The phylogenetic position of Xenoturbella spp. has been uncertain since their discovery in 1949. It has been recently suggested that they could be related to Ambulacraria within Deuterostomia. Ambulacraria is a taxon that has been suggested to consist of Hemichordata and Echinodermata. The hypothesis that X. bocki was related to Ambulacraria as well as the hypothesis of a monophyletic Ambulacraria is primarily based on the analysis of DNA sequence data. We tested both phylogenetic hypotheses using antibodies raised against SALMFamide 1 and 2 (S1, S2), neuropeptides isolated from echinoderms, on X. bocki and the enteropneust Harrimania kupfferi. Both species showed distinct positive immunoreactivity against S1 and S2. This finding supports the Ambulacraria-hypothesis and suggests a close phylogenetic relationship of X. bocki to Ambulacraria. In particular, the presence of immunoreactivity against S2 can be interpreted as a synapomorphy of Enteropneusta, Echinodermata, and Xenoturbella spp.