Skip to main content
×
Home

Learning difficulties and foreign language learning: A review of research and instruction

  • Leonore Ganschow (a1) and Richard Sparks (a2)
Copyright
References
Hide All
Aaron P. G. & Joshi R. (1989). Reading anil writing disorders in different orthographic systems. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Alderson J. C. & Urquhart A. H. (Eds.) (1984). Reading in a foreign language. NY: Longman.
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) (1989). American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Proficiency Guidelines. Hastingson-Hudson, NY.
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990), P. L. 202–336, 42 U.S.C. Sec. 12101.
Anastasi A. (1988). Psychological testing (6th Ed.) New York: Macmillan.
Anderson P. & Meier-Hedde R. (2001). Early case reports of dyslexia in the United States and Europe. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 921.
Aries J. (1994). An experimental Spanish course for learning disabled students. Hispania, 77, 110–17.
Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) (1997, 07). Guidelines for documentation of a learning disability in adolescents and adults. Columbus, OH. Author.
Astin A., Green K., Korn W., Schaut M. & Derz E. (1988). The American freshman: National norms for 1988. University of California: Los Angeles.
Attorney General of Canada/Nancy Green and Canadian Human Rights Commission (2000). Docket T-1529–98, 06 2.
Au S. (1988). A critical appraisal of Gardner's social-psychological theory of second language (L2) acquisition. Language Learning, 38, 75100.
Block L., Brinckerhoff L. & Trueba C. (1995). Options and accommodations in mathematics and foreign language for college students with learning disabilities. Information from HEATH (Higher Education and the Handicapped), 14 (2&3), 15.
Brady S. & Shankweiler D. (Eds.) (1991). Phonological processes in literacy. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Brewer W. (1963). Specific language disability: Review of the literature and family study. Social Relations Honors Thesis, Harvard College.
Brod R. & Huber B. (1996). The MLA survey of foreign language entrance and degree requirements, 1994–95. Association of Departments of Foreign Languages (ADFL) Bulletin, 28, 3543.
Bruck M. (1978). Suitability of early French immersion programs for the language disabled child. Canadian Modern Language Review, 35, 884–7.
Bruck M. & Genesee F. (1995). Phonological awareness in young second language learners Journal of Child Language, 22, 307–24.
Brügelmann H. (1986). Kinder auf dem Weg zur Schrift: Eine Fibe für Lehrer und Laien (2nd ed.). Faude:Verlag Libelle.
Burstall C., Jamieson M., Cohen S. & Hargreaves M. (1974). Primary French in the balance: A report of the National Foundation for Educational Research in England and Hules. NFER Publishing Col. Ltd., Windsor, Berks.
Camphell R. & Butterworth B. (1986). Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia in a highly literate subject: A developmental case with associated deficits of phonemic processing and awareness. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37A, 435–75.
Carpenter P. A. & Just M. A. (1989). The role of working memory in language comprehension. In Klahr D. & Kotovsky K. (Eds.), Complex information processing: The impact of Herbert A. Simon, (pp. 3168 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Carroll J. (1962). The prediction of success in intensive foreign language training. In Glaser R. (Ed.), Training and research in education (pp. 87136). Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Carroll J. (1963). A model of school learning. Teachers' College Record, 64, 723–33.
Carroll J. (1973). Implications of aptitude test research and psycholinguistic theory for foreign language teaching. International Journal of Psycholinguistics, 2, 514.
Carroll J. (1981). Twenty-five years of research on foreign language aptitude. In K. Diller, pp. 83118.
Carroll J. (1990). Cognitive abilities in foreign language aptitude:Then and now. In T. Parry & C. Stansfield, pp. 1129.
Carroll J. & Sapon S. (1959). Modern Language Aptitude Test. NY: Psychological Corporation.
Catts H. (1989). Defining dyslexia as a developmental language disorder. Annals of Dyslexia, 39, 5067.
Chastain K. (1975). Affective and ability factors in secondlanguage acquisition. Language Learning, 25, 153–61.
Cheung H. (1996). Nonword span as a unique predictor of second-language vocabulary learning. Developmental Psychology, 12, 867–73.
Clark J. & O'Mara F. (1991). Measurement and research implications of Spolsky's conditions for second language learning. Applied Language Learning, 2, 71113.
Clement R., Gardner R. C. & Smythe P. C. (1977). Motivational variables in second language acquisition: A study of francophones learning English. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. 9, 123–33.
Cline T., Ganschow L. & Reason R. (Guest Eds.) (2000). Multilingualism and dyslexia. Dyslexia, 6, Parts 1 & 2.
Cohen J. (1983). Learning disabilities and the college student: Identification and diagnosis. In Sugar M. (Ed.), Adolescent psychiatry: Davlopmental and clinical studies (Vol. 2, pp. 177–98). San Diego: College-Hill.
Cowan N. (1996). Short-term, working memory, and their importance in language processing. Topics in Language Disorders, 17, 118.
Cromdie M. (1997). The effects of specific learning difficulties (dyslexia) on the learning of a foreign language in school. Dyslexia, 3, 2747.
Cummins J. (1981). Bilingualism and minority language children. Toronto:The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
Cummins J. (1984). Bilingualism and special education: Issues in assessment and pedagogy. San Diego, Ca: College-Hill Press.
Davies A. (1971). Language aptitude in the first year of the U.K. secondary school. RELC Journal, 2, 419.
Demuth K. & Smith N. (1987). The foreign language requirement: An alternative program. Foreign Language Annals, 20, 6677.
Diller K. (Ed.) (1981). Individual differences and universals in language learning aptitude. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Dinklage K. (1971). Inability to learn a foreign language. In Blaine G. & McArthur C. (Eds.), Emotional problems of the student (pp. 184206). NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Dörnyei Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Langnage Teaching, 31, 117–35.
Downey D., Snyder L. & Hill B. (2000). College students with dyslexia: Persistent linguistic deficits and foreign language learning. Dyslexia, 6, 101–11.
Dufva M. & Voeten M. (1999). Native language literacy and phonological memory as prerequisites for learning English as a foreign language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 329–48.
Durgunoglu A. & Hancin D. (1992). An overview of crosslanguage transfer in bilingual reading. In R. J. Harris, pp. 391411.
Durgunoglu A. & Öney K. (1999). A cross-linguistic comparison of phonological awareness and word recognition. Reading and Writing:An Interdisciplinary Jonrnal, 11, 281–99.
Durgunoglu A. & Öney K. (2000). Literacy development in two languages: Cognitive and sociocultural dimensions of cross-language transfer. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Language Affairs, Reading Research Symposium, Washington, D.C.
Durgunoglu A. & Verhoeven L. (Eds.) (1998). Acquisition of literacy in a multilingual context: A cross-cultural perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Durkin C. (2000). Dyslexia in bilingual children – Does recent research assist identification? Dyslexia, 6, 248–67.
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975). Public Law 94142.
Ehrman M. (1990). The role of personality type in adult language learning: An ongoing investigation. In T. Parry & C. Sunsfield, pp. 126–78.
Ehrman M. (1996). Understanding second language learning difficulties. London: SAGE Publications.
Ehrman M. & Oxford R. (1995). Cognition plus: Correlates of language learning success. Modern Language Journal, 79, 6789.
Elbro C. & Arnbak E. (1996). The role of morpheme recognition and morphological awareness in dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 46, 209–40.
Everatt J., Smythe I., Adams E. & Ocampo D. (2000). Dyslexia screening measures and bilingualism. Dyslexia, 6, 4256.
Fawcett A. & Lynch L. (2000). Systematic identification and intervention for reading difficulty: Case studies of children with EAL. Dyslexia, 6, 5771.
Fawcett A. & Nicolson R. (1996). The Dyslexia Screening Test. London: Psychological Corporation.
Fawcett A. & Nicolson R. (1998). The Dyslexia Adult Screening Test. London: Psychological Corporation.
Freed B. (1987). Exemptions from the foreign language requirement: A review of recent literature, problems, and policy. Association of Departments of Foreign Languages (ADFL) Bulletin, 18, 1317.
Gajar A. (1987). Foreign language learning disabilities: The identification of predictive and diagnostic variables. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 327–30.
Ganschow L., Myer B. & Roeger K. (1989). Foreign language policies and procedures for students with specific learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Focus, 5, 50–8.
Ganschow L., Philips L. & Schneider E. (in press). Experiences with the university foreign language requirement: Voices of students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities:A Multidisciplinary Journal.
Ganschow L. & Schneider E. (2000). Dyslexia services and training in Germany. Thalamus, 18, 1933.
Ganschow L. & Sparks R. (1986), Learning disabilities and foreign language difficulties: Deficit in listening skills? Journal of Reading, Writing, and Learning Disabilities International, 2, 305–19.
Ganschow L. & Sparks R. (1987). The foreign language requirement. Learning Disabilities Fonus, 2, 115–23.
Ganschow L. & Sparks R. (1991). A screening instrument for the identification of foreign language learning problems: Evidence for a relationship between native and second language learning problems. Foreign Language Annals, 24, 383–98.
Ganschow L. & Sparks R. (1995). Effects of direct instruction in Spanish phonology on the native language skills and foreign language aptitude of at-risk foreign language learners. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28, 107–20.
Ganschow L. & Sparks R. (1996). Foreign language anxiety among high school women. Modern Language Journal, 80, 199212.
Ganschow L. & Sparks R. (2000). Reflections on foreign language study for students with language learning problems: Research, issues, and challenges. Dyslexia, 6, 87100.
Ganschow L., Sparks R., Anderson R., Javorsky J., Skinner S. & Patton J. (1994). Differences in anxiety and language performance among high- and low-anxious college foreign language learners. Modern Language Journal, 78, 4155.
Ganschow L., Sparks R. & Javorsky J. (1998). Foreign language learning problems: An historical perspective. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 248–58.
Ganschow L., Sparks R., Javorsky J., Pohlman J. & Bishop-Marbury A. (1991). Identifying native language difficulties among foreign language learners in college: A ‘foreign’ language learning disability? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 530–41.
Gardner R. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London:Arnold.
Gardner R. (1988). The socio-educational model of secondlanguage learning: Assumptions, findings, and issues. Language Learning, 38, 101–26.
Gardner R. (1990). Attitudes, motivation, and personality as predictors of success in foreign language learning. In T. Parry & C Stansfield. pp. 179221.
Gardner R., Clement R., Smythe P. & Smythe C. (1979). Attitude and motivation test battery – Raised manual (Research. Bulletin No. 15). London, Ontario: Language Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario.
Gardner R., Gliksman L. & Smythe P. (1978). Attitudes and behaviour in second language acquisition: A social psychological interpretation. Canadian Psychological Review. 19, 173–86.
Gardner R., Lalonde R. & Pierson R. (1983). The socioeducational model of second language acquisition: An investigation using LISREL causal modeling. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 2, 115.
Gardner R. & Lambert W. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Gardner R. C. & MacIntyre P. D. (1993). On the measurement of affective variables in second language learning. Language Leaming, 43, 157–94.
Gardner R. & Smythe P. (1975). Motivation and secondlanguage acquisition. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 31, 218–30.
Geva E. (2000). Issues in the assessment of reading disabilities in L2 children – beliefs and research evidence. Dyslexia, 6, 1328.
Geva E. & Siegel L. S. (2000). Orthographic and cognitive factors in the concurrent development of basic reading skills in two languages. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12, 130.
Gillingham A. & Stillman D. (1960). Remedial training for children with specific disability in reading, spelling, and penmanship. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing.
Goodin S. (1985). Academic adjustments for students with learning disabilities. In Support services for LD students in postsecondary education: A compendium of readings. Association on Handicapped Student Service Programs in Postsecondary Education, Columbus, OH.
Green P. (1975). The language laboratory in schooh The York study. Edinburg: Oliver & Boyd.
Harrington M. & Sawyer M. (1992). L2 working memory capacity and L2 reading skill. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 2538.
Harris M. & Hatano G. (Eds.) (1999). Learning to read and write:A cross-linguistic perspective. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Harris R. J. (Ed.) (1992). Cognitive processing in bilinguals. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Hermann G. (1980). Attitudes and success in children's learning of English as a second language. English Language Teaching Journal. 34, 247–54.
Horwitz R. (2000). It ain't over until it's over: On foreign language anxiety, first language deficits, and the confounding of variables. Modern Language Journal, 84, 256–9.
Horwitz E., Horwitz M. & Cope J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 70, 125–32.
Horwitz E. & Young D. (1991). Language learning anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. Englewood Clifls, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Hulstijn J. & Dossers B. (1992). Individual differences in L2 proficiency as a function of L1 proficiency. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 4, 341–53.
Humes-Bartlo M. (1989). Variarion in children's ability to learn second languages. In Hyltenstam K. & Obler L. (eds.), Bilingualism across the life span (pp. 4154). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1990). PL 101–476.
Javorsky J., Sparks R. & Ganschow L. (1992). Perceptions of college students with and without specific learning disabilities about foreign language courses. Learning Disabilities: Research and Practice, 7, 3144.
Jung U. (1980). Dyslexia and the foreign-language teacher. In Grotjahn R. & Hopkins E. (Eds.), Empirical research on language teaching and language acquisition (pp. 173–98). Bochum: Studienverlag Dr. N. Brocknieyer.
Kahn-Horwitz J. (2000, 07). Identifying the best reading related predictor nariables for English foreign language reading achievement in elementary school age Hebrew speakers. Paper presented at the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Stockholm, Sweden.
Keeney L. & Smith N. (1984). Foreign language modifications for disabled students – the campus response. Association on Handicapped Student Service Programs in Post-Secondary Education (now called Association on Higher Education and Disability), 2, 45.
Koda K. (1992). The effects of lower-level processing skills on FL reading performance: Implications for instruction. Modern Language Journal, 76, 502–12.
Krashen S. (1980). The input hypothesis. In Alatis J. E. (Ed.), Current issues in bilingual education: Georgetown University Round Table on Language and Linguistics (pp. 168–80). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Krashen S. & Terrell T. (1983). The Natural Approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. Heyward, CA: Alemany/ Janus Press.
Lefebvre R. (1984). A psychological consultation program for learning disabled adults. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 361–2.
Leong C. K., Cheng P-W. & Lam C. (2000). Exploring reading-spelling connection as locus of dyslexia in Chinese. Annals of Dyslexia, 50, 239–59.
Leong C. K. & Joshi R. (1997). Cross language studies of learning to read and spell. Boston, MA: Kluwer.
Levine M. (1987). Developmental variation and learning disorders. Cambridge, M A: Educators Publishing Service.
Liberman I. (1985). Should so-called modality preferences determine the nature of instruction for children with reading disabilities? In Duffy F. & Geschwind N. (Eds.), Dyslexia (pp. 93104). Boston: Little, Brown.
Lyon R. (1995). Toward a definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 45, 1330.
MacIntyre P. (1995a). How does anxiety affect second language learning? A reply to Sparks and Ganschow. Modern Language Journal, 79, 90–9.
MacIntyre P. (1995b). On seeing the forest and the trees: A rejoinder to Sparks and Ganschow. Modern Language Journal, 79, 245–8.
MacIntyre P. & Gardner R. (1989). Anxiety and second language learning: Toward a theoretical clarification. Language Learning, 39. 251–75.
McIntyre C., & Pickering J. (1995). Clinical studies of multisensory structured language education. International Multisensory Structured Language Education Council, Suite 346, 1118 Lancaster Drive, NE, Salem. OR.
McLaughlin B. (1992). Working memory capacity as a constraint on L2 development. In R.J. Harris, pp. 123–35.
MacWhinney B. (1992). Competition and transfer in second language learning. In R.J. Harris, pp. 371–90.
Meyer-Schepers U. (1991). Linguistik und Problematik des Schrifispracherverbs. Von der Sachlogik des Zusammenhangs von Laut- und Schriftsprache über die Logik der Aneignung von Schriftsprachkompetenz zur Diagnose und Tlierapie von Fehlersyndromen. Frankfurt:Verlag Peter Lang.
Miles E. (1998). The Bangor dyslexia teaching system (3rd Ed.). London: Whurr.
Miles E. (2000). Dyslexia may show a different face in different languages. Dyslexia, 6, 193201.
Miles T. R. (1993). Dyslexia: The pattern of difficulties (2nd Ed.). London:Whurr.
Miles T. R. & Miles E. (1999). slexia a hundred years on (2nd Ed.). Buckingham: Open University Press.
Moore F. (1995). Section 504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act: Accommodating the learning disabled student in the foreign language curriculum. Association of Departments of Foreign Languages (ADFL) Bulletin, 26. 5962.
Myer B. & Ganschow L. (1988). Profiles of frustration: Second language learners with specific learning disabilities. In Lalande J. (Ed.), Shaping the future of foreign language education: FLES, articulation, and proficiency (pp. 3253). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Co.
Myer B., Ganschow L., Sparks R. & Kenneweg S. (1989). Cracking the code: Helping students with specific learning disabilities. In McAlpine D. (Ed.), Defining the essentials for the foreign language classroom (pp. 112–20). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Co.
Naiman N., Frölich M., Stern H. & Todesco A. (1978). The good language learners (Research in Education Series, 7). Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
Oller J. (1981). Research on the measurement of affective variables: Some remaining questions. In Anderson R. (Ed.), New dimensions in second language learning (pp. 1427). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Olshtain E., Shohamy E., Kemp J. & Chatow R. (1990). Factors predicting success in EFL among culturally different learners. Language Learning, 40, 2344.
Onwueghuzie A. J., Bailey P. & Daley C. (1999). Factors associated with foreign language anxiety. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 217–39.
Oxford R. (1989). Strategy Inventory for Language Learning. Alexandria, VA: Oxford Associates.
Oxford R. (1990). Styles, strategies and aptitude: Connections for language learning. In T. Parry & C. Stansfield, pp.67125.
Oxford R. (1993). Research on second language learning strategies. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 175–87.
Oxford R. (1997). Personality type in the foreign or second language classroom: Theoretical and experimental perspectives. In Horning A. & Sudol R. (Eds.), Understanding literary: Personality preference in rhetorical and psycholinguistic contexts (pp. 153–79). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Oxford R. & Ehrman M. (1993). Second language research on individual differences. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 188205.
Papagno C., Valentine T. & Baddeley A. (1991). Phonological short-term memory and foreign language vocabulary learning. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 331–47.
Parry T., & Stansfield C. (Eds.) (1990). Language aptitude reconsidered. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Peer L. & Reid G. (Eds.) (2000). Multilingualism, literacy, and dyslexia: A challenge for educators. London: David Fulton Publishers.
Perfetti C., Rieben L. & Fayol M. (Eds.) (1997). Learning to spell: Research, theory and practice across languages. New Jersey: Erlbaum.
Petersen C. & Al-Haik A. (1976). The development of the Defense Language Battery (DLAB). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 36, 369–80.
Philips L., Ganschow L. & Anderson R. (1991). The college foreign language requirement: An action plan for alternatives. NACADA Journal, 11, 51–6.
Pimsleur P. (1966a). The Pimsleur Language Aptitude Battery. NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Pimsleur P. (1966b). Testing foreign language learning. In Valdman A. (Ed.), Trends in language teaching (pp. 175214). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Pimsleur P. (1968). Language aptitude testing. In Davies A.. (Ed.), Language testing symposium: A psycholinguistic approach (pp. 98106). London: Oxford University Press.
Pimsleur P., Sundland D. & McIntyre R. (1964). Underachievement in foreign language learning. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 2, 113–50.
Pompian N. & Thum C. (1988). Dyslexic/learning disabled students at Dartmouth College. Annals of Dyslexia, 38, 276–84.
Pritikin L. (1999). A policy of inclusion: Alternative foreign language curriculum for high-risk and learning disabled students. ERIC Clearinghouse on Language and Linguistics, Center for Applied Linguistics. ED 428 586 (15 pp.).
Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Section 504, P. L. 93–112, 29US C. Sec 794 (1977).
Reid G. (Ed.) (1993). Specific learning difficulties (dyslexia): Perspectives on practice. Edinburgh: Moray House Publications.
Rudel R. (1981). Residual effects of childhood reading disorders. Bulletin of the Orton Society, 31, 89102.
Salter R. & Smythe I. (Eds.) (1997). The international book of dyslexia. London: World Dyslexia Network Foundation.
Schlee J. (1976). Legasthenieforschung am Ende? München, Germany: Urban & Schwarzenberg.
Schneider E. (1999). Multisensory structured metacognitive instruction: An approach to teaching a foreign language. Frankfurt a.M., Germany: Peter Lang Verlag.
Schneider E. & Ganschow L. (2000). Dynamic assessment and instructional strategies for learners who struggle to learn a foreign language. Dyslexia, 6, 7282.
Scovel P. (1978). The effect of affect on foreign language learning: A review of the anxiety research. Language Learning, 28, 129–42.
Service E. (1992). Phonology, working memory, and foreign language learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45A, 2150.
Service E. & Kohonen V. (1995). Is the relation between phonological memory and foreign language learning accounted for by vocabulary acquisition? Applied Psycholinguistics, 16, 155–72.
Siegel L. & Ryan E. G. (1989). The development of working memory in normally achieving and subtypes of learning disabled children. Child Davlopment, 60, 975–80.
Simon C. (2000). Dyslexia and learning a foreign language: A personal expericnce. Annals of Dyslexia, 50, 155–87.
Sirch K. (1975). Der Unfug mit der Legasthenie. Stuttgart, Germany: Klett-Verlag.
Skehan P. (1986a). The role of foreign language aptitude in a model of school learning. Langnage Testing, 3, 188221.
Skehan P. (1986b). Where does language aptitude come from? In Meara P. (Ed.), Spoken language (pp. 95113). London: CiLT (Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research).
Skehan P. (1989). Individual differences in second language learning. London: Edward Arnold.
Skehan P. (1991). Individual differences in second language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13, 275–98.
Skehan P. (1998). Task-based instruction. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18, 268–86.
Sparks R. (1995). Examining the Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis to explain individual differences in foreign language learning. Annals of Dyslexia, 45, 187219.
Sparks R., Artzer M., Javorsky J., Patton J., Ganschow L., Miller K. & Hordubay D. (1998). Students classified as learning disabled (LD) and non learning disabled students: Two comparison studies of native language skill, foreign language aptitude, and foreign language proficiency. Foreign Language Annals, 31, 535–51.
Sparks R., Artzer M., Patton J., Ganschow L., Miller K., Horduday D. & Walsh G. (1998). Benefits of multisensory language instruction in Spanish for at-risk learners: A comparison study of high school Spanish students. Annals of Dyslexia, 48, 239–70.
Sparks R. & Ganschow L. (1991). Foreign language learning difficulties: Affective or native language aptitude differences? Modern Language Journal, 75, 316.
Sparks R. & Ganschow L. (1993a). Searching for the cognitive locus of foreign language learning problems: Linking first and second language learning. Modern Language Journal, 77, 289302.
Sparks R. & Ganschow L. (1993b). The effects of a multisensory structured language approach on the native language and foreign language aptitude skills of at-risk learners: A follow-up and replication study. Annals of Dyslexia, 43, 194216.
Sparks R. & Ganschow L. (1995a). A strong inference approach to causal factors in foreign language learning: A response to MacIntyre. Modern Language Journal, 79, 235–44.
Sparks R. & Ganschow L. (1995b). Parent perceptions in the screening for performance in foreign language courses. Foreign Language Annals, 28, 371–91.
Sparks R. & Ganschow L. (1996).Teachers' perceptions of students' foreign language academic skills and affective characteristics. Journal of Educational Research, 89, 172–85.
Sparks R. & Ganschow L. (1997). Word recognition as a predictor of foreign language proficiency. Thalamus, 16, 2024.
Sparks R. & Ganschow L. (Guest Eds.) (1999). The Boston University lawsuit: Introduction to the special series. Journal of Learning Disabilitics, 32, 284–5.
Sparks R. & Ganschow L. (in press). Aptitude for learning a foreign language. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics.
Sparks R., Ganschow L., Artzer M. & Patton J. (1997). Foreign language proficiency of at-risk and not-at-risk learners over two years of foreign language instruction. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 92–8.
Sparks R., Ganschow L., Artzer M., Siebenhar D. & Plageman M. (1997). Language anxiety and proficiency in a foreign language. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 85, 559–62.
Sparks R., Ganschow L., Artzer M., Siebenhar D., Plageman M. & Patton J. (1998). Differences in native language skills, foreign language aptitude, and foreign language grades among high, average, and low proficiency learners:Two studies. Language Testing, 15, 181216.
Sparks R., Ganschow L., Fluharty K. & Little S. (1996). An exploratory study on the effects of Latin on the native language skills and foreign language aptitude of students with and without learning disabilities. Classical Journal, 91, 165–84.
Sparks R., Ganschow L. & Javorsky J. (1993). Perceptions of low and high risk students and students with learning disabilities about high school foreign language courses. Foreign Language Annals, 26, 491510.
Sparks R., Ganschow L. & Javorsky J. (2000). Déjà vu all over again: A response to Saito, Horwitz, and Garza. Modern Language Journal, 84, 251–55.
Sparks R., Ganschow L., Javorsky J., Pohlman J. & Patton J. (1992a). Identifying native language deficits in high- and low-risk foreign language learners in high school. Foreign Language Annals, 25, 403–18.
Sparks R., Ganschow L., Javorsky J., Pohlman J. & Patton J. (1992b). Test comparisons among students identified as high-risk, low-risk, and learning disabled in high school foreign language courses. Modern Language Journal, 76, 142–59.
Sparks R., Ganschow L., Kenneweg S. & Miller M. (1991). Using Orton-Gillingham methodologies to teach foreign language to learning disabled/dyslexic students: Explicit teaching of phonology in a second language. Annals of Dyslexia, 41, 96118.
Sparks R., Ganschow L. & Patton J. (1995). Prediction of performance in first-year foreign language courses: Connections between native language and foreign language learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 638–55.
Sparks R., Ganschow L., Patton J., Artzer M., Siebenhar D. & Plageman M. (1997). Prediction of proficiency in a foreign language. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 549–61.
Sparks R., Ganschow L. & Pohlman J. (1989). Linguistic coding deficits in foreign language learners. Annals of Dyslexia, 39, 179–95.
Sparks R., Ganschow L., Pohlman J., Artzer M. & Skinner S. (1992). The effects of a multisensory structured language approach on the native and foreign language skills of high-risk foreign language learners. Annals of Dyslexia, 42, 2553.
Sparks R. & Javorsky J. (1999a). Section 504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act: Accommodating the learning disabled student in the foreign language curriculum: An update. Association of Departments of Foreign Languages (ADFL) Bulletin. 30, 3644.
Sparks R. & Javorsky J. (1999b). Students classified as learning disabled and the college foreign language requirement: Replication and comparison studies. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, 329–49.
Sparks R., Javorsky J., Patton J. & Ganschow L. (1998). Principal components analysis of a test battery to predict proficiency in a foreign language. Applied Language Learning, 9, 71106.
Sparks R. & Miller K. (2000). Teaching a foreign language using multisensory structured language techniques to at-risk learners: A review. Dyslexia, 6, 124–32.
Sparks R., Philips L. & Ganschow L. (1996). Students classified as learning disabled and the foreign language requirement. In Liskin-Gasparro J. (Ed.), Pattents and policies: The changing demographics of foreign language instruction (pp. 123–59). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Sparks R., Philips L., Ganschow L. & Javorsky J. (1999a). Students classified as learning disabled and the college foreign language requirement: A quantitative analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, 566–80.
Sparks R., Philips L., Ganschow L. & Javorsky J. (1999b). Comparison of students classified as learning disabled who petitioned for or fulfilled the college foreign language requircment. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, 553–65.
Spolsky D. (1986). Conditions for second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Spolsky B. (1995). Prognostication and language aptitude testing, 1925–62. Language Testing, 12, 321–40.
Stahl S. (1999). Different strokes for different folks? A critique of learning styles. American Educator, 23, 2731.
Stahl S. & Kuhn M. (1995). Does whole language or instruction matched to learning styles help children to learn to read? School Psychology Review. 24, 393404.
Stanovich K. (1988). The right and wrong places to look for the cognitive locus of reading disability. Annals of Dyslexia, 38, 154–77.
Stanovich K. (1998). Twenty-five years of research on the reading process: The grand synthesis and what it means for our field. In Shanahan T. & Rodriguez-Brown F. (Eds.), Forty-seventh yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp. 4458). Chicago: National Reading Conference.
Strong M. (1984). Integrative motivation: Cause or result of successful second language acquisition? Language Learning, 34, 114.
This year's freshmen: A statistical profile. (1997, 01 17). The Chronicle of Higher Education, P. A42.
Tiedemann J. (1989). Measures of cognitive styles: A critical review. Educational Psychologist, 24, 261–75.
Tremblay P. F. & Gardner R. C. (1995). Expanding the motivation construct in language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 79, 505–18.
Trites R. L. (1984). Anglophone pupils with learning difficulties in French immersion programmes. In Williams P. (Ed.), Special education in minority communities (pp. 6876). Milton Keynes, England: Open University Press.
Trites R. & Price M. (1978). Learning disabilities in immersion. Canadian Modern Language Review, 34, 888–89.
Tucker J. (1980). Ethnic proportions in classes for the learning disabled: Issues in nonbiased assessment. Journal of Special Education, 14, 93105.
Valtin R., Jung U. & Scheerer-Neumann G. (1981). Legasthenie in Wissenschaft und Unterricht: Leseprozeβmodell, Fremdsprachenlegasthenie und Erstlesedidaktik. Darmstadt, Germany: Wissenshaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
Vellutino F. & Scanlon D. (1986). Linguistic coding and metalinguistic awareness: Their relationship to verbal and code acquisition in poor and normal readers. In Yaden D. & Templeton S. (Eds.), Metalinguistic awareness and beginning literacy (pp. 115–41). Portsmouth, NH:Heinemann.
Wesche M. (1981). Language aptitude measures in streaming, matching students with methods, and diagnosis of learning problems. In Diller K. (Ed.), pp. 119–53.
Wesche M., Edwards H. & Wells W. (1982). Foreign language aptitude and intelligence. Applied Psycholinguistics, 3, 127–40.
Young D. (Ed.) (1999). Affect in foreign language and second language learning:A practical guide to creating a lou'-anxiety classroom atmosphere. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Language Teaching
  • ISSN: 0261-4448
  • EISSN: 1475-3049
  • URL: /core/journals/language-teaching
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 189 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1469 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.