Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Feeding habits of thresher sharks Alopias sp. in northern Peru: predators of Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas)

  • Adriana González-Pestana (a1) (a2), Nicolas Acuña-Perales (a2) (a3), Francisco Córdova (a2) (a4), Javier Coasaca (a2) (a5), Eliana Alfaro (a2) (a5), Joanna Alfaro-Shigueto (a2) (a5) (a6) and Jeffrey C. Mangel (a2) (a6)...
Abstract

The stomach contents of thresher sharks (Alopias spp.; 162–385 cm total length) were collected from five landing points in northern Peru during 2015. A total of 128 thresher sharks were sampled, with 38 individuals identified as Alopias pelagicus and 90 aggregated to the genus level Alopias sp. to prevent any misidentification. The diet comprised 13 and 10 prey taxa for Alopias sp. and A. pelagicus, respectively. Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas dominated the diet of both groups, with only minor differences in the diet in relation to size classes and location. The diet of Alopias shows a high degree of specialization and the average trophic positions were high for both groups, A. pelagicus (4.4 ± 0.13) and Alopias sp. (4.5 ± 0.14).

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: A. González-Pestana, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia and ProDelphinus, Jose Galvez 780, Lima 18, Peru email: adriana@prodelphinus.org
References
Hide All
Alfaro-Cordova, E., Del Solar, A., Gonzalez-Pestana, A., Acuña-Perales, N. Coasaca, J., Cordova-Zavaleta, F., Alfaro-Shigueto, J. and Mangel, J.C. (2018) Isotopic niches of four commercially important pelagic elasmobranch species captured by the small–scale driftnet fishery of northern Peru. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 46(2), 482488.
Bizzarro, J.J., Carlisle, A.B., Smith, W.D. and Cortés, E. (2017) Diet composition and trophic ecology of Northeast Pacific Ocean sharks. Advances in Marine Biology 77, 111148.
Bizzarro, J.J., Robinson, H.J., Rinewalt, C.S. and Ebert, D.A. (2007) Comparative feeding ecology of four sympatric skate species off central California, USA. Environmental Biology of Fishes 80, 197220.
Brown, S.C., Bizzarro, J.J., Cailliet, G.M. and Ebert, D.A. (2012) Breaking with tradition: redefining measures for diet description with a case study of the Aleutian skate Bathyraja aleutica (Gilbert 1896). Environmental Biology of Fishes 95, 320.
Cailliet, G.M., Martin, L.K., Harvey, J.T. Kusher, D. and Welden, B.A. (1983) Preliminary studies on the age and growth of the blue, Prionace glauca, common thresher, Alopias vulpinus, and short fin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, sharks from California waters. In Prince E.D. and Pulos L.M. (eds) Proceedings of the International Workshop on Age Determination of Oceanic Pelagic Fishes: Tunas, Bill fishes and sharks. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 8. Silver Spring, MD: NOAA/NMFS.
Cardeñosa, D., Hyde, J. and Caballero, S. (2014) Genetic diversity and population structure of the pelagic thresher shark (Alopias pelagicus) in the Pacific Ocean: evidence for two evolutionarily significant units. PLoS ONE 9, e110193.
Chen, C.H., Liu, K.W. and Chan, Y.C. (1997) Reproductive biology of the bigeye thresher shark, Alopias superciliosus, in the northwestern Pacific. Ichthyological Research 44, 227235.
Chirichigno, N. (1998) Clave para identificar los peces marinos del perú. Lima: IMARPE.
Christensen, V. and Pauly, D. (1992) ECOPATH II – software for balancing steady-state ecosystem models and calculating network characteristics. Ecological Modelling 61, 169185.
Clarke, K.R. (1993) Non-parametric multivariate analysis of change in community structure. Australian Journal of Ecology 18, 117143.
Clarke, M.R., MacLeod, N. and Paliza, O. (1976) Cephalopod remains from the stomachs of sperm whales caught off Peru and Chile. Journal of Zoology 180, 477493.
Coll, M., Navarro, J., Olson, R.J. and Christensen, V. (2013) Assessing the trophic position and ecological role of squids in marine ecosystems by means of food-web models. Deep-Sea Research Part II 95, 2136.
Cornejo, R., Velez-Zuazo, X., González-Pestana, A., Kouri, C. and Mucientes, G. (2015) An updated checklist of Chondrichthyes from southeast Pacific off Peru. Checklist 11, 6.
Cortes, E. (1997) A critical review of methods of studying fish feeding based on analysis of stomach contents: application to elasmobranch fishes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 54, 726738.
Cortes, E. (1999) Standardized diet compositions and trophic levels of sharks. ICES Journal of Marine Science 56, 707717.
Dulvy, N.K., Fowler, S.L., Musick, J.A., Cavanagh, R.D., Kyne, P.M., Harrison, L.R., Carlson, J.K., Davidson, L.N.K. and Sonja, V. et al. (2014) Extinction risk and conservation of the world's sharks and rays. Elife 3, e00590–e00590.
Duperret, A., Bourgois, J., Lagabrielle, Y. and Suess, E. (1995) Slope instabilities at an active continental margin: large-scale polyphase submarine slides along the northern Peruvian margin, between 5 and 6°S. Marine Geology 122, 303328.
Ehrhardt, N.M. (1991) Potential impact of a seasonal migratory jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) stock on a Gulf of California sardine (Sardinops sagax caerulea) population. Bulletin of Marine Science 49, 325332.
Espinoza, P. (2014) Trophic dynamics in the northern Humboldt Current system: insights from stable isotopes and stomach content analyses. PhD thesis. Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brens, France.
Essington, T.E. and Punt, A.E. (2011) Implementing ecosystem-based fisheries management: advances, challenges, and emerging tools. Fish and Fisheries 12, 123124.
Galvan-Magaña, F., Polo-Silva, C., Berenice Hernández-Aguilar, S., Sandoval-Londoño, A., Ruth Ochoa-Díaz, M., Aguilar-Castro, N., Castañeda-Suárez, D., Cabrera Chavez-Costa, A., Baigorrí-Santacruz, A., Eden Torres-Rojas, Y. and Andrés Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A. (2013) Shark predation on cephalopods in the Mexican and Ecuadorian Pacific Ocean. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 95, 5262.
Garcia-Godos, I. (2001) Patrones morfológicos del otolito Sagitta de algunos peces óseos del mar peruano. Boletín del Instituto del Mar del Perú 20, 12.
Gonzalez-Pestana, A., Acuña-Perales, N., Coasaca-Cespedes, J., Cordova-Zavaleta, F., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Mangel, J.C. and Espinoza, P. (2017) Trophic ecology of the smooth hammerhead shark (Sphyrna zygaena) off the coast of northern Peru. Fishery Bulletin 115, 451459.
Gonzalez-Pestana, A., Kouri, J.C. and Velez-Zuazo, X. (2016) Shark fisheries in the Southeast Pacific: a 61-year analysis from Peru. F1000 Research 3, 164.
Hanan, D.A., Holts, D.B. and Coan, A.L. Jr (1993) The California drift gill net fishery for sharks and swordfish, 1981–82 through 1990–91. Fishery Bulletin 175, 8995.
Holts, D.B. (1988) Review of U.S. west coast commercial shark fisheries. Marine Fisheries Review 50, 18.
Hyslop, E.J. (1980) Stomach content analysis – a review of methods and their application. Journal of Fish Biology 17, 411429.
Iverson, I.L. and Pinkas, L. (1971) A pictorial guide to beaks of certain Eastern Pacific cephalopods. Food habits. Fishery Bulletin 152, 83105.
Jimenez-Valverde, A. and Hortal, J. (2003) Las curvas de acumulacion de especies y la necesidad de evaluar la calidad de los inventarios biologicos. Revista Iberoamericana de Aracnologia 8, 151161.
Labropoulou, M. and Eleftheriou, A. (1997) The foraging ecology of two pairs of congeneric demersal fish species: importance of morphological characteristics in prey selection. Journal of Fish Biology 50, 324340.
Li, Y., Zhang, Y. and Dai, X. (2016) Trophic interactions among pelagic sharks and large predatory teleosts in the northeast central Pacific. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 483, 97103.
Liu, K.M., Chen, C.T., Liao, T.H. and Joung, S.J. (1999) Age, growth, and reproduction of the pelagic thresher shark, Alopias pelagicus in the Northwestern Pacific. Copeia 1999, 6874.
Loor-Andrade, P., Pincay-Espinoza, J. and Rosas-Luis, R. (2017) Diet of the blue shark Prionace glauca in the Ecuadorian Pacific Ocean during the years 2013 to 2015. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 2017, 15.
Lu, C.C. and Ickeringill, R. (2002) Cephalopod beak identification and biomass estimation techniques: tools for dietary studies of southern Australian finfishes. Museum Victoria Science Reports 6, 165.
Nigmatullin, C.M., Nesis, K.N. and Arkhipkin, A.I. (2001) A review on the biology of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas. Fisheries Research 54, 919.
Oldfield, T.E.E., Outhwaite, W., Goodman, G. and Sant, G. (2012) Assessing the intrinsic vulnerability of harvested sharks. Available at http://www.cms.int/sites/default/files/document/MOS1_Inf_11_Intrinsic_Vulnerability_of_sharks_UK_Rpt_Eonly_0.pdf.
Olson, R.J. and Watters, G.M. (2003) A model of the pelagic ecosystem in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission Bulletin 22, 135218.
Pennington, J.T., Mahoney, K.L., Kuwahara, V.S., Kolber, D.D., Calienes, R. and Chavez, F.P. (2006) Primary production in the eastern tropical Pacific: a review. Progress in Oceanography 69, 285317.
Piatkowski, U., Pierce, G. and Moraisda Cunha, M. (2001) Impact of cephalopods in the food chain and their interaction with the environment and fisheries: an overview. Fisheries Research 52, 510.
Polo-Silva, C.J. (2004) Espectro trófico de dos especies de tiburon zorro, (Chondrichthyes Alopiidae) Alopias pelagicus Nakamura, 1935 y Alopias superciliosus (Lowe, 1839), en playa Tarqui Manta, Ecuador. Bachelor thesis. Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Ecuador.
Polo-Silva, C., Galván-Magaña, F., Newsome, S.D., Grijalba-Bendeck, M. and Sanjuan-Muñoz, A. (2013) Trophic shift in the diet of pelagic thresher shark based on stomach contents and stable isotopic analysis. Marine Biology Research 9, 958971.
Polo-Silva, C. and Grijalba-Bendeck, M. (2007) Hábitos alimenticios del tiburón zorro Alopias superciliosus en el Pacífico ecuatoriano. Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía 42, 5969.
Polo-Silva, C., Rendón, L. and Galván-Magaña, L.R. (2009) Descripción de la dieta de los tiburones zorro (Alopias pelagicus) y (Alopias superciliosus) durante la época lluviosa en aguas ecuatorianas. Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Science 4, 556571.
Preti, A., Kohin, S., Dewar, H. and Ramon, D. (2008) Feeding habits of the bigeye thresher shark (Alopias superciliosus) sampled from the California-based drift gillnet fishery. CalCOFI Report 49, 202211.
Preti, A., Smith, S.E. and Ramon, D.A. (2001) Feeding habits of the common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus) sampled from the California-based drift gill net fishery, 1998–1999. Californian Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigation Report 42, 145152.
Preti, A., Smith, S.E. and Ramon, D.A. (2004) Diet differences in the thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus) during transition from a warm-water regime to a cool-water regime off California-Oregon, 1998–2000. CalCOFI Report, 45 pp.
Rogers, P.J., Huveneers, C., Page, B., Hamer, D.J., Goldsworthy, S.D., Mitchell, J.G. and Seuront, L. (2012) A quantitative comparison of the diets of sympatric pelagic sharks in gulf and shelf ecosystems off southern Australia. ICES Journal of Marine Science 69, 13821393.
Rosas-Luis, R., Loor-Andrade, P., Carrera-Fernández, M., Pincay-Espinoza, J.E., Vinces-Ortega, C. and Chompoy-Salazar, L. (2015) Cephalopod species in the diet of large pelagic fish (sharks and billfishes) in Ecuadorian waters. Fisheries Research 173, 159168.
Smith, A.D.M., Fulton, E.J., Hobday, A.J., Smith, D.C. and Shoulder, P. (2007) Scientific tools to support the practical implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management. ICES Journal of Marine Science 64, 633639.
Smith, S.E., Rasmussen, R.C., Ramon, D.A. and Cailliet, G.M. (2008) The biology and ecology of thresher sharks (Alopiidae). In Camhi, M.D., Pikitch, E.K. and Babcock, E.A. (eds) Sharks of the open ocean: biology, fisheries and conservation. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 6068.
Soberon, J. and Llorente, J. (1993) The use of species accumulation functions for the prediction of species richness. Conservation Biology 7, 480488.
Spalding, M.D., Fox, H.E., Allen, G.R., Davidson, N., Ferdaña, Z.A., Finlayson, M., Halpern, B.S., Jorge, M.A., Lombana, A., Lourie, S.A., Martin, K.D., Mcmanus, E., Molnar, J., Recchia, C.A. and Robertson, J. (2007) Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. BioScience 57, 573583.
Velez-Zuazo, X., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Mangel, J., Papa, R. and Agnarsson, I. (2015) What barcode sequencing reveals about the shark fishery in Peru. Fisheries Research 161, 3441.
Ward, P. and Myers, R.A. (2005) Shifts in open-ocean fish communities coinciding with the commencement of commercial fishing. Ecology 86, 835847.
Watters, G.M., Olson, R.J., Field, J.C. and Essington, T.E. (2008) Range expansion of the Humboldt squid was not caused by tuna fishing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105, 3.
Wolff, C.A. (1982) A beak key for eight eastern tropical Pacific cephalopods species, with relationship between their beak dimensions and size. Fishery Bulletin 80, 357370.
Xavier, J.C. and Cherel, Y. (2009) Cephalopod beak guide for the Southern Ocean. Cambridge: British Antarctic Survey.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • ISSN: 0025-3154
  • EISSN: 1469-7769
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

González-Pestana et al. supplementary material
González-Pestana et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (491 KB)
491 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score