Abele, L.G. (1974) Species diversity of decapod crustaceans in marine habitats. Ecology 55, 156–161.
Airoldi, L. (2003) The effect of sedimentation on rocky coast assemblages. Oceanography and Marine Biology. Annual Review 41, 161–236.
Anderson, M.J., Diebel, C.E., Blom, W.M. and Landers, T.J. (2005) Consistency and variation in kelp holdfast assemblages: spatial patterns of biodiversity for the major phyla at different taxonomic resolutions. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 320, 35–56.
Barnes, D.K.A. and Kuklinski, P. (2003) High polar spatial competition: extreme hierarchies at extreme latitude. Marine Ecology Progress Series 259, 17–28.
Carlsen, B.P., Johnsen, G., Berge, J. and Kuklinski, P. (2007) Biodiversity patterns of macro-epifauna on different lamina parts of Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima collected during spring and summer 2004 in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Biology 30, 939–943.
Cornelius, P.F.S. (1995a) North-west European thecate hydroids and their medusae. Part 1. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) 50, 1–347.
Cornelius, P.F.S. (1995b) North-west European thecate hydroids and their medusae. Part 2. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) 50, 1–347.
Faucci, A. and Boero, F. (2000) Structure of an epiphytic hydroid community on Cystoseira at two sites of different wave exposure. Scientia Marina 64, 255–264.
Ferrell, D.L. (2004) Fitness consequences of allorecognition-mediated agonistic interactions in the colonial hydroid Hydractinia [GM]. Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole 206, 173–187.
Fraschetti, S., Giangrande, A., Terlizzi, A., Miglietta, M.P., DellaTommasa, L. and Boero, F. (2002) Spatio-temporal variation of hydroids and polychaetes associated with Cystoseira amentacea (Fucales: Phaeophyceae). Marine Biology 140, 949–957.
Fraschetti, S., Terlizzi, A., Bevilacqua, S. and Boero, F. (2006) The distribution of hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from micro- to macro-scale: spatial patterns on habitat-forming algae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 339, 148–158.
Görlich, K., Weslawski, J.M. and Zajaczkowski, M. (1987) Suspension settling effect on macrobenthos biomass distribution in the Hornsund fjord, Spitsbergen. Polar Research 5, 175–192.
Hansen, J. and Haugen, I. (1989) Some observations of intertidal communities on Spitsbergen (79°N), Norwegian Arctic. Polar Research 7, 23–27.
Hayward, P.J. (1980) Invertebrate epiphytes of coastal marine algae. In Price, J.H et al. (eds) The shore environment, 2: ecosystems. London and New York: Academic Press, pp. 761–787.
Hughes, R.G., Johnson, S. and Smith, I.D. (1991) The growth patterns of some hydroids that are obligate epiphytes of seagrass leaves. Hydrobiologia 216/217, 205–210.
Irving, A.D. and Connel, S.D. (2002) Sedimentation and light penetration interact to maintain heterogeneity of subtidal habitats: algal versus invertebrate dominated assemblages. Marine Ecology Progress Series 245, 83–91.
Kain, J.M. (1963) Aspects of the biology of Laminaria hyperborea. II. Age, weight and length. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 43, 129–151.
Kuklinski, P. and Bader, B. (2007) Diversity, structure and interactions of encrusting lithophyllic macrofaunal assemblages from Belgica Bank, East Greenland. Polar Biology 30, 709–717.
Kuklinski, P., Gulliksen, B., Lønne, O.J. and Weslawski, J.M. (2006) Substratum as a structuring influence on assemblages of Arctic bryozoans. Polar Biology 29, 652–661.
Lippert, H., Iken, K., Rachor, E. and Wiencke, C. (2001) Macrofauna associated with macroalgae in the Kongsfjord (Spitsbergen). Polar Biology 24, 512–522.
Llobet, I., Gili, J.M. and Hughes, R.G. (1991) Horizontal, vertical and seasonal distributions of epiphytic hydrozoa on the alga Halimeda tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology 110, 151–159.
Loeng, H. (1991) Features of the physical oceanographic conditions of the Barents Sea. In Proceedings of the Pro Mare Symposium on Polar Marine Ecology, Trondheim, 12–16 May 1990. Polar Research 10, 5–18.
Martin-Smith, K.M. (1993) Abundance of mobile epifauna: the role of habitat complexity and predation by fishes. Journal of the Experimental Biology and Ecology 174, 243–260.
Moore, P.G. (1977) Inorganic particulate suspensions in the sea and their effects on marine animals. Oceanography and Marine Biology. Annual Review 15, 225–363.
Nishihira, M. (1965) The association between Hydrozoa and their attachment substrata with special reference to algal substrata. Bulletin of the Marine Biological Station of Asamushi 12, 75–92.
Palerud, R., Gulliksen, B., Brattegard, T., Sneli, J.-A. and Vader, W. (2004) The marine macro-organisms in Svalbard waters. In Prestrud, P. et al. (eds) A catalogue of the terrestrial and marine animals of Svalbard. Tromsø: Norwegian Polar Institute, pp. 5–56.
Piraino, S. (1991) The adaptive pattern of growth and reproduction of the colonial hydroid Clavopsella michaeli. Hydrobiologia 216/217, 229–234.
Ronowicz, M. (2005) Species diversity of Arctic gravel beach: case study for species poor habitats. Polish Polar Research 26, 287–297.
Ronowicz, M. (2007) Benthic hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from Svalbard waters—biodiversity and distribution. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87, 1089–1094.
Ronowicz, M. and Schuchert, P. (2007) Halecium arcticum, a new hydroid from Spitsbergen (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Zootaxa 1549, 55–62.
Różycki, O. and Gruszczyński, M. (1986) Macrofauna associated with laminarians in the coastal waters of West Spitsbergen. Polish Polar Research 7, 337–351.
Schmidt, A.L. and Scheibling, R.E. (2006) A comparison of epifauna and epiphytes on native kelps (Laminaria species) and an invasive alga (Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides) in Nova Scotia, Canada. Botanica Marina 49, 315–330.
Schuchert, P. (2001) Survey of the family Corynidae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 108, 739–878.
Schultze, K., Janke, K., Krüß, A. and Weidemann, W. (1990) The macrofauna and macroflora associated with Laminaria digitata and L. hyperborea at the island of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea). Helgoländer Meeresunters 44, 39–51.
Smith, F. and Witman, J.D. (1999) Species diversity in subtidal landscapes: maintenance by physical processes and larval recruitment. Ecology 80, 51–69.
Stebbing, A.R.D. (1980) Increase in gonozooids frequency as an adaptive response to stress in Campanularia flexuosa. In Tardent, P. and Tardent, R. (eds) Proceedings of the 4th International Coelenterate Conference held in Interlaken, Switzerland, 4–8 September, 1979. Developmental and Cellular Biology of Coelenterates. Amsterdam and other cities: Elsevier: North-Holland Biomedical Press, pp. 27–32.
Svendsen, J.I., Elverhoi, A. and Mangerud, J. (1996) The retreat of the Barents Sea ice sheet on the western Svalbard margin. Boreas 25, 244–256.
Swerpel, S. (1985) The Hornsund Fjord: water masses. Polish Polar Research 6, 475–496.
Wahl, M. (1989) Marine epibiosis. I. Fouling and antifouling: some basic aspects. Marine Ecology Progress Series 58, 175–189.
Watson, J.E. (1992) The hydroid community of Amphibolis seagrasses in south-eastern and south-western Australia. Scientia Marina 56, 217–227.
Wȩsławski, J.M., Koszteyn, J., Zajączkowski, M., Wiktor, J. and Kwaśniewski, S. (1995) Fresh water in Svalbard fjord ecosystems. In Skjodal, H.R. et al. (eds) Ecology of fjords and coastal waters. Amsterdam: Elsevier Sci BV, pp. 229–241.
Wiencke, C., Clayton, M.N., Gómez, I., Iken, K., Lüder, U.H., Amsler, C.D., Karsten, U., Hanelt, D., Bischof, K. and Dunton, K. (2007) Life strategy, ecophysiology and ecology of seaweeds in polar waters. Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology 6, 95–126.
Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, M. and Kedra, M. (2007) Surrogacy in natural patterns of benthic distribution and diversity: selected taxa versus lower taxonomic resolution. Marine Ecology Progress Series 351, 53–63.
Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, M. and Weslawski, J.M. (2001) Impact of climate warming on Arctic benthic biodiversity: a case study of two Arctic glacial bays. Climate Research 18, 127–132.