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Nerve cells of Xenoturbella bocki (phylum uncertain) and Harrimania kupfferi (Enteropneusta) are positively immunoreactive to antibodies raised against echinoderm neuropeptides

  • Thomas Stach (a1) (a2), Samuel Dupont (a2), Olle Israelson (a3), Geraldine Fauville (a2), Hiroaki Nakano (a2), Tobias Kånneby (a2) and Mike Thorndyke (a2)...

Abstract

The phylogenetic position of Xenoturbella spp. has been uncertain since their discovery in 1949. It has been recently suggested that they could be related to Ambulacraria within Deuterostomia. Ambulacraria is a taxon that has been suggested to consist of Hemichordata and Echinodermata. The hypothesis that X. bocki was related to Ambulacraria as well as the hypothesis of a monophyletic Ambulacraria is primarily based on the analysis of DNA sequence data. We tested both phylogenetic hypotheses using antibodies raised against SALMFamide 1 and 2 (S1, S2), neuropeptides isolated from echinoderms, on X. bocki and the enteropneust Harrimania kupfferi. Both species showed distinct positive immunoreactivity against S1 and S2. This finding supports the Ambulacraria-hypothesis and suggests a close phylogenetic relationship of X. bocki to Ambulacraria. In particular, the presence of immunoreactivity against S2 can be interpreted as a synapomorphy of Enteropneusta, Echinodermata, and Xenoturbella spp.

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Nerve cells of Xenoturbella bocki (phylum uncertain) and Harrimania kupfferi (Enteropneusta) are positively immunoreactive to antibodies raised against echinoderm neuropeptides

  • Thomas Stach (a1) (a2), Samuel Dupont (a2), Olle Israelson (a3), Geraldine Fauville (a2), Hiroaki Nakano (a2), Tobias Kånneby (a2) and Mike Thorndyke (a2)...

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