonophora. Zoologiska bidrag fran Uppsala, 31, 211–52.
Jägersten G., 1957. On the larva of Siboglinum. Zoologiska bidrag fran Uppsala, 32, 6780.
Jeuniaux C., 1971. Chitinous structures. In Comprehensive Biochemistry, Vol. 26. Extracellular and Supporting Structures (ed. M Florkin and Stotz E. H), pp. 595632. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Co.
Jones E. I., Mccance R. A. & Shackleton L. R. B., 1935. The role of iron and silica in the structure of the radular teeth of certain marine molluscs. Journal of Experimental Biology, 12, 5964.
Lee D. L., 1965. The Physiology of Nematodes, 154 pp. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.
Lehy T., 1966. Mise en évidence d'un systéme de tannage quinonique au niveau des soies chez Sabellaria alveolata (L.), polychete sédentaire. Annales d'histochimie. Nancy, 11, 71–8.
Lippert W. & Gentil K., 1963. liber den Feinbau der Schillerhaare des Polychaeten Aphrodite aculeata L. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie de Tiere. 53, 23–8.
Livanov N. A. & Porfirieva N. A., 1967. Die Organisation der Pogonophoren und deren Beziehungen den Polychaten. Biologisches Zentralblatt, 86 (2), 177204.
Lotmar W. & PICKEN L. E. R., 1950. A new crystallographic modification of chitin and its distribution. Experientia 6, 58–9.
Locke M., 1964. The structure and formations of the integument in insects. In The Physiology of Insecta (ed. Rockstein M), 3, 379470. New York: Academic Press.
Lyons K. M., 1966. The chemical nature and evolutionary significance of monogenean attachment sclerites. Parasitology, 56, 63100.
Neville A. C, 1963. Growth and deposition of resilin and chitin in locust rubber-like cuticle. Journal of Insect Physiology, 9, 265–78.
Norrevang A., 1970 a. On the embryology of Siboglinum and its implications for the systematic position of the Pogonophora. Sarsia, 42, 716.
Norrevang A., 1970 b. The position of Pogonophora in the phylogenetic system. Zeitschrift fur die Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung, 8, H. 3, 161–72.
Orrhage L., 1971. Light and electron microscope studies of some annelid setae. Acta zoologica, 52, 157–69.
Picken L. E. R., 1960. The Organisation of Cells and Other Organisms, 629pp. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Picken L. E. R. & Lotmar W., 1950. Oriented protein in chitinous structures. Nature, London, 165, 599600.
Poulsen V., 1963. Notes on Hyolithellus Billings, 1871, Class Pogonophora Johannson, 1937. Biologiske Meddelelser, 23, 115.
Pruvot G., 1914. Sur la structure et la formation des soies de 'Nereis’. IX’ Congres International de Zoologie. Monaco, pp. 348–55.
Pryor M. G. M., Russell P. B. & Todd A. R., 1946. Protocalechuic acid the substance responsible for the hardening of the cockroach ootheca. Biochemical Journal, 40, 627–8.
Rudall K. M., 1963. The chitin/protein complexes of insect cuticles. Advances in Insect Physiology, 1, 257–313.
Rudall K. M., 1968. Comparative biology and biochemistry of collagen. In Treatise on Collagen. 2. Biology of Collagen Pt. A (ed. Gould B. S), pp. 83137. New York: Academic Press.
Rudwick M. J. S., 1970. Living and Fossil Brachiopods, 199 pp. London: Hutchinson University Library.
Runham N. W., Thornton P. R., Shaw D. A. & Wayte R. C., 1969. The mineralization and hardness of the radular teeth of the limpet Patella vulgata L. Zeitschrift fur Zellforschung und mikroskopische Anatomie, 99, 608–26.
Schepotieff A., 1903. Untersuchungen über den feineren Bau der Borsten einiger Chatopoden und Brachiopoden. Zietschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 74, 656710.
Schepotieff A., 1904. Untersuchungen über die Borstentaschen einiger Polychaten. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 77, 586605.
Smyth J. D., 1954. A technique for the histochemical demonstration of polyphenol oxidase and its application to egg-shell formation in helminths and byssus formation. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 95, 139–52.
Sollas I. B. J., 1907. The molluscan radula: its chemical composition, and some points in its development. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 51, 115–36.
Southward E. C, 1969. Growth of a pogonophore: a study of Polybrachia canadensis, with a discussion of the development of taxonomic characters. Journal of Zoology. 157, 449–67.
Southward E. C, 1971 a. Recent researches on the Pogonophora. Oceanography and Marine Biology. An Annual Review, 9, 193–20.
Southward E. C., 1971 b. Pogonophora of the Northwest Atlantic: Nova Scotia to Florida. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 88, 29 pp.
Southward E. C., 1972. On some Pogonophora from the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science 22, 740–76.
Southwar E. C., 1973. Pogonophora. In Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates (ed. Giese A. C and Pearse J. S) 2, Academic Press (in the Press).
Southward E. C. & Southward A. J., 1966. A preliminary account of the general and enzyme histochemistry of Siboglinum atlanticum and other Pogonophora. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 46, 579616.
Thomassin B. A. & Picard C, 1972. Etude de la microstructure des soies de polychetes Capitellidae et Oweniidae au microscope électronique á balayage: un critere systematique précis. Marine Biology, 12, 229–36.
Towe K. M. & Lowenstam H. A., 1967. Ultrastructure and development of iron mineralization in the radular teeth of Cryptochiton stelleri (Mollusca). Journal of Ultrastructure Research, 17, 113.
Troschel F. H., 1856. Chemische Zusammensetzung. In Das Gebiss der Schnecken aur Begrün-dung einer Natürlichen Classification, pp. 2730. Berlin: Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung (G. Parthey).
Trueman E. R. & Ansell A. D., 1969. The mechanisms of burrowing into soft substrata by marine animals. Oceanography and Marine Biology. An Annual Review, 7, 315–66.
Uschakov P. V., 1933. Eine neue Form aus der Familie Sabellidae (Polychaeta). Zoologische Anzieger, 104, 205–8.
Vinogradov A. P., 1953. The elementary chemical composition of marine organisms.Memoirs. Sears Foundation for Marine Research, 2, 1647.
Webb M., 1964 a. The posterior extremity of Siboglinum fiordicum (Pogonophora). Sarsia, 15, 33–6.
Webb M., 1964 b. A new bitentaculate pogonophoran from Hardangerfjorden, Norway. Sarsia, 15, 4955
Webb M., 1964 c. The larvae of siboglinum fwrdicum and a reconsideration of the adult body regions. Sarsia, 15, 5768.
Webb M., 1964 d. Additional notes on Sclerolinum brattstromi (Pogonophora) and the establishment of a new family, Sclerolinidae. Sarsia, 16, 4758.
Webb M., 1965. Additional notes on the adult and larva of Siboglinum fiordicum and on the possible mode of tube formation. Sarsia, 20, 2134.
Webb M., 1969 a. Lamellibrachia barhami, gen. nov., sp.nov. (Pogonophora), from the northeast Pacific. Bulletin of Marine Science, 19, 1847.
Webb M., 1969 b. An evolutionary concept of some sessile and tubicolous animals. Sarsia, 38, 18.
Webb M., 1971. The morphology and formation of the pogonophoran tube and its value in systematics. Zietschrift fur die Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung, 9, 169–81.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • ISSN: 0025-3154
  • EISSN: 1469-7769
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 1 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 99 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.