Skip to main content
×
Home

Time, perspective and semantic representation

  • K. M. JASZCZOLT (a1)
abstract
<span class='sc'>abstract</span>

I discuss the perspectival nature of temporality in discourse and argue that the human concept of time can no more be dissociated from the perspectival thought than the concept of the self can. The corollary of this observation is that perspectival temporality can no more be excluded from the semantic representation than the notion of the self can: neither can be reduced to the bare referent for the purpose of semantic representation if the latter is to retain cognitive plausibility. I present such a semantic qua conceptual approach to temporal reference developed within my theory of Default Semantics. I build upon my theory of time as epistemic modality according to which, on the level of conceptual qua semantic building blocks, temporality reduces to degrees of detachment from the certainty of the here and the now. I also address the questions of temporal asymmetry between the past and the future, and the relation between metaphysical time (timeM), psychological time (timeE, where ‘E’ marks the domain of epistemological enquiry), and time in natural language (timeL), concluding that the perspective-infused timeE and timeL are compatible with timeM of mathematical models of spacetime: all are definable through possibility and perspectivity.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Aikhenvald A. Y. (2012). The languages of the Amazon. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Amis M. (1984). Money. London: Vintage Books.
van der Auwera J., & Plungian V. A. (1998). Modality’s semantic map. Linguistic Typology, 2, 79124.
Barlassina L., & Del Prete F. (2015). The puzzle of the changing past. Analysis, 75, 5967.
Baron S. (2015). Tensed truthmaker theory. Erkenntnis, 80, 923944.
Bittner M. (2005). Future discourse in a tenseless language. Journal of Semantics, 22, 339387.
Bohnemeyer J. (2002). The grammar of time reference in Yucatec Maya. Munich: Lincom Europa.
Davidson D. (1970). Events as particulars. Noûs, 4, 2532. [Reprinted in D. Davidson (1980), Essays on actions and events (pp. 181187). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Dummett M. (2004). Truth and the past. New York: Columbia University Press.
Dummett M. (2006). Thought and reality. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Einstein A. (1920/2010). Relativity: the special and the general theory, trans. Lawson R. W.. London: Methuen. [Reprinted in 2010 by Mansfield Centre, CT: Martino Publishing.]
Fleck D. W. (2007). Evidentiality and double tense in Matses. Language, 83, 589614.
Givón T. (2005). Context as other minds: the pragmatics of sociality, cognition and communication. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins.
Grice P. (2001). Aspects of reason, ed. Warner R.. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
de Haan F. (2006). Typological approaches to modality. In Frawley W. (Ed.), The expression of modality (pp. 2769). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hawking S. W. (1988). A brief history of time: from the Big Bang to black holes. London: Bantam Press.
Heidegger M. (1953). Sein und Zeit. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. Trans. by Stambaugh J. (1996) as Being and time. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Higginbotham J. (1985). On semantics. Linguistic Inquiry, 16, 547593.
Husserl E. (1928). Vorlesungen zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewusstseins. Jahrbuch für Philosophie und phänomenologische Forschung IX. Halle: Max Niemeyer. Trans. by Brough J. B. as Lectures on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time in: On the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time (1893–1917). Part A. 1991. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Jaszczolt K. M. (2005). Default Semantics: foundations of a compositional theory of acts of communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jaszczolt K. M. (2009a). Representing time: an essay on temporality as modality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jaszczolt K. M. (2009b). Cancellability and the primary/secondary meaning distinction. Intercultural Pragmatics, 6, 259289.
Jaszczolt K. M. (2010). Default Semantics. In Heine B. & Narrog H. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of linguistic analysis (pp. 193221). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jaszczolt K. M. (2012). Cross-linguistic differences in expressing time and universal principles of utterance interpretation. In Filipović L. & Jaszczolt K. M. (Eds.), Space and time in languages and cultures: linguistic diversity (pp. 95121). Amsterdam: J. Benjamins.
Jaszczolt K. M. (2013). Temporality and epistemic commitment: an unresolved question. In Jaszczolt K. M. & de Saussure L. (Eds.), Time: language, cognition, and reality (pp. 193209). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jaszczolt K. M. (2016a). Meaning in linguistic interaction: semantics, metasemantics, philosophy of language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jaszczolt K. M. (2016b). Temporal reference without the concept of time? In Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk B. (Ed.), Conceptualizations of time (pp. 324). Amsterdam: J. Benjamins.
Jaszczolt K. M., & Huang M. (in press). Monsters and I: the case of mixed quotation. In Saka P. & Johnson M. (Eds.), Semantic and pragmatic aspects of quotation. Dordrecht: Springer.
Kamp H., & Reyle U. (1993). From discourse to logic: introduction to modeltheoretic semantics of natural language, formal logic and Discourse Representation Theory. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Kaplan D. (1989). Demonstratives: an essay on the semantics, logic, metaphysics, and epistemology of demonstratives and other indexicals. In Almog J., Perry J., & Wettstein H. (Eds.), Themes from Kaplan (pp. 481563). New York: Oxford University Press.
Kelly S. D. (2005). Temporal awareness. In Smith D. W. & Thomasson A. L. (Eds.), Phenomenology and philosophy of mind (pp. 222234). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Le Poidevin R. (2007). The images of time: an essay on temporal representation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Leslau W. (1995). Reference grammar of Amharic. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Levinson S. C. (2003). Space in language and cognition: explorations in cognitive diversity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Levinson S. C., & Burenhult N. (2009). Semplates: A new concept in lexical semantics? Language, 85, 153174.
Levinson S. C., Meira S., & The Language and Cognition Group (2003). Natural concepts in the spatial topological domain – adpositional meanings in crosslinguistic perspective: an exercise in semantic typology. Language, 79, 485516.
Lewis D. (1979). Attitudes de dicto and de se . Philosophical Review, 88, 513543.
Ludlow P. (1999). Semantics, tense, and time: an essay in the metaphysics of natural language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Ludlow P. (2013). Tensism. In Jaszczolt K. M. & de Saussure L. (Eds.), Time: language, cognition, and reality (pp. 175192). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Matthewson L. (2006). Temporal semantics in a superficially tenseless language. Linguistics and Philosophy, 29, 673713.
McLaughlin B., & Bennett K. (2005). Supervenience. In Zalta E. (Ed.), Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Online: <http://plato.stanford.edu/contents.html>.
McTaggart J. E. (1908). The unreality of time. Mind, 17, 457474. [Reprinted in J. E. McTaggart (1934). Philosophical studies (pp. 110131). London: E. Arnold.]
Mellor D. H. (1998). Real time II. London: Routledge.
Montague R. (1960). On the nature of certain philosophical entities. The Monist, 53, 159194. [Reprinted in Thomason R. (Ed.) (1974), Formal philosophy: selected papers of Richard Montague (pp. 148–187). New Haven: Yale University Press.]
Mount A. (2015). Character, impropriety, and success: a unified account of indexicals. Mind and Language, 30, 121.
Mozersky J. M. (2001). Smith on times and tokens. Synthese, 129, 405411.
Mozersky M. J. (2015). Time, language, and ontology: the world from the B-theoretic perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Noonan H. W. (2013). Presentism and eternalism. Erkenntnis, 78, 219227.
Parsons T. (1990). Events in the semantics of English: a study in subatomic semantics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Partee B. H. (1973). Some structural analogies between tenses and pronouns in English. Journal of Philosophy, 70, 601–609. [Reprinted in B. Partee (2004), Compositionality in formal semantics (pp. 5058). Oxford: Blackwell.]
Pederson E., Danziger E., Wilkins D., Levinson S., Kita S., & Senft G. (1998). Semantic typology and spatial conceptualization. Language, 74, 557589.
Predelli S. (2014). Kaplan’s three monsters. Analysis, 74, 389393.
Prior A. N. (1967). Past, present and future. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Prior A. N. (1968). Papers on time and tense. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Prior A. N. (2003). Papers on time and tense: new edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reichenbach H. (1948). Elements of symbolic logic. New York: Macmillan.
Roberts C. (2014). Indexicality: de se semantics and pragmatics. Unpublished ms., Ohio State University.
de Saussure L. (2013). Perspectival interpretations of tenses. In Jaszczolt K. M. & de Saussure L. (Eds.), Time: language, cognition, and reality (pp. 4669). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schlenker P. (2003). A plea for monsters. Linguistics and Philosophy, 26, 29120.
Sklar L. (1981). Up and down, left and right, past and future. Noûs, 15, 111129.
Smith Q. (1993). Language and time. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Srioutai J. (2006). Time conceptualization in Thai with special reference to d 1 ay 1 II , kh 3 oe:y, k 1 aml 3 ang, y 3 u: I and c 1 a. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cambridge.
Stalnaker R. C. (1981). Indexical belief. Synthese, 49, 129151.
Steedman M. (1997). Temporality. In van Benthem J. & ter Meulen A. (Eds.), Handbook of logic and language (pp. 895938). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
Strawson P. F. (1959). Individuals: an essay in descriptive metaphysics. London: Methuen.
Thornton A. (1987). Maori oral literature as seen by a classicist. Dunedin: University of Otago Press.
Tolstoy L. (1869/2007). War and peace, trans. Pevear R. & Volokhonsky L.. London: Vintage Books.
Tonhauser J. (2011). Temporal reference in Paraguayan Guaraní, a tenseless language. Linguistics and Philosophy, 34, 257303.
White V. A. (2015). Presentism and Einstein’s train of thought: reply to Brogaard and Marlow. Erkenntnis, 80, 10231029.
Wierzbicka A. (1996). Semantics: primes and universals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Language and Cognition
  • ISSN: 1866-9808
  • EISSN: 1866-9859
  • URL: /core/journals/language-and-cognition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 58 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 395 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 5th May 2017 - 12th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.