Skip to main content Accessibility help

Koines and koineization

  • Jeff Siegel (a1)

The term “koine” has been applied to a variety of languages, only some of which are analagous in form and function to the original Greek koinē. The term “koineization” has more recently been applied to the process of levelling which may result in a koine. This article examines various definitions and usages of these terms in the literature and proposes a more precise utilization in the context of contact and resultant mixing between linguistic subsystems. (Languages in contact, language mixing, pidgin and creole studies, social psychology)

Hide All
Bailey, C.-J. N. (1974). Some suggestions for greater consensus in creole terminology. In DeCamp, D. & Hancock, I. F. (eds.), Pidgins and creoles: Current trends and prospects. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. 8891.
Bailey, C.-J. N. (1980). Old and new views on language history and language relationships. In Lüdtke, H. (ed.), Kommunikationstheoretische Grundlagen des Sprachwandels. Berlin: de Gruyter. 139–81.
Bamgboṣe, A. (1966). A grammar of Yoruba. (West African Monograph Series No. 5.) Cambridge University Press.
Bickerton, D. (1981). Roots of language. Ann Arbor: Karoma.
Bidwell, C. E. (1964). The Serbo-Croatian verb. Language 40(4):532–56.
Blanc, H. (1968). The Israeli Koine as an emergent national standard. In Fishman, J., Ferguson, C. A., & Gupta, J. Das (eds.), Language problems in developing nations. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 237–51.
Burchfield, R. W. (ed.) (1976). A supplement to the Oxford English dictionary. Vol II. Oxford: Clarendon.
Cohen, D. (1962). Koiné, langues communes et dialectes arabes. Arabica 9:119–44.
Dillard, J. L. (1964). The writings of Herskovits and the study of the language of the Negro in the New World. Caribbean Studies 4(2):3541.
Dillard, J. L. (1972). Black English: Its history and usage in the United States. New York: Random House.
Domingue, N. (1981). Internal change in a transplanted language. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 4(2): 151–59.
Ervin-Tripp, S. M. (1968). An analysis of the interaction of language, topic, and listener. In Fishman, J. A. (ed.), Readings in the sociology of language. The Hague: Mouton. 192211.
Ferguson, C. A. (1959). The Arabic Koine. Language 35(4):616–30.
Ferguson, C. A., & Gumperz, J. J. (eds.) (1960). Linguistic diversity in South Asia: Studies in regional, social, and functional variation. Bloomington, Ind.: Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore, , and Linguistics, , Publication 13. International Journal of American Linguistics 26(3).
Gambhir, S. K. (1981). The East Indian speech community in Guyana: A sociolinguistic study with special reference to koine formation. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Gambhir, S. K. (1983). Two koines compared: Guyanese Bhojpuri and Calcutta Bazaar Hindustani. International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics 12(2):471–80.
Gibbons, J. (1979). Code-mixing and koineising in the speech of students at the University of Hong Kong. Anthropological Linguistics 21(3): 113–23.
Giles, H.Social psychology and applied linguistics: Towards an integrated approach. ITL Review of Applied Linguistics 35:2742.
Giles, H., Bourhis, R. Y., & Taylor, D. M. (1977). Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In Giles, H. (ed.), Language, ethnicity, and intergroup relations. London: Academic. 307–48.
Giles, H., & Smith, P. (1979) Accommodation theory: Optimal levels of convergence. In Giles, H. & Clair, R. N. St. (eds.), Language and social psychology. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 4565.
Givón, T. (1979). Prolegomena to any sane creology. In Hancock, D. (ed.), Readings in creole studies. Ghent: E. Story-Scientia.
Graff, W. L. (1932). Language and linguistics: An introduction to linguistics. New York: D. Appleton & Co.
Gumperz, J. J., & Wilson, R. Convergence and creolization. In Hymes, D. (ed), Pidginization and creolization of languages. Cambridge University Press. 151–67.
Haller, H. W. (1981). Between Standard Italian and creole: An interim report. Word 32(3): 181–92.
Hancock, I. F. (1971). A provisional comparison of the English-derived Atlantic Creoles. In Hymes, D. (ed), Pidginization and creolization of languages. Cambridge University Press. 287–91.
Hartmann, R. R. I. C., & Stork, F. C.Dictionary of language and linguistics. London: Applied Science Publishers.
Hill, T. (1958). Institutional linguistics. Orbis 7(2):441–55.
Hudson, R. A. (1980). Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press.
Hymes, D. (1971). Introduction [to Part III]. In Hymes, D. (ed), Pidginization and creolization of languages. Cambridge University Press. 6590.
Karlgren, B. (1949). The Chinese language. New York: Ronald.
Krysin, L. P. (1979). Command of various language subsystems as a diglossia phenomenon. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 21:141–51.
Lunt, H. G. (1959). The creation of Standard Macedonian: Some facts and attitudes. Anthropological Linguistics 1(5): 1926.
Manessy, G. Processes of pidginization in African languages. In Valdman, A. (ed), Pidgin and creole linguistics. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press. 129–54.
Meiseles, G. (1981). Hybrid versus symbiotic constructions: A case study of contemporary Arabic. Linguistics 19:1077–93.
Moag, R. F. (1979). The linguistic adaptations of the Fiji Indians. In Mishra, V. (ed.), Rama's banishment: A century tribute to the Fiji Indians, 1879–1979. London: Heinemann. 112–38.
Mohan, P. (1976). To coin a koine theory. Paper presented at the Conference on New Directions in Creole Studies, University of Guyana.
Mohan, P. (1978). Trinidad Bhojpuri: A morphological study. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan.
Mühlhäusler, P. (1980). Structural expansion and the process of creolization. In Valdman, A. & Highfield, A. (eds.), Theoretical orientations in creole studies. New York: Academic. 1955.
Mühlhäusler, P. (1981). The development of the category of number in Tok Pisin. In Muysken, P. (ed.), Generative studies on creole languages. Dordrecht: Foris. 3584.
Mühlhäusler, P. (1982). Patterns of contact, mixture, creation, and nativization: Their contribution to a general theory of language. Ms., Oxford University (to appear in Bailey, C.-J. N. & Harris, R. (eds.), Developmental mechanisms of language. Oxford: Pergamon.
Nida, E. A., & Fehderau, H. W. (1970). Indigenous pidgins and koines. International Journal of American Linguistics 32(2): 146–55.
Pei, M. (1966). Glossary of linguistic terminology. New York: Anchor.
Reinecke, J. E. (1969). Language and dialect in Hawaii:A sociolinguistic history to 1935. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Samarin, W. J. (1971). Salient and substantive pidginization. In Hymes, D. (ed), Pidginization and creolization of languages. Cambridge University Press. 117–40.
Sankoff, G. (1980). The social life of language. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Sapir, E. (1921). Language: An introduction to the study of speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co.
Siegel, J. (1975). Fiji Hindustani. University of Hawaii Working Papers in Linguistics 7(3):127–44.
Siegel, J. (1983). Koineization and the development of Fiji Hindustani. Ms., Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University.
Siegel, J. (1984). Wai: A Malaitan language in Fiji. (to appear in Geraghty, P. & Carrington, L. (eds.), Papers from the Fourth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics).
Thomson, G. (1960). The Greek language. Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons.
Traugott, E. C. (1977). Pidginization, creolization, and language change. In Valdman, A. (ed), Pidgin and creole linguistics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 7098.
Weinreich, U. (1953). Languages in contact: Findings and problems. New York: Linguistic Circle of New York, No.1.
Whinnom, K. (1971). Linguistic hybridization and the “special case” of pidgins and creoles. In Hymes, D. (ed), Pidginization and creolization of languages. Cambridge University Press. 91115.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Language in Society
  • ISSN: 0047-4045
  • EISSN: 1469-8013
  • URL: /core/journals/language-in-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed