Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Interaction webs of marine specialist herbivores on Japanese shores

  • Cynthia D. Trowbridge (a1), Yayoi M. Hirano (a2) and Yoshiaki J. Hirano (a2) (a3)
Abstract

Marine specialist herbivores inhabiting Japanese rocky shores are significantly more diverse than in other biogeographical regions at comparable latitudes. The interaction webs of specialist sacoglossans were investigated on the Pacific shore of Honshu, Japan. The host use of the small stenophagous sacoglossan opisthobranch Placida sp. (sensu Baba, 1986) was investigated in association with the green macroalgae Codium spp. Based on field associations, Placida sp. attacked six congeneric algal host species out of eight investigated (75%) in and around Sagami Bay and ten of 20 species (50%) in Japan. In pairwise-choice feeding experiments, Placida sp. preferred the algal host from which it was collected (source alga) to alternate host and non-host algae. Preference rankings, however, could be altered based on the condition or identity of the choices (e.g. old versus young fronds of C. fragile). Connectance values were lower in these high-diversity assemblages than in their low-diversity counterparts on other temperate shores (but these values may increase with additional study). The sacoglossan occasionally coexisted with two other common sacoglossan species (Elysia trisinuata and E. setoensis) and several other less common ones. However, interspecific feeding interactions appeared minor, with no discernible evidence of interference or exploitation competition. Despite the diverse assemblage of specialist sacoglossans feeding on Codium spp., these Japanese sacoglossans (1) had low niche differentiation, (2) were weak interactors with their hosts, and (3) had negligible intra-guild interactions.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: C.D. Trowbridge, Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, PO Box 1995, Newport, OR 97365, USA email: sacoglossans@ymail.com
References
Hide All
Adrianov A.V. and Kussakin O.G. (1998) A check-list of biota of the Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of Japan. Vladivostock, Dalnauka: Russian Academy of Sciences, Far East Branch, Institute of Marine Biology.
Baba K. (1959) The family Stiligeridae from Japan (Opisthobranchia–Sacoglossa). Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 7, 327334.
Baba K. (1986) Anatomical information on Placida sp. =  Hermaea dendritica of Baba, 1937 and 1955, from Japan. Shells and Sea Life 18, 2122.
Baba K. and Hamatani I. (1952) Observations on the spawning habits of some of the Japanese Opisthobranchia (1). Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 2, 8790.
Bleakney J.S. (1989) Morphological variation in the radula of Placida dendritica (Alder & Hancock, 1843) (Opisthobranchia: Ascoglossa/Sacoglossa) from Atlantic and Pacific populations. Veliger 32, 171181.
Brodie J., Maggs C.A. and John D.M. (2007) Green seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. London: British Phycological Society.
Chang J.-S., Dai C.-F. and Chang J. (2002) A taxonomic and karyological study of the Codium geppiorum complex (Chlorophyta) in southern Taiwan, including the description of Codium nanwanense sp. nov. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 43, 161170.
Clark K.B. (1975) Nudibranch life cycles in the Northwest Atlantic and their relationship to the ecology of fouling communities. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersungen 27, 2869.
Clark K.B. (1994) Ascoglossan (=Sacoglossa) molluscs in the Florida Keys: rare marine invertebrates at special risk. Bulletin of Marine Science 54, 900916.
Dyer L.A., Singer M.S., Lill J.T., Stireman J.O., Gentry G.L., Marquis R.J., Ricklefs R.E., Greeney H.F., Wagner D.L. Morais H.C., Diniz I.R., Kursar T.A. and Coley P.G. (2007) Host specificity of Lepidoptera in tropical and temperate forests. Nature 448, 696699.
Hirano Y.J., Hirano Y.M. and Trowbridge C.D. (2006a) Cryptic species of a common Japanese sacoglossan, “Midoriamamo-umiushi”. Venus 65, 272273. [In Japanese.]
Hirano Y.J., Hirano Y.M. and Trowbridge C.D. (2006b) Placida sp. (sensu Baba, 1986) and its cryptic species. Umiushi-Tsushin 51, 1012. [In Japanese.]
Jensen K.R. (1989) Learning as a factor in diet selection by Elysia viridis (Montagu) (Opisthobranchia). Journal of Molluscan Studies 55, 7988.
Jensen K.R. (1993a) Evolution of buccal apparatus and diet radiation in the Sacoglossa (Opisthobranchia). Bollettino Malacologico 29, 147172.
Jensen K.R. (1993b) Morphological adaptations and plasticity of radular teeth of the Sacoglossa (=Ascoglossa) (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in relation to their food plants. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 48, 135155.
Jensen K.R. (1993c) Sacoglossa (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia)–specialist herbivores and partial predators: integrating ecological, physiological and morphological data. In Morton B. (ed.) The marine biology of the South China Sea. Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Marine Biology of Hong Kong and the South China Sea, Hong Kong, 28 October–3 November 1990. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, pp. 437458.
Jensen K.R. (1994) Behavioural adaptations and diet specificity of sacoglossan opisthobranchs. Ethology Ecology and Evolution 6, 87101.
Jensen K.R. (1999) Aggregative behaviour in the sacoglossan opisthobranch Stiliger aureomarginatus Jensen, 1993 in Rottnest Island, Western Australia. In Walker D.I. and Wells F.E. (eds) The seagrass flora and fauna of Rottnest Island: Proceedings of the Ninth International Marine Biological Workshop, Rottnest Island, Western Australia, January 1996. Perth: Western Australian Museum, pp. 275280.
Macnae W. (1954) On four sacoglossan molluscs new to South Africa. Annals of the Natal Museum 13, 5164.
Nakano R. (2004) Opisthobranchs of Japan Islands. Tokyo: Rutles, Inc.
Novotny V., Basset Y., Miller S.E., Drozd P. and Cizek L. (2002) Host specialization of leaf-chewing insects in a New Guinea rainforest. Journal of Animal Ecology 71, 400412.
Olesen J.M. and Jordano P. (2002) Geographic patterns in plant-pollinator mutualistic networks. Ecology 83, 24162424.
Ono A. (1999) Opisthobranchs of Kerama Islands. Tokyo: TBS–Britannica Co., Ltd.
Ono A. (2004) Opisthobranchs of Ryukyu Islands. Tokyo: Rutles, Inc.
Poore A.G., Hill N.A. and Sotka E.E. (2007) Phylogenetic and geographic variation in host breadth and composition by herbivorous amphipods in the family Ampithoidea. Evolution 62, 2138. DOI 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00261.x
Provan J., Booth D., Todd N.P., Beatty G.E. and Maggs C.A. (2007) Tracking biological invasions in space and time: elucidating the true invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile using old DNA. Diversity and Distributions, DOI 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2007.00420.
Shimada S., Tadano T. and Tanaka J. (2007a) Codium tenuifolium (Codiales, Chlorophyta), a new species from Japan. Journal of Japanese Botany 82, 117125.
Shimada S., Ebata H., Horiguchi T., Kurihara A. and Tanaka J. (2007b) Molecular phylogenetic and morphological analyses of prostrate Codium (Chlorophyta) in Japan. Journal of Japanese Botany 82, 190204.
Shimadu Y. (2004) Food algae and life history of Placida sp. (sensu Baba, 1986) (Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa). MSc thesis. Chiba University, Chiba, Japan [In Japanese.]
Shimadu Y., Hirano Y.M., Trowbridge C.D. and Hirano Y.J. (2006) Food algae and life history variation in Placida sp. (sensu Baba, 1986). In Abstracts of the Second Scientific Congress of East Asian Federation of Ecological Societies, Niigata, Japan, March 2006, p. 168. [In Japanese.]
Stegenga H., Bolton J.J. and Anderson R.J. (1997) Seaweeds of the South African west coast. Contributions from the Bolus Herbarium, No. 18, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
Suzuki K. (2000) Opisthobranchs of Izu Peninsula. Tokyo: TBS–Britannica Co., Ltd.
Thompson T.E. (1976) Biology of opisthobranch molluscs, Volume 1. London: The Ray Society.
Trowbridge C.D. (1991a) Diet specialization limits herbivorous sea slugs’ capacity to switch among food species. Ecology 72, 18801888.
Trowbridge C.D. (1991b) Group membership facilitates feeding of the herbivorous sea slug Placida dendritica. Ecology 72, 21932203.
Trowbridge C.D. (1992a) Mesoherbivory: the ascoglossan sea slug Placida dendritica may contribute to the restricted distribution of its algal host. Marine Ecology Progress Series 83, 207220.
Trowbridge C.D. (1992b) Phenology and demography of a marine specialist herbivore: Placida dendritica (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) along the central coast of Oregon. Marine Biology 114, 443452.
Trowbridge C.D. (1995) New Zealand opisthobranchs associated with the low intertidal, crustose green alga Codium convolutum: ascoglossans “Down Under”. Veliger 38, 116125.
Trowbridge C.D. (2002) Northeastern Pacific sacoglossan opisthobranchs: natural history review, bibliography, and prospectus. Veliger 45, 124.
Trowbridge C.D. (2004) Emerging associations on marine rocky shores: specialist herbivores on introduced macroalgae. Journal of Animal Ecology 73, 294308.
Trowbridge C.D. (2006) A global proliferation of non-native marine and brackish macroalgae. In Critchley A.T., Ohno M. and Largo D.B. (eds). World seaweed resources—an authoritative reference system. DVD-ROM, version 1.0. Amsterdam: ETI Bioinformatics.
Trowbridge C.D. and Todd C.D. (2001) Host-plant changes of marine specialist herbivores: ascoglossan sea slugs on the introduced Codium fragile. Ecological Monographs 71, 219243.
Trowbridge C.D., Little C., Stirling P. and Farnham W.F. (2008a) Sacoglossan gastropods on native and introduced hosts in Lough Hyne, Ireland: larval retention and population asynchrony? Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 88, 771782.
Trowbridge C.D., Hirano Y.J. and Hirano Y.M. (2008b) Sacoglossan opisthobranchs associated with the green macroalgae Codium spp. on Pacific rocky shores of Japan. Venus 66, 175190.
Trowbridge C.D., Hirano Y.J. and Hirano Y.M. (in press) Sacoglossan opisthobranchs on North-West Pacific shores: Stiliger berghi Baba, 1937 and Elysia sp. on filamentous red algae. Veliger 51.
Walsh E.J. and Trowbridge C.D. (2001) Genetic variation in oligophagous herbivores (Sacoglossa: Opisthobranchia) on native and introduced hosts. World Congress of Malacology, Vienna (Austria), 19–25 August 2001. (Abstract).
Vázquez D.P. and Stevens R.D. (2004) The latitudinal gradient in niche breadth: concepts and evidence. American Naturalist 164, E1E19.
Yoshida T. (1998) Marine algae of Japan. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd.
Yoshida T., Shimada S., Yoshinaga K. and Nakajima Y. (2005) Checklist of marine algae of Japan (revised in 2005). Japanese Journal of Phycology 53, 179228.
Zar J.H. (1984) Biostatistical analysis, 2nd edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • ISSN: 0025-3154
  • EISSN: 1469-7769
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 6 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 58 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.