The aim of this study was to analyse the population dynamics of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in Sergipe, Brazil. Four samples were collected monthly from shrimp trawlers based in the municipality of Pirambu from March 2015 to May 2016. Carapace length (CL), total length (TC), live weight (LW), sex and maturity stages were obtained for each specimen. A total of 13,035 individuals were analysed with an overall sex ratio of 1:1. However, this ratio favoured females in larger sizes, which reflects a reproductive strategy, as their larger size allows for larger gonads, higher fertility and production of more eggs. An inflexion point was observed in the relationship between total and carapace length, probably related to reproduction, as this occurred after first maturity. A reproduction peak was observed in August–September, which does not correspond to the closed season. The parameters estimated for a seasonally oscillating version of the von Bertalanffy growth function were CL∞ = 33 mm and K = 1.5 year−1 for females, and CL∞ = 31 mm and K = 1.7 year−1 for males (C = 0.6 and WP = 0.8 for both sexes). These estimates do not support the latitudinal rule in terms of larger sizes in higher latitudes, which may be associated to methodological differences, occurrence of more than one species along the South-western Atlantic coast, sampling bias, exploitation status and unbalanced availability of studies. The instantaneous total mortality rate was high and should be further investigated to allow for the definition of the exploitation status of seabobs in Sergipe.