Anderson, M.J. (2001) A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology 26, 32–46.
Andrew, N.L. (1993) Spatial heterogeneity, sea urchin grazing, and habitat structure on reefs in temperate Australia. Ecology 74, 292–302.
Ayvazian, S.G. and Hyndes, G.A. (1995) Surf-zone fish assemblages in south-western Australia: do adjacent nearshore habitats and the warm Leeuwin Current influence the characteristics of the fish fauna? Marine Biology 122, 527–536.
Azzarello, J., Smale, D.A., Langlois, T.J. and Håkansson, E. (2013) Linking habitat characteristics to abundance patterns of canopy-forming macroalgae and sea urchins in southwest Australia. Marine Biology Research in press.
Binks, R.M., Evans, J.P., Kennington, W.J. and Prince, J. (2011) Spatial patterns of variation in color and spine shape in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. Invertebrate Biology 130, 161–174.
Bosserelle, C., Pattiaratchi, C. and Haigh, I. (2012) Inter-annual variability and longer-term changes in the wave climate of Western Australia between 1970 and 2009. Ocean Dynamics 62, 63–76.
Bruno, J.F. and O'Connor, M.I. (2005) Cascading effects of predator diversity and omnivory in a marine food web. Ecology Letters 8, 1048–1056.
Byrne, M., Ho, M., Selvakumaraswamy, P., Nguyen, H.D., Dworjanyn, S.A. and Davis, A.R. (2009) Temperature, but not pH, compromises sea urchin fertilization and early development under near-future climate change scenarios. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276, 1883–1888.
Byrne, M., Selvakumaraswamy, P., Ho, M.A., Woolsey, E. and Nguyen, H.D. (2011) Sea urchin development in a global change hotspot, potential for southerly migration of thermotolerant propagules. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 58 712–719.
Caputi, N., Fletcher, W.J., Pearce, A. and Chubb, C.F. (1996) Effect of the Leeuwin Current on the recruitment of fish and invertebrates along the Western Australian coast. Marine and Freshwater Research 47, 147–155.
Clarke, K.R. and Warwick, R.M. (2001) Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. 2nd edition. Plymouth, UK: PRIMER-E Ltd.
Clemente, S., Hernández, J.C., Montaño-Moctezuma, G., Russell, M.P. and Ebert, T.A. (2013) Predators of juvenile sea urchins and the effect of habitat refuges. Marine Biology 160, 579–590.
Connell, S.D. and Irving, A.D. (2008) Integrating ecology with biogeography using landscape characteristics: a case study of subtidal habitat across continental Australia. Journal of Biogeography 35, 1608–1621.
Estes, J.A. and Duggins, D.O. (1995) Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation in a community ecological paradigm. Ecological Monographs 65, 75–100.
Feng, M., McPhaden, M.J., Xie, S. and Hafner, J. (2013) La Niña forces unprecedented Leeuwin Current warming in 2011. Scientfic Reports 3, 1277.
Fox, N.J. and Beckley, L.E. (2005) Priority areas for conservation of Western Australian coastal fishes: a comparison of hotspot, biogeographical and complementarity approaches. Biological Conservation 125, 399–410.
Hart, M.W. and Scheibling, R.E. (1988) Heat waves, baby booms, and the destruction of kelp beds by sea urchins. Marine Biology 99, 167–176.
Hatcher, A.I. (1989) Variation in the components of benthic community structure in a coastal lagoon as a function of spatial scale. Marine and Freshwater Research 40, 79–96.
Hereu, B., Zabala, M., Linares, C. and Sala, E. (2004) Temporal and spatial variability in settlement of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in the NW Mediterranean. Marine Biology 144, 1011–1018.
Hereu, B., Zabala, M., Linares, C. and Sala, E. (2005) The effects of predator abundance and habitat structural complexity on survival of juvenile sea urchins. Marine Biology 146, 293–299.
Jackson, J.B.C., Kirby, M.X., Berger, W.H., Bjorndal, K.A., Botsford, L.W., Bourque, B.J., Bradbury, R.H., Cooke, R., Erlandson, J., Estes, J.A., Hughes, T.P., Kidwell, S., Lange, C.B., Lenihan, H.S., Pandolfi, J.M., Peterson, C.H., Steneck, R.S., Tegner, M.J. and Warner, R.R. (2001) Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293, 629–637.
Jones, C.G., Lawton, J.H. and Shachak, M. (1994) Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos 69, 373–386.
Kendrick, G.A., Lavery, P.S. and Phillips, J.C. (1999) Influence of Ecklonia radiata kelp canopy on structure of macro-algal assemblages in Marmion Lagoon, Western Australia. Hydrobiologia 398/399, 275–283.
Kenner, M.C. (1992) Population dynamics of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus in a Central California kelp forest: recruitment, mortality, growth, and diet. Marine Biology 112, 107–118.
Kerswell, A.P. (2006) Biodiversity patterns of benthic marine algae. Ecology 87, 2479–2488.
Krumhansl, K. and Scheibling, R.E. (2012) Production and fate of kelp detritus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 467, 281–302.
Laegdsgaard, P., Byrne, M. and Anderson, D.T. (1991) Reproduction of sympatric populations of Heliocidaris erythrogramma and H. tuberculata (Echinoidea) in New South Wales. Marine Biology 110, 359–374.
Langlois, T.J., Radford, B., Van Niel, K.P., Meeuwig, J.J., Pearce, A., Rousseaux, C.S.G., Kendrick, G.A. and Harvey, E.S. (2012) Consistent abundance distributions of marine fishes in an old, climatically buffered, infertile seascape. Global Ecology and Biogeography 21, 886–897.
Leinaas, H. and Christie, H. (1996) Effects of removing sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis): Stability of the barren state and succession of kelp forest recovery in the east Atlantic. Oecologia 105, 524–536.
Ling, S.D. (2008) Range expansion of a habitat-modifying species leads to loss of taxonomic diversity: a new and impoverished reef state. Oecologia 156, 883–894.
Ling, S.D., Ibbott, S. and Sanderson, J.C. (2010) Recovery of canopy-forming macroalgae following removal of the enigmatic grazing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 395, 135–146.
Ling, S.D., Johnson, C.R., Frusher, S.D. and Ridgway, K.R. (2009) Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, 22341–22345.
Livore, J.P. and Connell, S.D. (2012a) Effects of food origin and availability on sea urchin condition and feeding behaviour. Journal of Sea Research 68, 1–5.
Livore, J.P. and Connell, S.D. (2012b) Fine-scale effects of sedentary urchins on canopy and understory algae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 411, 66–69.
Lourey, M.J., Dunn, J.R. and Waring, J. (2006) A mixed-layer nutrient climatology of Leeuwin Current and Western Australian shelf waters: seasonal nutrient dynamics and biomass. Journal of Marine Systems 59, 25–51.
Moore, J.A.Y., Bellchambers, L.M., Depczynski, M.R., Evans, R.D., Evans, S.N., Field, S.N., Friedman, K.J., Gilmour, J.P., Holmes, T.H., Middlebrook, R., Radford, B.T., Ridgway, T., Shedrawi, G., Taylor, H., Thomson, D.P. and Wilson, S.K. (2012) Unprecedented mass bleaching and loss of coral across 12° of latitude in Western Australia in 2010–11. PLoS ONE 7, e51807.
Pace, M.L., Cole, J.J., Carpenter, S.R. and Kitchell, J.F. (1999) Trophic cascades revealed in diverse ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14, 483–488.
Pearce, A., Lenanton, R., Jackson, G., Moore, J., Feng, M. and Gaughan, D. (2011) The ‘marine heat wave’ off Western Australia during the summer of 2010/11. Fisheries Research Report No. 222. Perth: Department of Fisheries.
Pearce, A.F. (1991) Eastern boundary currents of the southern hemisphere. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 74, 35–45.
Phillips, J.A. (2001) Marine macroalgal biodiversity hotspots: why is there high species richness and endemism in southern Australian marine benthic flora? Biodiversity and Conservation 10, 1555–1577.
Phillips, J.C., Kendrick, G.A. and Lavery, P.S. (1997) A test of a functional group approach to detecting shifts in macroalgal communities along a disturbance gradient. Marine Ecology Progress Series 153, 125–138.
Rose, T., Smale, D.A. and Botting, G.C. (2012) The 2011 marine heat wave in Cockburn Sound, southwest Australia. Ocean Science 8, 545–550.
Ruuskanen, A., Bäck, S. and Reitalu, T. (1999) A comparison of two cartographic exposure methods using Fucus vesiculosus as an indicator. Marine Biology 134, 139–145.
Searle, D.J. and Semeniuk, V. (1985) The natural sectors of the inner Rottnest Shelf coast adjoining the Swan Coastal Plain. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 67, 116–136.
Smale, D.A., Kendrick, G.A., Waddington, K.I., Van Niel, K.P., Meeuwig, J.J. and Harvey, E.S. (2010a) Benthic assemblage composition on subtidal reefs along a latitudinal gradient in Western Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 86, 83–92.
Smale, D.A., Kendrick, G.A. and Wernberg, T. (2010b) Assemblage turnover and taxonomic sufficiency of subtidal macroalgae at multiple spatial scales. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 384, 76–86.
Smale, D.A. and Wernberg, T. (2009) Satellite-derived SST data as a proxy for water temperature in nearshore benthic ecology. Marine Ecology Progress Series 387, 27–37.
Smale, D.A. and Wernberg, T. (2012) Ecological observations associated with an anomalous warming event at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. Coral Reefs 31, 441.
Smale, D.A. and Wernberg, T. (2013) Extreme climatic event drives range contraction of a habitat-forming species. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280, 2012–2829.
Smale, D.A., Wernberg, T. and Vance, T. (2011) Community development on subtidal temperate reefs: the influences of wave energy and the stochastic recruitment of a dominant kelp. Marine Biology 158, 1757–1766.
Smith, R.L., Huyer, A., Godfrey, J.S. and Church, J.A. (1991) The Leeuwin Current off Western Australia. Journal of Physical Oceanography 21, 323–345.
Steneck, R.S., Graham, M.H., Bourque, B.J., Corbett, D., Erlandson, J.M., Estes, J.A. and Tegner, M.J. (2002) Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future. Environmental Conservation 29, 436–459.
Tomas, F., Romero, J. and Turon, X. (2004) Settlement and recruitment of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in two contrasting habitats in the Mediterranean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 282, 173–184.
Tuya, F., Boyra, A., Sanchez-Jerez, P., Barbera, C. and Haroun, R.J. (2004) Relationships between rocky-reef fish assemblages, the sea urchin Diadema antillarum and macroalgae throughout the Canarian Archipelago. Marine Ecology Progress Series 278, 157–169.
Tuya, F., Wernberg, T. and Thomsen, M.S. (2009) Habitat structure affect abundances of labrid fishes across temperate reefs in south-western Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 86, 311–319.
Tuya, F., Wernberg, T. and Thomsen, M.S. (2011) The relative influence of local to regional drivers of variation in reef fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 79, 217–234.
Valentine, J.P. and Edgar, G.J. (2010) Impacts of a population outbreak of the urchin Tripneustes gratilla amongst Lord Howe Island coral communities. Coral Reefs 29, 399–410.
Valentine, J.P. and Johnson, C.R. (2005) Persistence of sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) barrens on the east coast of Tasmania: inhibition of macroalgal recovery in the absence of high densities of sea urchins. Botanica Marina 48, 106–115.
Vanderklift, M.A. and Kendrick, G.A. (2004) Variations in abundances of herbivorous invertebrates in temperate subtidal rocky reef habitats. Marine and Freshwater Research 55, 93–103.
Vanderklift, M.A. and Kendrick, G.A. (2005) Contrasting influence of sea urchins on attached and drift macroalgae. Marine Ecological Progress Series 299, 101–110.
Vanderklift, M.A. and Wernberg, T. (2008) Detached kelps from distant sources are a food subsidy for sea urchins. Oecologia 157, 327–335.
Vanderklift, M.A. and Wernberg, T. (2010) Stable isotopes reveal a consistent consumer-diet relationship across hundreds of kilometers. Marine Ecology Progress Series 403, 53–61.
Wernberg, T. and Goldberg, N. (2008) Short-term temporal dynamics of algal species in a subtidal kelp bed in relation to changes in environmental conditions and canopy biomass. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 76, 265–272.
Wernberg, T., Kendrick, G.A. and Phillips, J.C. (2003) Regional differences in kelp-associated algal assemblages on temperate limestone reefs in south-western Australia. Diversity and Distributions 9, 427–441.
Wernberg, T., Russell, B.D., Moore, P.J., Ling, S.D., Smale, D.A., Coleman, M., Steinberg, P.D., Kendrick, G.A. and Connell, S.D. (2011) Impacts of climate change in a global hotspot for temperate marine biodiversity and ocean warming. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 400, 7–16.
Wernberg, T., Smale, D.A., Tuya, F., Thomsen, M.S., Langlois, T.J., de Bettignies, T., Bennett, S. and Rousseaux, C.S. (2013) An extreme climatic event alters marine ecosystem structure in a global biodiversity hotspot. Nature Climate Change 3, 78–82.
Wernberg, T., White, M. and Vanderklift, M.A. (2008) Population structure of turbinid gastropods on wave-exposed subtidal reefs: effects of density, body size and algae on grazing behaviour. Marine Ecology Progress Series 362, 169–179.
Wright, J.T., Dworjanyn, S.A., Rogers, C.N., Steinberg, P.D., Williamson, J.E. and Poore, A.G.B. (2005) Density-dependent sea urchin grazing: differential removal of species, changes in community composition and alternative stable states. Marine Ecology Progress Series 298, 143–156.