Ballarin, L, Franchi, N, Gasparini, F, Caicci, F, Miyauchi, A and Hirose, E (2015) Suppression of cell-spreading and phagocytic activity on nano-pillared surface: in vitro experiment using hemocytes of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Invertebrate Survival Journal 12, 82–88.
Bernhard, CG (1967) Structural and functional adaptation in a visual system. Endeavour 26, 79–84.
Cloney, RA (1990) Larval tunic and the function of the test cells in ascidians. Acta Zoologica 71, 151–159.
Gerhart, DJ, Rittschof, D, Hooper, IR, Eisenman, K, Meyer, AE, Baier, RE and Young, C (1992) Rapid and inexpensive quantifications of the combined polar components of surface wettability application to biofouling. Biofouling 5, 251–259.
Hausen, H (2005) Comparative structure of the epidermis in polychaetes (Annelida). Hydrobiologia 535/536, 25–35.
Hirose, E (1999) Pigmentation and acid storage in the tunic: protective functions of the tunic cells in the tropical ascidian Phallusia nigra. Invertebrate Biology 118, 414–422.
Hirose, E and Uyeno, D (2014) Histopathology of a mesoparasitic hatschekiid copepod in hospite: does Mihbaicola sakamakii (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) fast within the host fish tissue? Zoological Science 31, 546–552.
Hirose, E and Uyeno, D (2016) Regional differentiation of the cuticular surface structure in the mesoparasitic copepod Cardiodectes shini (Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) on a pygmy goby. Invertebrate Survival Journal 13, 134–139.
Hirose, E, Saito, Y, Hashimoto, K and Watanabe, H (1990) Minute protrusions of the cuticle – fine surface structures of the tunic in ascidians. Journal of Morphology 204, 67–73.
Hirose, E, Nishikawa, T, Saito, Y and Watanabe, H (1992) Minute protrusions of ascidian tunic cuticle – some implications for ascidian phylogeny. Zoological Science 9, 405–412.
Hirose, E, Lambert, G, Kusakabe, T and Nishikawa, T (1997) Tunic cuticular protrusions in ascidians (Chordata, Tunicata): a perspective of their character-state distribution. Zoological Science 14, 683–689.
Hirose, E, Kimura, S, Itoh, T and Nishikawa, J (1999) Tunic morphology and cellulosic components of pyrosomas, doliolids, and salps (Thaliacea, Urochordata). Biological Bulletin 196, 113–120.
Hirose, E, Mayama, H and Miyauchi, A (2013) Does the aquatic invertebrate nipple array prevent bubble adhesion? An experiment using nanopillar sheets. Biology Letters 9, 20130552.
Hirose, E, Sakai, D, Shibata, T, Nishii, J, Mayama, H, Miyauchi, A and Nishikawa, J (2015) Does the tunic nipple array serve to camouflage diurnal salps? Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 95, 1025–1031.
Holland, ND (1984) Echinodermata: epidermal cells. In Bereiter-Hahn, J, Matoltsy, A and Richards, K (eds), Biology of the Integument. 1. Invertebrates. Berlin: Springer, pp. 756–774.
Iseto, T and Hirose, E (2010) Comparative morphology of the foot structure of four genera of Loxosomatidae (Entoprocta): implications for foot functions and taxonomy. Journal of Morphology 271, 1185–1196.
Kakiuchida, H, Sakai, D, Nishikawa, J and Hirose, E (2017) Measurement of refractive indices of tunicates’ tunics: light reflection of the transparent integuments in an ascidian Rhopalaea sp. and a salp Thetys vagina. Zoological Letters 3, 7.
Matsunobu, S and Sasakura, Y (2015) Time course for tail regression during metamorphosis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Developmental Biology 405, 71–81.
Mihm, JW, Banta, WC and Loeb, GI (1981) Effects of adsorbed organic and primary fouling films on bryozoan settlement. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 54, 167–179.
Qian, P-Y, Xu, Y and Fusetani, N (2009) Natural products as antifouling compounds: recent progress and future perspectives. Biofouling 26, 223–234.
R Core Team (2018). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/.
Rittschof, D, Forward, RB, Cannon, G, Welch, JM, McClary, M, Holm, ER, Clare, AS, Conova, S, McKelvey, LM, Bryan, P and Van Dover, CL (1998) Cues and context: larval responses to physical and chemical cues. Biofouling 12, 31–44.
Sakai, D, Kakiuchida, H, Nishikawa, J and Hirose, E (2018) Physical properties of the tunic in the pinkish-brown salp Pegea confoederata (Tunicata: Thaliacea). Zoological Letters 4, 7.
Scardino, AJ and de Nys, R (2011) Mini review: biomimetic models and bioinspired surfaces for fouling control. Biofouling 27, 73–86.
Slattery, M, McClintock, JB and Heine, JN (1995) Chemical defenses in antarctic soft corals: evidence for antifouling compounds. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 190, 61–77.
Stoecker, D (1980) Relationships between chemical defense and ecology in benthic ascidians. Marine Ecology Progress Series 3, 257–265.
Teo, SL-M and Ryland, J (1995) Potential antifouling mechanisms using toxic chemicals in some British ascidians. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 88, 49–62.
Ueki, T, Koike, K, Fukuba, I and Yamaguchi, N (2018) Structural and mass spectrometric imaging analyses of adhered tunic and adhesive projections of solitary ascidians. Zoological Science 35, 535–547.
Uyeno, D and Hirose, E (2018) Lomanoticola nishiharai n. sp., a new species of copepod parasitic on the facelinid nudibranch, Sakuraeolis enosimensis (Baba, 1930), from the Seto Inland Sea, Western Japan, including histological observations of the female lateral body process. Zoological Science 35, 382–387.
Vandepas, LE, Oliveira, LM, Lee, SSC, Hirose, E, Rocha, RM and Swalla, BJ (2015) Biogeography of Phallusia nigra: is it really black and white? Biological Bulletin 228, 52–64.
Wilson, SJ and Hutley, MC (1982) The optical properties of ‘moth eye’ antireflection surfaces. Optica Acta 29, 993–1009.