Skip to main content

Common and uncommon ground: Social and structural factors in codeswitching

  • Carol Myers-Scotton (a1)

The social forces affecting the performance of codeswitching (CS) may be distinguished from those factors controlling its basic structure, with which they interact. The constraints on possible patterns in CS are largely under innately based controls. These constraints are presented here in a model of intrasentential CS, and their validity is tested against findings of CS practices in a number of communities; all options can be accounted for under the model. Thus the options for CS structures seem universally set; but community-specific or group-specific social forces may determine which permissible patterns are preferred. In addition, micro-level, discourse-based factors may prompt individuals to produce certain CS structures. A second model of the social motivations for CS helps explain both the macro- and micro-level preferences. (Bilingualism, codeswitching, language contact, socio-pragmatics)

Hide All
Annamalai, E. (1989). The language factor in code mixing. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 75:4754.
Azuma, Shoji (1991). Processing and intrasentential code-switching. Austin: University of Texas dissertation.
Backus, Ad (1990). Turkish-Dutch codeswitching and the frame-process model. Paper presented at International Workshop on Ethnic Minority Languages in Europe, Tilburg, The Netherlands, December.
Backus, Ad (1992). Patterns of language mixing: A study of Turkish-Dutch bilingualism. Weisbaden: Harrassowitz.
Bentahila, Abdelali, & Davies, Eirlys E. (1983). The syntax of Arabic-French code-switching. Lingua 59:301–30.
Bentahila, Abdelali (1992). Code-switching and language dominance. In Harris, R. J. (ed.), Cognitive processing in bilinguals, 443–58. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Blom, Jan-Petter, & Gumperz, John J. (1972). Social meaning in structure: Code-switching in Norway. In Gumperz, John J. & Hymes, Dell (eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics, 407–34. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Bock, J. Kathryn (1991). A sketchbook of production problems. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 20:141–60.
Boeschoten, Hendrick (1991). Asymmetrical code-switching in immigrant communities. In Lüdi, Georges (ed.), Papers for the Workshop on Constraints, Conditions, and Models, 85100. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation.
Bokamba, Eyamba (1988). Code-mixing, language variation, and linguistic theory: Evidence from Bantu languages. Lingua 76:2162.
Clyne, Michael (1967). Transference and triggering: Observations on the language assimilation of postwar German-speaking migrants in Australia. The Hague: Mouton.
Clyne, Michael (1987). Constraints on code-switching: How universal are they? Linguistics 25:739–64.
DiSciullo, Anne-Marie, Muysken, Pieter; & Singh, Rajendra (1986). Government and code-mixing. Journal of Linguistics 22:124.
Eastman, Carol M., ed. (1992). Codeswitching. (Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 13:1/2.) Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Penelope, Gardner-Chloros (1985). Language selection and switching among Strasbourg shoppers. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 54:117–35.
Gardner-Chloros, Penelope (1991). Language selection and switching inStrasbourg. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
Garrett, Merrill L. (1990). Sentence processing. In Osheron, David & Lasnik, Harold (eds.), An invitation to cognitive science, vol. 1, 133–75. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and conversation. In Cole, Peter & Morgan, Jerry L. (eds.), Syntax and semantics, vol. 3, 4155. New York: Academic.
Heller, Monica (1988). Strategic ambiguity: Codeswitching in the managementof conflict. In Heller, Monica (ed.), Codeswitching: Anthropological and sociolinguisticperspectives, 7796. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Jake, Janice L. (1993). Intrasentential codeswitching and pronouns: On the categorial status of functional elements, ms.
Jake, Janice L., & Myers-Scotton, Carol (1992). Testing the fit: Syntactic theory and codeswitching. Paper, Annual meeting, Linguistic Society of America.
Joshi, Aravind (1985). Processing of sentences with intrasentential code-switching. In Dowty, David et al. (eds.), Natural language parsing: Psychological computationand theoretical perspectives, 190205. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M. (1989). Some morphosyntactic aspects of French/English-Bantu code-mixing. In Music, Bradley et al. (eds.), Parasession on language contact, 157–70. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
Kolk, Hermann, & Heeschen, Claus (1992). Agrammatism, paragrammatism and the management of language. Language and Cognitive Processes 7:89129.
Levelt, Willem J. M. (1989). Speaking, from intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Levelt, Willem J. M. (1992). Accessing words in speech production: Stages, processes and representations. Cognition 42:122.
Lüdi, Georges; Milroy, Lesley; & Muysken, Pieter, eds. (1993). One speaker, two languages: Cross-disciplinary perspectives on codeswitching. To appear.
M'Barek, N.., & Sankoff, David (1988). Le discoursmixte arabe-francais: Emprunts ou alter-nances de langues? Canadian Journal of Linguistics 33:143–54.
Milroy, James (1992). Linguistic variation and change. Oxford: Blackwell.
Mougeon, Raymond, & Beniak, Édouard (1991). Linguisticconsequences of language contact and restriction: The case of French in Ontario, Canada. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
Muysken, Pieter (1991). Needed: A comparative approach. In Lüdi, Georges (ed.), Papers for the Symposium on Code-Switching, 253–72. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation.
Myers-Scotton, Carol (1991). Intersections between social motivations and structural process-ing in codeswitching. In Lüdi, Georges (ed.), Papers for the Workshop on Constraints, Conditions and Models, 5782. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation.
Myers-Scotton, Carol (1992a). Comparing codeswitching and borrowing. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 13:1940.
Myers-Scotton, Carol (1992b). Constructing the frame in intrasententialcodeswitching. Multilingua 11:101–27.
Myers-Scotton, Carol (1993a). Duelling languages: Grammatical structurein codeswitching. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
Myers-Scotton, Carol (1993b). Social motivations for codeswitching: Evidence from Africa. Oxford – New York: Oxford University Press.
Myers-Scotton, Carol, – Azuma, Shoji (1990). A frame-based process model of codeswitching. In Ziolkowski, Michael et al. (eds.), Papers from the regional meeting, 307–21. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
Nortier, Jacomine (1989). Dutch and Moroccan Arabic in contact: Code-switching among Moroccans in the Netherlands. University of Amsterdam dissertation.
Nortier, Jacomine (1990). Dutch-Moroccan Arabic code switching. Dordrecht: Foris.
Pakir, Anne (1989). Linguistic alternates and code selection in Baba Malay. World Englishes 8:379–88.
Petersen, Jennifer (1988). Word-internal code-switching constraints in a child's grammar. Linguistics 26:479–93.
Pfaff, Carol (1979). Constraints on language mixing: Intrasentential code-switching and borrowing in Spanish/English. Language 55:291318.
Pfaff, Carol (1990). Mixing and linguistic convergence in migrant speech communities: Linguistic constraints, social conditions and models of acquisition. In Lüdi, Georges (ed.), Papers for the Workshop on Constraints, Conditions and Models, 119–53. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation.
Poplack, Shana (1980). “Sometimes I'll start a sentence in Spanish y termino el espaħol“: Toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics 18:581618.
Poplack, Shana (1981). Syntactic structure and social function in code-switching. In Duran, Richard P. (ed.), Latino language and communicative behavior, 169–84. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Poplack, Shana (1988). Language status and language accommodation along a linguistic border. In Lowenberg, Peter (ed.), Language spread and language policy (GURT'87), 90118. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press
Poplack, Shana, Sankoff, David, & Miller, Christopher (1988). The social correlates and linguistic processes of lexical borrowing and assimilation. Linguistics 26:47104.
Romaine, Suzanne (1989). Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell.
Sankoff, David, Poplack, Shana & Vanniarajan, Swathi (1990). The case of the nonce loan in Tamil. Language Variation and Change 2:71101.
Scotton, Carol Myers (1983). The negotiation of identities in conversation: A theory of mark-edness and code choice. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 44:115–36.
Scotton, Carol (1988). Codeswitching as indexical of social negotiation. In Heller, Monica (ed.) Code-switching: Anthropological and sociolinguistic perspectives, 151–86. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Sridhar, S. N., & Sridhar, Kamal (1980). The syntax and psycholinguistics of bilingual code-mixing. Canadian Journal of Psychology 34:407–16.
Swigart, Leigh (1992). Two codes or one? The insiders' view and the description of codeswitching in Dakar. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 13:83102.
Thibaut, John, & Kelley, Harold (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York: Wiley.
Treffers-Daller, Jeanine (1991). French-Dutch language mixture in Brussels. University of Amsterdam dissertation.
Treffers-Daller, Jeanine (1992). French-Dutch codeswitching in Brussels: Social factors explaining its disappearance. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 13:143–56.
Vaid, Jyotsna (1980). The form and function of code-mixing in Indian films: The case of Hindi and English. Indian Linguistics 41:3744.
Wei, Long Xing (1991). Structural constraints on intrasentential codeswitching. Paper, Spring meeting, South Eastern Conference on Linguistics, University of Florida, April.
Woolford, Ellen (1983). Bilingual code-switching and syntactic theory. Linguistic Inquiry 14:520–36.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Language in Society
  • ISSN: 0047-4045
  • EISSN: 1469-8013
  • URL: /core/journals/language-in-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed