Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Geographic patterns of biodiversity in European coastal marine benthos

  • Herman Hummel (a1), Pim Van Avesaath (a1), Sander Wijnhoven (a1) (a2), Loran Kleine-Schaars (a1), Steven Degraer (a3), Francis Kerckhof (a3), Natalia Bojanic (a4), Sanda Skejic (a4), Olja Vidjak (a4), Maria Rousou (a5), Helen Orav-Kotta (a6), Jonne Kotta (a6), Jérôme Jourde (a7), Maria Luiza Pedrotti (a8), Jean-Charles Leclerc (a9), Nathalie Simon (a9), Fabienne Rigaut-Jalabert (a9), Guy Bachelet (a10), Nicolas Lavesque (a10), Christos Arvanitidis (a11), Christina Pavloudi (a11), Sarah Faulwetter (a11), Tasman Crowe (a12), Jennifer Coughlan (a12), Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi (a13), Martina Dal Bello (a13), Paolo Magni (a14), Serena Como (a14), Stefania Coppa (a14), Anda Ikauniece (a15), Tomas Ruginis (a16), Emilia Jankowska (a17), Jan Marcin Weslawski (a17), Jan Warzocha (a18), Sławomira Gromisz (a18), Bartosz Witalis (a18), Teresa Silva (a19), Pedro Ribeiro (a20), Valentina Kirienko Fernandes De Matos (a20), Isabel Sousa-Pinto (a21), Puri Veiga (a21), Jesús Troncoso (a22), Xabier Guinda (a23), Jose Antonio Juanes De La Pena (a23), Araceli Puente (a23), Free Espinosa (a24), Angel Pérez-Ruzafa (a25), Matt Frost (a26), Caroline Louise Mcneill (a26), Ohad Peleg (a27) and Gil Rilov (a27)...
Abstract

Within the COST action EMBOS (European Marine Biodiversity Observatory System) the degree and variation of the diversity and densities of soft-bottom communities from the lower intertidal or the shallow subtidal was measured at 28 marine sites along the European coastline (Baltic, Atlantic, Mediterranean) using jointly agreed and harmonized protocols, tools and indicators. The hypothesis tested was that the diversity for all taxonomic groups would decrease with increasing latitude. The EMBOS system delivered accurate and comparable data on the diversity and densities of the soft sediment macrozoobenthic community over a large-scale gradient along the European coastline. In contrast to general biogeographic theory, species diversity showed no linear relationship with latitude, yet a bell-shaped relation was found. The diversity and densities of benthos were mostly positively correlated with environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, mud and organic matter content in sediment, or wave height, and related with location characteristics such as system type (lagoons, estuaries, open coast) or stratum (intertidal, subtidal). For some relationships, a maximum (e.g. temperature from 15–20°C; mud content of sediment around 40%) or bimodal curve (e.g. salinity) was found. In lagoons the densities were twice higher than in other locations, and at open coasts the diversity was much lower than in other locations. We conclude that latitudinal trends and regional differences in diversity and densities are strongly influenced by, i.e. merely the result of, particular sets and ranges of environmental factors and location characteristics specific to certain areas, such as the Baltic, with typical salinity clines (favouring insects) and the Mediterranean, with higher temperatures (favouring crustaceans). Therefore, eventual trends with latitude are primarily indirect and so can be overcome by local variation of environmental factors.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: H. Hummel, Monitor Taskforce, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Yerseke, the Netherlands email: herman.hummel@nioz.nl
References
Hide All
AttrillM.J. (2002) A testable linear model for diversity trends in estuaries. Journal of Animal Ecology, 71, 262269.
AttrillM.J., StaffordR. and RowdenA.A. (2001) Latitudinal diversity patterns in estuarine tidal flats: indications of a global cline. Ecography 24, 318324.
BacheletG. (1990) The choice of a sieving mesh size in the quantitative assessment of marine macrobenthos: a necessary compromise between aims and constraints. Marine Environmental Research 30, 2135.
BeaugrandC., ReidP.C., IbanezF., LindleyJ.A. and EdwardsM. (2002) Reorganization of North Atlantic marine copepod biodiversity and climate. Science 296, 16921694.
BishopJ.D.D. and HartleyJ.P. (1986) A comparison of the fauna retained on 0.5 and 1.0 mm meshes from benthic samples taken in the Beatrice Oilfield, Moray Firth, Scotland. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 91B, 247262.
BonsdorffE. (2006) Zoobenthic diversity-gradients in the Baltic Sea: continuous post-glacial succession in a stressed ecosystem. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 330, 383391.
BricaudA., BoscE. and AntoineD. (2002) Algal biomass and sea surface temperature in the Mediterranean Basin. Intercomparison of data from various satellite sensors, and implications for primary production estimates. Remote Sensing of Environment 81, 163178.
ClarkeK.R. and GorleyR.N. (2006) PRIMER v6: user manual/tutorial. Plymouth: PRIMER-E, p. 192.
ClarkeK.R. and WarwickR.M. (2001) Changes in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation, 2nd edition. Plymouth: Natural Environment Research Council, PRIMER-E, 142 pp.
CollM., PiroddiC., SteenbeekJ., KaschnerK., Ben Rais LasramF., AguzziJ., BallesterosE., BianchiC.N., CorberaJ., DailianisT., DanovaroR., EstradaM., FrogliaC., GalilB.S., GasolJ.M., GertwagenR., GilJ., GuilhaumonF., Kesner-ReyesK., KitsosM.S., KoukourasA., LampadariouN., LaxamanaE., López-Fé de la CuadraC.M., LotzeH.K., MartinD., MouillotD., OroD., RaicevichS., Rius-BarileJ., Saiz-SalinasJ.I., San VicenteC., SomotS., TempladoJ., TuronX., VafidisD., VillanuevaR. and VoultsiadouE. (2010) The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats. PLoS ONE 5, e11842.
CostelloM.J., BouchetP., BoxshallG., FauchaldK., GordonD., HoeksemaB.W., PooreG.C.B., van SoestR.W.M., StöhrS., WalterT.C., VanhoorneB., DecockW. and AppeltansW. (2013) Global coordination and standardisation in marine biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) and related databases. PLoS ONE 8, e51629. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051629.
CoutoT., PatricioJ., NetoJ.M., CeiaF.R., FrancoJ. and MarquesJ.C. (2010) The influence of mesh size in environmental quality assessment of estuarine macrobenthic communities. Ecological Indicators 10, 11621173.
Dal BelloM., LeclercJ.C., Benedetti-CecchiL., ArvanitidisC., van AvesaathP., BacheletG., BojanicN., ComoS., CoppaS., CoughlanJ., CroweT., DegraerS., EspinosaF., FaulwetterS., FrostM., GuindaX., JankowskaE., JourdeJ., KerckhofF., KottaJ., LavesqueN., de LuciaG.A., MagniP., Fernandes de MatosV.K., Orav-KottaH., PavloudiC., PedrottiM.L., PelegO., Juanes de la PenaJ.A., PuenteA., RibeiroP., Rigaut-JalabertF., RilovG., RousouM., RubalM., RuginisT., RuzafaA., SilvaT., SimonN., Sousa-PintoI., TroncosoJ., WarzochaJ., WeslawskiJ.M. and HummelH. (2016) Consistent patterns of spatial variability between Atlantic and Mediterranean rocky shores. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
DeanW.E. (1974) Determination of carbonate and organic matter in calcareous sediments and sedimentary rocks by loss on ignition: comparison with other methods. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 44, 242248.
De FalcoG., MagniP., TeräsvuoriL. and MatteucciG. (2004) Sediment grain size and organic carbon distribution in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, west Mediterranean). Chemistry and Ecology 20, S367S377.
De WitR. (2011) Biodiversity of coastal lagoon ecosystems and their vulnerability to global change. In GilloO. & VenoraG. (eds) Ecosystems biodiversity. Rijeka, Croatia: Intech., pp. 2940.
ElmgrenR. and HillC. (1995) Ecosystem function at low biodiversity – the Baltic example. In OrmondR.F.G., GageJ.D. and AngelM.V. (eds) Marine biodiversity: patterns and processes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 319336.
EscaravageV., HermanP. M. J., MerckxB., Wlodarska-KowalczukM., AmourouxJ. M., DegraerS., GrémareA., HeipC. H. R., HummelH., KarakassisI., LabruneC. and WillemsW. (2009) Distribution patterns of macrofaunal species diversity in subtidal soft sediments: biodiversity-productivity relationships from the MacroBen database. Marine Ecology Progress Series 382, 253264.
FerraroS.P. and ColeF.A. (2004) Optimal benthic macrofaunal sampling protocol for detecting differences among four habitats in Willapa Bay, Washington, USA. Estuaries 27, 10141025.
Fischer-PiètteE. (1955) Répartition le long des côtes septentrionales de l'Espagne des principales espèces peuplant les rochers intercotidaux. Annales de l'Institut Oceanographique 31, 38124.
GastonK.J. (2000) Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature 405, 220227.
HeipC. and HummelH. (2000) Establishing a framework for the implementation of marine biodiversity research in Europe. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation, ESF Marine Board Report, 48 pp.
HeipC., HummelH., van AvesaathP., AppeltansW., ArvanitidisC., AspdenR., AustenM., BoeroF., BoumaT.J., BoxshallG., BuchholzF., CroweT., DelaneyA., DeprezT., EmblowC., FeralJ.P., GasolJ.M., GoodayA., HarderJ., IanoraA., KrabergA., MackenzieB., OjaveerH., PatersonD., RumohrH., SchiedekD., SokolowskiA., SomerfieldP., Sousa PintoI., VincxM., WeslawskiJ.M. and NashR. (2009) Marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, ISSN 2009–2539, 91 pp.
HillebrandH. (2004) On the generality of the latitudinal diversity gradient. American Naturalist 163, 192211.
HummelH., BogaardsR.H., BacheletG., CaronF., SolaJ.C. and Amiard-TriquetC. (2000) The respiratory performance and survival of the bivalve Macoma balthica at the southern limit of its distribution area: a translocation experiment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 251, 85102.
HylandJ., BalthisL.W., KarakassisI., MagniP., PetrovA., ShineJ.R., VestergaardO. and WarwickR. (2005) Organic carbon content of sediments as an indicator of stress in the marine benthos. Marine Ecology Progress Series 295, 91103.
JansenJ.M., PronkerS.A.E., KubeS., SokolowskiA., SolaJ.C., MarquieguiM., SchiedekD., WolowiczM., Wendelaar BongaS. and HummelH. (2007) Geographic and seasonal patterns and limits in the adaptive response to temperature of European Mytilus spp. and Macoma balthica populations. Oecologia 154, 2334.
JenkinsS.R., MooreP., BurrowsM.T., GarbaryD.J., HawkinsS.J., IngolfssonA., SebensK.P., SnelgroveP.V.R., WetheyD.S. and WoodinS.A. (2008) Comparative ecology of North Atlantic shores: do differences in players matter for process? Ecology 89 (Supplement), S3S23.
KottaJ., Orav-KottaH., JänesH., HummelH., ArvanitidisC., van AvesaathP., BacheletG., Benedetti-CecchiL., BojanicN., ComoS., CoppaS., CoughlanJ., CroweT., Dal BelloM., DegraerS., Juanes de La PenaJ.A., Fernandes de MatosV.K., EspinosaF., FaulwetterS., FrostM., GuindaX., JankowskaE., JourdeJ., KerckhofF., LavesqueN., LeclercJ.C., MagniP., PavloudiC., PedrottiM.L., PelegO., Pérez-RuzafaA., PuenteA., RibeiroP., RilovG., RousouM., RuginisT., SilvaT., SimonN., Sousa-PintoI., TroncosoJ., WarzochaJ. and WeslawskiJ.M. (2016) Essence of the patterns of cover and richness of intertidal hard bottom communities: a pan-European study.. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
LejeusneC., ChevaldonneP., Pergent-MartiniC., BoudouresqueC.F. and PerezT. (2010) Climate change effects on a miniature ocean: the highly diverse, highly impacted Mediterranean Sea. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25, 250260.
LevitusS., AntonovJ.I., BaranovaO.K., BoyerT.P., ColemanC.L., GarciaH.E., GrodskyA.I., JohnsonD.R., LocarniniR.A., MishonovA.V., ReaganJ.R., SazamaC.L., SeidovD., SmolyarI., YaroshE.S. and ZwengM.M. (2013) The world ocean database. Data Science Journal 12, WDS229WDS234.
MagniP., De FalcoG., ComoS., CasuD., FlorisA., PetrovA.N., CastelliA. and PerilliA. (2008) Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: the case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy). Marine Pollution Bulletin 56, 549564.
MagniP., RajagopalS., ComoS., JansenJ.M., van der VeldeG. and HummelH. (2013) δ13C and δ15N variations in organic matter pools, Mytilus spp. and Macoma balthica along the European Atlantic coast. Marine Biology 160, 541552.
McDonaldJ.H. (2014) Handbook of biological statistics, 3rd edition. Baltimore, MD: Sparky House Publishing, 213219.
MieszkowskaN., KendallM.A., HawkinsS.J., LeaperR., WilliamsonP., Hardman-MountfordN.J. and SouthwardA.J. (2006) Change in the range of some common rocky shore species in Britain – a response to climate change? Hydrobiologia 555, 241251.
MiththapalaS. (2013) Lagoons and estuaries. Coastal ecosystems series, Volume 4. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Country Office, IUCN, 73 pp.
NewellR.C. (1979) Biology of intertidal organisms, 3rd edition. Faversham: Marine Ecological Surveys, 781 pp.
NordströmM., LindbladP., AarnioK. and BonsdorffE. (2010) A neighbour is a neighbour? Consumer diversity, trophic function, and spatial variability in benthic food web. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 391, 101111.
PavloudiC., FaulwetterS., KeklikoglouK., VasileiadouK., ChatzinikolaouE., MavrakiD., NikolopoulouM., BaillyN., RousouM., KottaJ., Orav-KottaH., BacheletG., LavesqueN., Benedetti-CecchiL., Dal BelloM., BojanicN., ComoS., CoppaS., MagniP., CoughlanJ., CroweT., DegraerS., Juanes de la PenaJ.A., GuindaX., PuenteA., Fernandes de MatosV.K., RibeiroP., EspinosaF., KerckhofF., JankowskaE., WeslawskiJ.M., PelegO., RilovG., Pérez-RuzafaA., RuginisT., JourdeJ., LeclercJ.C., SimonN., PedrottiM.L., SilvaT., Sousa-PintoI., RubalM., TroncosoJ., WarzochaJ., van AvesaathP., FrostM., HummelH. and ArvanitidisC. (2016) Taxonomic vs functional patterns across European marine benthic habitats. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
PearsonT.H. and RosenbergR. (1978) Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanography and Marine Biology, Annual Reviews 16, 229311.
PuenteA., GuindaX., Juanes de la PenaJ.A., Echavarri-ErasunB., RamosE., de la HozC.F., DegraerS., KerckhofF., BojanicN., RousouM., Orav-KottaH., KottaJ., JourdeJ., PedrottiM.L., LeclercJ.C., SimonN., BacheletG., LavesqueN., ArvanitidisC., PavloudiC., FaulwetterS., CroweT., CoughlanJ., Benedetti-CecchiL., Dal BelloM., MagniP., ComoS., CoppaS., de LuciaA., RuginisT., JankowskaE., WesławskiJ.M., WarzochaJ., SilvaT., RibeiroP., Fernandes de MatosV.K., Sousa-PintoI., TroncosoJ., PelegO., Rilov.G., EspinosaF., Pérez-RuzafaA., FrostM., HummelH. and van AvesaathP. (2016) The role of physical variables in biodiversity patterns of intertidal macroalgae along European coasts. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
ReesH.L. (1984) A note on mesh selection and sampling efficiency in benthic studies. Marine Pollution Bulletin 15, 225229.
RegueroB.G., MenéndezM., MéndezF.J., MínguezR. and LosadaI.J. (2012) A Global Ocean Wave (GOW) calibrated reanalysis from 1948 onwards. Coast England 65, 3855.
RemaneA. (1934) Die Brackwasserfauna. Zoologischer Anzeiger (Suppl.), 7, 3474.
RenaudP.E., WebbT.J., BjørgesæterA., KarakassisI., KędraM., KendallM.A., LabruneC., LampadariouN., SomerfieldP.J., Włodarska-KowalczukM., Van den BergheE., ClausS., AleffiI.F., AmourouxJ.M., BryneK.H., CochraneS.J., DahleS., DegraerS., DenisenkoG., DeprezT., DounasC., FleischerD., GilJ., GrémareA., JanasU., MackieA.S.Y., PalerudR., RumohrH., SardáR., SpeybroeckJ., TaboadaS., Van HoeyG., WęsławskiJ.M., WhomersleyP. and ZettlerM.L. (2009) Continental-scale patterns in benthic invertebrate diversity: insights from the MacroBen database. Marine Ecology Progress Series 382, 239252.
RexM.A., StuartC.T. and CoyneG. (2000) Latitudinal gradients of species richness in the deep-sea benthos of the North Atlantic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97, 40824085.
RohdeK. (1992) Latitudinal gradients in species diversity: the search for the primary cause. Oikos 65, 514527.
RoyK., JablonskiD., ValentineJ.W. and RosenbergG. (1998) Marine latitudinal diversity gradients: tests of causal hypotheses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 95, 36993702.
SauvageauC. (1897) Note préliminaire sur les algues marines du Golfe de Gascogne. Journal de Botanique 11, 166307.
SchopfT.J.M., FisherJ.B. and SmithC.A.F.III (1978) Is the marine latitudinal gradient merely another example of the species area curve? In BattagliaB. and BeardmoreJ.A. (eds) Marine organisms: genetics, ecology and evolution. New York, NY: Plenum Press, pp. 365389.
StarkJ.D., DonlonC.J., MartinM.J. and McCullochM.E. (2007) OSTIA: An operational, high resolution, real time, global sea surface temperature analysis system. In OCEANS 2007. Marine challenges: coastline to deep sea. Aberdeen: IEEE Ocean Engineering Society, pp. 331334. doi: 10.1109/OCEANSE.2007.4302251.
StehliF.G., McAlesterA.L. and HelsleyC.E. (1967) Taxonomic diversity of recent bivalves and some implications for geology. Geological Society of America Bulletin 78, 455466.
Ter BraakC.J.F. and SmilauerP. (1998) CANOCO reference manual and user's guide to Canoco for Windows: software for canonical community ordination (version 4). Ithaca, NY: Microcomputer Power.
WilligM.R., KaufmanD.M. and StevensR.D. (2003) Latitudinal gradients of biodiversity: pattern, process, scale, and synthesis. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 34, 273309.
ZettlerM.L., KarlssonA., KontulaT., GruszkaP., LaineA.O., HerkülK., SchieleK.S., MaximovA. and HaldinJ. (2014) Biodiversity gradient in the Baltic Sea: a comprehensive inventory of macrozoobenthos data. Helgoland Marine Research 68, 4957.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • ISSN: 0025-3154
  • EISSN: 1469-7769
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 10
Total number of PDF views: 120 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 807 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 14th September 2016 - 20th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.