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The role of Malcolm Clarke (1930–2013) in the Azores as a scientist and educationist

  • J.N. Gomes-Pereira (a1) (a2), R. Prieto (a1), V. Neves (a1), J. Xavier (a3), C. Pham (a1), J. Gonçalves (a1), F. Porteiro (a1), R. Santos (a1) and H. Martins (a1)...
Abstract

Malcolm Roy Clarke (1930–2013) was a British teuthologist who made an important contribution to marine science in the Azores archipelago (Portugal). Malcolm started doing research in the Azores from 1980s onward, settling for residency in 2000 after retirement (in 1987). He kept publishing on Azorean cephalopods collaborating in 20% of the peer reviewed works focusing on two main areas: dietary studies; and the ecology of cephalopods on seamounts. Since his first visit in 1981, he was involved in the description of the dietary ecology of several cetaceans, seabirds, and large pelagic and deep-water fish. Using his own data, Malcolm revised the association of cephalopods with seamounts, updating and enlarging the different cephalopod groups according to species behaviour and ecology. Malcolm taught several students working in the Azores on cephalopods and beak identification, lecturing the Third International Workshop in Faial (2007). He empowered the recently established research community, by providing important contacts with foreign institutes and informal advice. He collaborated in the regional cetacean stranding network (RACA) and was an active member of the advisory board of the journal Arquipelago—Life and Marine Sciences. But the scientific role of Malcolm Clarke in the Azores went beyond his academic activities. In the last 10 years Malcolm and Dot Clarke dedicated themselves to building and running a museum on Pico Island, showing the biology of the sperm whale and its interaction with squid; a cultural and touristic legacy for future generations to enjoy.

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Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: J.N. Gomes-Pereira, IMAR and Department of Oceanography and Fisheries, University of the Azores, 9900 Horta, Faial, Portugal email: josenunopereira@uac.pt
References
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Brierley A.S., Thorpe J.P., Clarke M.R. and Martins H.R. (1993) A preliminary biochemical genetic investigation of the population structure of Loligo forbesi Steenstrup, 1856 from the British Isles and the Azores. In Okutani T., O'Dor K. and Kubodera T. (eds) Recent advances in cephalopod fisheries biology. Shimizu City: Tokai University Press, pp. 5967.
Brierley A.S., Thorpe J.P., Pierce G., Clarke M. and Boyle P. (1995) Genetic variation in the neritic squid Loligo forbesi (Myopsida: Loliginidae) in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Marine Biology 122, 7986.
Clarke M.R. (1962a) Significance of cephalopod beaks. Nature 193, 560561.
Clarke M.R. (1962b) The identification of cephalopod ‘beaks’ and the relationship between beak size and total body weight. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology 8, 419480.
Clarke M.R. (1966) A review of the systematics and ecology of oceanic squids. Advances in Marine Biology 4, 91300.
Clarke M.R. (1983) Instructions for the collection and preservation of cephalopod beaks. In BIOMASS Report Series, Volume 33, pp. 23–81.
Clarke M.R. (1986) A handbook for the identification of cephalopods beaks. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Clarke M.R. (1996) The role of cephalopods in the world's oceans: general conclusion and the future. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 351, 11051112.
Clarke M.R. (2006) Oceanic cephalopod distribution and species diversity in the eastern north Atlantic. Arquipelago—Life and Marine Sciences 23, 2746.
Clarke M.R. (2007) Seamounts and cephalopods. In Pitcher T.J., Morato T., Hart P.J., Clark M.R., Haggan N. and Santos R.S. (eds) Seamounts: ecology, fisheries and conservation. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 207229.
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Clarke M.R., Clarke D.C., Martins H.R. and Silva H.M. (1995) The diet of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in Azorean waters. Archipelago—Life Marine Sciences A 13, 5369.
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Clarke M.R. and Merrett N. (1972) The significance of squid, whale and other remains from the stomachs of bottom-living deep-sea fish. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 52, 599603.
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Lemey E. (2013) Towards ecosystem based management of the Azores marine resources: developing an ecosystem model and fitting to time series data of abundance and catch. MSc thesis in Marine Biodiversity and Conservation. Ghent University, Belgium, 71 pp.
Martins H.R., Clarke M.C., Reiner F. and Santos R.S. (1985) A pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps (Blainville, 1838) (Cetacea: Odontoceti) stranded on Faial Island, Azores, with notes on cephalopod beaks in stomach. Arquipelago: Série Ciências da Natureza 6, 6370.
Morato T., Santos R.S. and Andrade J.P. (2000) Feeding habits, seasonal and ontogenetic diet shift of blacktail comber, Serranus atricauda (Pisces: Serranidae), from the Azores, north-eastern Atlantic. Fisheries Research 49, 5159.
Morato T., Sola E., Grós M. and Menezes G. (2003) Diets of thornback ray (Raja clavata) and tope shark (Galeorhinus galeus) in the bottom longline fishery of the Azores, northeastern Atlantic. Fishery Bulletin 101, 590602.
Nesis K. (1993) Cephalopods of seamounts and submarine ridges. In O'Dor O.T.R.K. and Kubodera T. (eds) Recent advances in cephalopod fisheries biology. Tokyo: Tokay University Press, pp. 365373.
Neves V., Nolf D. and Clarke M.R. (2012a) Spatio-temporal variation in the diet of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea in the Azores archipelago, north-east Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 70, 113.
Neves V.C., Bried J., González-Solís J., Roscales J.L. and Clarke M.R. (2012b) Feeding ecology and movements of the Barolo shearwater Puffinus baroli baroli in the Azores, NE Atlantic. Marine Ecology Progress Series 452, 269285.
Neves V.C., Nolf D. and Clarke M. (2011) Diet of Bulwer's Petrel (Bulweria bulwerii) in the Azores, NE Atlantic. Waterbirds 34, 357362.
Pereira J.N., Morato T., Menezes G., Clarke M.R. and Barcelos L. (2010) Cephalopods in the diet of two seamount aggregating fish species: alfonsino, Beryx splendens and orange roughy, Hoplostethus mediterraneus. Poster presented in Project HERMIONE – 2nd Annual Science Meeting, Málaga, Spain.
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Xavier J., Clarke M.R., Magalhães M.C., Stowasser G., Blanco C. and Cherel Y. (2007) Current status of using beaks to identify cephalopods. In III International Workshop and training course on Cephalopod beaks, Faial island, Azores, April 2007.
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Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • ISSN: 0025-3154
  • EISSN: 1469-7769
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom
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