Skip to main content

Own-language use in language teaching and learning

  • Graham Hall (a1) and Guy Cook (a2)

Until recently, the assumption of the language-teaching literature has been that new languages are best taught and learned monolingually, without the use of the students’ own language(s). In recent years, however, this monolingual assumption has been increasingly questioned, and a re-evaluation of teaching that relates the language being taught to the students’ own language has begun. This article surveys the developing English language literature on the role of students’ own language(s) in the language classroom. After clarifying key terms, the paper charts the continuing widespread use of students’ own languages in classrooms around the world and the contemporary academic and societal trends which have led to a revival of support for this. It then explores key arguments which underpin this revival, and reviews a range of empirical studies which examine the extent and functions of own-language use within language classrooms. Next, the article examines the support for own-language use that a range of theoretical frameworks provide, including psycholinguistic and cognitive approaches, general learning theory and sociocultural approaches. Having explored the notion of ‘optimal’ in-class own-language use, the article then reviews research into teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards own-language use. It concludes by examining how a bilingual approach to language teaching and learning might be implemented in practice.

Hide All
Adamson, B. (2004). Fashions in language teaching methodology. In Davies, A. & Elder, C. (eds.), The handbook of applied linguistics. London: Blackwell, 604622.
Adendorff, R. (1996). The functions of codeswitching among high school teachers and students in KwaZulu and implications for teacher education. In Bailey, K. & Nunan, D. (eds.), Voices from the classroom: Qualitative research in second language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 388406.
Alegría de la Colina, A. & García Mayo, M. de P. (2009). Oral interaction in task-based EFL learning: The use of the L1 as a cognitive tool. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching (IRAL) 47.3, 325345.
Alley, D. C. (2005). A study of Spanish II high school students’ discourse during group work. Foreign Language Annals 38.2, 250258.
Allford, D. (1999). Translation in the communicative classroom. In Pachler, N. (ed.), Teaching modern foreign languages at advanced level. London: Routledge, 230250.
Allwright, D. & Bailey, K. (1991). Focus on the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Antón, M. & DiCamilla, F. (1999). Socio-cognitive functions of L1 collaborative interaction in the L2 classroom. The Modern Language Journal 83.2, 233247.
Arthur, J. (1996). Code switching and collusion: Classroom interaction in Botswana primary schools. Linguistics and Education 8, 1733.
Atkinson, D. (1987). The mother tongue in the classroom: A neglected resource? ELT Journal 41.4, 241247.
Atkinson, D. (1993). Teaching in the target language: A problem in the current orthodoxy. Language Learning Journal 8, 25.
Auerbach, E. R. (1993). Reexamining English only in the ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly 27.1, 932.
Auerbach, E. R. (1994). The author responds. TESOL Quarterly 28.1, 157161.
Bateman, B. (2008). Student teachers’ attitudes and beliefs about using the target language in the classroom. Foreign Language Annals 41.1, 1128.
Behan, L. & Turnbull, M. with Spek, W. (1997). The proficiency gap in late immersion (extended French): Language use in collaborative tasks. Le journal de l'immersion 20, 4142.
Belz, J. (2002). The myth of the deficient communicator. Language Teaching Research 6.1, 5982.
Benson, M. (2000). The secret life of grammar translation – Part 2. Studies in Humanities and Sciences XXXX.1, 97128.
Berlitz International Inc. (2008). Berlitz: 130 years of innovation.
Berlitz London (2011). Berlitz training and methodology.
Bialystok, E., Craik, F., Grady, C., Chau, W., Ishii, R. & Gunji, A. (2005). Effects of bilingualism on cognitive control in the Simon task: Evidence from MEG. NeuroImage 24, 4049.
Bialystok, E. & Feng, X. (2009). Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: Evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults. Brain and Language 109. 23, 93100.
Bloch, C. (2009). Enabling biliteracy among young children in Southern Africa: Realities, visions and strategies. In Torres-Guzmán, M. & Gómez, J. (eds.), Global perspectives on multilingualism: Unity in diversity. New York: Teachers College Press, 1935.
Block, D. (2003). The social turn in second language acquisition. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Block, D. (2007). Second language identities. London: Continuum.
Blyth, C. (1995). Redefining the boundaries of language use: The foreign language classroom as a multilingual speech community. In Kramsch, C. (ed.), Redefining the boundaries of language study. Boston, MA: Heinle, 145183.
Bolitho, R. (2003). Designing textbooks for modern languages: The ELT experience. Centre for languages, linguistics and area studies guide to good practice.
Bransford, J., Brown, A. & Cocking, R. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Brooks, F. B. & Donato, R. (1994). Vygotskyan approaches to understanding foreign language learner discourse during communicative tasks. Hispania 77.2, 262274.
Brooks, F. B., Donato, R. & McGlone, J. (1997). When are they going to say ‘it’ right? Understanding learner talk during pair-work activity. Foreign Language Annals 30.4, 524541.
Brooks-Lewis, K. (2009). Adult learners’ perceptions of the incorporation of their L1 in foreign language teaching and learning. Applied Linguistics 30.2, 216235.
Bruton, A. (2007). Vocabulary learning from dictionary reference in collaborative EFL translational writing. System 35.3, 353367.
Burden, P. (2000). The use of the students’ mother tongue in monolingual English ‘conversation’ classes at Japanese universities. The Language Teacher 24.6, 15.
Butzkamm, W. (1989/2002). Psycholinguistik des Fremdsprachenunterrichts. Natürliche Künstlichkeit: Von der Muttersprache zur Fremdsprache. Tübingen: Francke. (Nature and artifice. From mother tongue to foreign language: a psycholinguistic approach.) English summary in Weinstock, H. (ed.), (1991) English and American studies in German. A supplement to Anglia. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 171175.
Butzkamm, W. (1998). Code-switching in a bilingual history lesson: The mother tongue as a conversational lubricant. Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 1.2, 8199.
Butzkamm, W. (2001). Learning the language of loved ones: On the generative principle and the technique of mirroring. ELT Journal 55.2, 149154.
Butzkamm, W. (2003). We only learn language once. The role of the mother tongue in FL classrooms: Death of dogma. Language Learning Journal 28, 2939.
Butzkamm, W. no date. How I changed my mind and started using the mother tongue in the foreign language classroom.
Butzkamm, W. & Caldwell, J. (2009). The bilingual reform: A paradigm shift in foreign language teaching. Tubingen: Narr Studienbücher.
Cai, G. (2011). The tertiary English language curriculum in China and its delivery: A critical study. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Open University, UK.
Caldwell, J. (1990). Analysis of the theoretical and experimental support for Carl Dodson's bilingual method. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 11.6, 459479.
Camilleri, A. (1996). Language values and identities: Code-switching in secondary classrooms in Malta. Linguistics and Education 8.1, 85103.
Canagarajah, A. S. (1999). Resisting linguistic imperialism in English teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Carless, D. (2002). Implementing task-based learning with young learners. ELT Journal 56.4, 389396.
Carless, D. (2004). Issues in teachers’ reinterpretation of a task-based innovation in primary schools. TESOL Quarterly 38.4, 639662.
Carless, D. (2008). Student use of the mother tongue in the task-based classroom. ELT Journal 62.44, 331338.
Castellotti, V. (1997). Langue étrangère et français en milieu scolaire: Didactiser l'alternance? In Castellotti, V. & Moore, D. (eds.), Etudes de linguistique appliquée 108, 401410.
Celik, M. (2003). Teaching vocabulary through code-mixing. ELT Journal 57.4, 361369.
Centeno-Cortés, B. & Jiménez Jiménez, A. (2004). Problem-solving tasks in a foreign language: The importance of the L1 in private verbal thinking. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 14.1, 735.
Chavez, M. (2003). The diglossic foreign language classroom. In Blyth, C. (ed.), The sociolinguistics of foreign-language classrooms: Contributions of the native, the near-native, and the non-native speaker. Boston: Heinle, 163208.
Chen, T. (2003). Reticence in class and on-line: Two ESL students’ experiences with communicative language teaching. System 31.2, 259281.
Chick, K. & McKay, S. (2001). Teaching English in multi-ethnic schools in the Durban area: The promotion of multilingualism or monolingualism? Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 19.3–4, 163178.
Cohen, A. (forthcoming). Strategies: The interface of styles, strategies, and motivation on tasks. In Mercer, S., Ryan, S. & Williams, M. (eds.), Language learning psychology: Research, theory, and pedagogy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cook, G. (1998/2009). Use of translation in language teaching. In Baker, M. (ed.), Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies. London: Routledge, 117120.
Cook, G. (2007). A thing of the future: Translation in language learning. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 17.3, 396401.
Cook, G. (2008). Plenary: An unmarked improvement: Using translation in Beaven, ELT. In B. (ed.), IATEFL 2007 Aberdeen Conference Selections. University of Kent: IATEFL, 7686.
Cook, G. (2010). Translation in language teaching: An argument for reassessment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cook, V. (1995). Multi-competence and learning of many languages. Language, Culture and Curriculum 8.2, 9398.
Cook, V. (2001). Using the first language in the classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review 57.3, 402423.
Cook, V. (2002). Language teaching methodology and the L2 user perspective. In Cook, V. (ed.), Portraits of the L2 user. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters, 325344.
Cook, V. (2008). Second language learning and language teaching (4th edn). London: Hodder Education.
Copland, F. & Neokleous, G. (2001). L1 to teach L2: Complexities and contradictions. ELT Journal 65.3, 270280.
Coulmas, F. (ed.) (1981). A festschrift for native speaker. The Hague: Mouton.
Coyle, D., Hood, P. & Marsh, D. (2010). CLIL. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crawford, J. (2004). Language choices in the foreign language classroom: Target language or the learners’ first language? RELC Journal 35.1, 520.
Cromdal, J. (2005). Bilingual order in collaborative word processing: On creating an English text in Sweden. Journal of Pragmatics 37.3, 329353.
Crystal, D. (2003) English as a global language (2nd edn). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cummins, J. (1981). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In California State Department of Education (ed.), Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework. Los Angeles, CA: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University, 349.
Cummins, J. (2007). Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics (CJAL) 10.2, 221240.
Dailey-O'Cain, J. & Liebscher, G. (2009). Teacher and student use of the first language in foreign language classroom interaction: Functions and applications. In Turnbull, M. & Dailey-O'Cain, J. (eds.), 131–144.
Dalton-Puffer, C. (2007). Discourse in content-and-language-integrated learning (CLIL) classrooms. Philadelphia/Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Davies, A. (1995). Proficiency or the native speaker: What are we trying to achieve in ELT? In Cook, G. & Seidlhofer, B. (eds.), Principle and practice in applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 145159.
Davies, A. (2003). The native speaker: Myth and reality. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
De Fina, A. (2007). Code-switching and the construction of ethnic identity in a community of practice. Language in Society 36.3, 371392.
Deignan, A., Gabryś, D. & Solska, A. (1997). Teaching English metaphors using cross-linguistic awareness-raising activities. ELT Journal 51.4, 352360.
Deller, S. & Rinvolucri, M. (2002). Using the mother tongue. London: English Teaching Professional/Delta Publishing.
Dewey, J. (1939). Experience and education. In Merriam, S. B. (ed.), Selected writings on philosophy and adult education. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company.
Dodson, C. (1967/1972). Language teaching and the bilingual method. Bath: Pitman.
Duff, A. (1989). Translation: A resource book for teachers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Duff, P. & Polio, C. (1990). How much foreign language is there in the foreign language classroom? The Modern Language Journal 74.2, 154166.
Edstrom, A. (2006). L1 use in the L2 classroom: One teacher's self-evaluation Canadian Modern Language Review 63.2, 275–292.
Eldridge, J. (1996). Code-switching in a Turkish secondary school. ELT Journal 50.4, 303311.
Ellis, R. (1984). Classroom second language development. Oxford: Pergamon.
Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellwood, C. (2008). Questions of classroom identity: What can be learned from codeswitching in classroom peer group talk? The Modern Language Journal 92.4, 538557.
Elorza, I. (2008). Promoting intercultural competence in the FL/SL classroom: Translations as sources of data. Language and Intercultural Communication 8.4, 261277.
Fabrício, B. F. & Santos, D. (2006). The (re-)framing process as a collaborative locus for change. In Edge, J. (ed.), (Re)locating TESOL in an age of empire. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 6583.
Ferguson, G. (2003). Classroom code-switching in post-colonial contexts: Functions, attitudes and policies. AILA Review 16, 3851.
Forman, R. (2007). Bilingual teaching in the Thai EFL context: One teacher's practice. TESOL in Context 16.2, 1924.
Forman, R. (2008). Using notions of scaffolding and intertextuality to understand bilingual teaching of English in Thailand. Linguistics and Education 19, 319332.
Franklin, C. (1990). Teaching in the target language: Problems and prospects. Language Learning Journal 2, 2024.
Fries, C. (1945). Teaching and learning English as a foreign language. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W. M. & Christian, D. (eds.) (2006). Educating English language learners: A synthesis of research evidence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
González Davies, M. (2004). Multiple voices in the translation classroom. Amsterdam, John Benjamins.
Graddol, D. (1997). The future of English? London: British Council.
Graddol, D. (2006). English next. London: British Council.
Gregg, K. (1984). Krashen's Monitor and Occam's Razor. Applied Linguistics 5.2, 79100.
Grosjean, F. (1989). Neurolinguistics, beware! The bilingual is not two monolinguals in one person. Brain and Language 36, 315.
Guthrie, E. (1984). Six cases in classroom communication: A study of teacher discourse in the foreign language classroom. In Lantolf, J. & Labarca, A. (eds.), Research in second language learning: Focus on the classroom. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 173194.
Harbord, J. (1992). The use of the mother tongue in the classroom. ELT Journal 46.4, 350355.
Harden, T. (2009). Accessing conceptual metaphors through translation. In Witte, A., Harden, T. & Ramos de Oliveira Harden, A. (eds), 119–133.
Herdina, P. & Jessner, U. (2002). A dynamic model of multilingualism: Changing the psycholinguistic perspective. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Hobbs, V., Matsuo, A. & Payne, M. (2010). Code-switching in Japanese language classrooms: An exploratory investigation of native vs. non-native speaker teacher practice. Linguistics and Education 21, 4459.
House, J. (2009). Translation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Howatt, A. P. R. & Smith, R. (eds.) (2002). Modern language teaching: The reform movement (5 volumes). London: Routledge.
Howatt, A. P. R. with Widdowson, H. G. (2004). A history of English language teaching (2nd edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hummel, K. (1995). Translation and second language learning. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics 51.3, 444455.
Hummel, K. (2010). Translation and short-term L2 vocabulary retention: Hindrance or help? Language Teaching Research 14.1, 6174.
ICRJ. International CLIL Research Journal (2008) onwards). University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
Jenkins, J. (2000). The phonology of English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jenkins, J. (2007). English as a lingua franca: Attitude and identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Johnston, W. (2003). Values in English language teaching. London: Erlbaum.
Källkvist, M. (2008). L1–L2 translation versus no translation. In Ortega, L. & Byrnes, H. (eds.), The longitudinal study of advanced L2 capacities. London: Routledge, 182202.
Kang, D.-M. (2008). The classroom language use of a Korean elementary school EFL teacher: Another look at TETE. System 36.2, 214226.
Katunich, J. (2006). Equity and English in South African higher education: Ambiguity and colonial language legacy. In Edge, J. (ed.), (Re)locating TESOL in an age of empire. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 139157.
Kern, R. (1994). The role of mental translation in second language reading. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 16, 441461.
Kharma, N. & Hajjaj, A. (1989). Use of the mother tongue in the ESL classroom. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 27.3, 223252.
Kim, E.-Y. (2011). Using translation exercises in the communicative EFL writing classroom. ELT Journal 65.3, 154160.
Kim, S.-H. & Elder, C. (2008). Target language use in foreign language classrooms: Practices and perceptions of two native speaker teachers in New Zealand. Language, Culture and Communication 21.2, 167185.
Korea Times (2008). President Lee calls English immersion education ‘impossible’.
Kramsch, C. (1998). The privilege of the intercultural speaker. In Byram, M. & Fleming, M. (eds.), Language learning in intercultural perspective: Approaches through drama and ethnography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1631.
Kramsch, C. (ed.). (2002). Language acquisition and language socialization: Ecological perspectives. London: Continuum.
Kramsch, C. (2006). From communicative competence to symbolic competence. The Modern Language Journal 90.2, 249251.
Kramsch, C. (2009). The multilingual subject. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.
Kupferberg, I. & Olshtain, E. (1996). Explicit contrastive instruction facilitates the acquisition of difficult L2 forms. Language Awareness 5.3–4, 149165.
Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics across cultures: Applied linguistics for teachers. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Lally, C. G. (2000). First language influences in second language composition: The effect of pre-writing. Foreign Language Annals 33.4, 428432.
Lantolf, J. (ed.) (2000). Socio-cultural theory and second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lantolf, J. (2011). The sociocultural approach to second language acquisition: Sociocultural theory, second language acquisition, and artificial L2 development. In Atkinson, D. (ed.), Alternative approaches to second language acquisition. London: Routledge, 2447.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (1997). Chaos/complexity science and second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics 18.2, 141165.
Larsen-Freeman, D. & Cameron, D. (2008). Complex systems and applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Laufer, B. & Girsai, N. (2008). Form-focused instruction in second language vocabulary learning: A case for contrastive analysis and translation. Applied Linguistics 29.4, 694716.
Lazar, G. (1996). Using figurative language to expand students’ vocabulary. ELT Journal 50.1, 4351.
Levine, G. (2003). Student and instructor beliefs and attitudes about target language use, first language use, and anxiety: Report of a questionnaire study. The Modern Language Journal 87.3, 343364.
Levine, G. (2009). Building meaning through code choice in second language learner interaction: A D/discourse analysis and proposals for curriculum design and teaching. In Turnbull, M. & Dailey-O'Cain, J. (eds.), First language use in second and foreign language learning. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 145162.
Levine, G. (2011). Code choice in the language classroom. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Liebscher, G. & Dailey-O'Cain, J. (2005). Learner code-switching in the content-based foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal 89.2, 234247.
Lin, A. (1996). Bilingualism or linguistic segregation? Symbolic domination, resistance and code switching in Hong Kong schools. Linguistics and Education 8, 4984.
Littlewood, W. & Yu, B.-H. (2011). First language and target language in the foreign language classroom. Language Teaching 44, 6477.
Liu, D., Ahn, G.-S., Baek, K.-S. & Han, N.-O. (2004). South Korean High School English teachers’ code switching: Questions and challenges in the drive for maximal use of English in teaching. TESOL Quarterly 38.4, 605638.
Long, M. (1991). Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology. In De Bot, K., Ginsberg, R. & Kramsch, C. (eds.), Foreign language research in cross-cultural perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 3952.
Low, G. (1988). On teaching metaphor. Applied Linguistics 9.2, 125147.
Lucas, T. & Katz, A. (1994). Reframing the debate: The roles of native language in English-only programs for language minority students. TESOL Quarterly 28.3, 537561.
Macaro, E. (1997). Target language, collaborative learning and autonomy. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Macaro, E. (2001). Analysing student teacher's codeswitching in foreign language classrooms: Theories and decision making. The Modern Language Journal 85.4, 531548.
Macaro, E. (2006). Codeswitching in the L2 classroom: A communication and learning strategy. In Llurda, E. (ed.), Non-native language teachers: Perceptions, challenges and contributions to the profession. Amsterdam: Springer, 6384.
Macaro, E. (2009a). Teacher use of codeswitching in the second language classroom: Exploring ‘optimal’ use. In Turnbull, M. & Dailey-O'Cain, J. (eds.), First language use in second and foreign language learning. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 3549.
Macaro, E. (2009b). Teacher codeswitching in L2 classrooms: Exploring ‘optimal use’. In Yoshida, T., Imai, H., Nakata, Y., Tajino, A., Takeuchi, O. & Tamai, K. (eds.), Researching language teaching and learning: An integration of practice and theory. Oxford: Peter Lang, 293304.
Macaro, E., ChenT. Guo, H. T. Guo, H. & Tian, L. (2009). Can differential processing of L2 vocabulary inform the debate on teacher codeswitching behaviour? The case of Chinese learners of English. In Richards, B. et al. (eds.), Vocabulary studies in first and second language acquisition: The interface between theory and application. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 125146.
MacDonald, C. (1993). Using the target language. Cheltenham, UK: Mary Glasgow Publications.
Maley, A. (2011). Review of Translation in language teaching: An argument for reassessment by G. Cook. ELT Journal 65.2, 192–193.
Malmkjær, K. (ed.) (1998). Translation & language teaching: Language teaching & translation. Manchester, UK: St. Jerome Publishing.
Marsh, D. (2002). CLIL/EMILE the European dimension: Actions, trends and foresight potential. EU Public-Services Contract 2001-3406/001-001.
Mattioli, G. (2004). On native language intrusions and making do with words: Linguistically homogeneous classrooms and native language use. English Teaching Forum 42, 2025.
McLaughlin, B. (1987). Theories of second-language learning. London: Edward Arnold.
McMillan, B. & Rivers, D. (2011). The practice of policy: Teacher attitudes toward ‘English only’. System 39.2, 251263.
Medgyes, P. (1994). The non-native teacher. London: Macmillan.
Meiring, L. & Norman, N. (2002). Back on target: Repositioning the status of target language in MFL teaching and learning. Language Learning Journal 26.1, 2735.
Mitchell, R. (1988). Communicative language teaching in practice. London: CILT.
Moore, D. (2002). Case study: Code switching and learning in the classroom. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 5.5, 279293.
Nagy, K. & Robertson, D. (2009). Target language use in English classes in Hungarian language schools. In Turnbull, M. & Dailey-O'Cain, J. (eds.), 66–86.
Nasrin, M. (2005). A justification for using a grammar-translation method in ELT classrooms in Bangladesh: 39th Annual IATEFL Conference. Cardiff: IATEFL.
Nation, P. (1997). L1 and L2 use in the classroom: A systematic approach. TESL Reporter 30.2, 1927.
Nation, P. (2003). The role of the first language in foreign language learning. Asian EFL Journal 1, 3539.
Nikula, T. (2007). Speaking English in Finnish content-based classrooms. World Englishes 26.2, 206223.
Norton, B. (2000). Identity and language learning. New York: Pearson Education.
O'Malley, J. & Chamot, A. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Opoku-Amankwa, K. (2009). English-only language-in-education policy in multilingual classrooms in Ghana. Language Culture and Curriculum 22.2, 121135.
Orland-Barak, L. & Yinon, H. (2005). Different but similar: Student teachers’ perspectives on the use of L1 in Arab and Jewish EFL classroom settings. Language, Culture and Curriculum 18.1, 91113.
Oxford, R. (ed.) (1996). Language learning strategies around the world: Cross-cultural perspectives. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai'i Press.
Oxford, R. (2011). Teaching and researching language learning strategies. Harlow, UK: Longman/Pearson Education.
Pease-Alvarez, L. & Winsler, A. (1994). Cuando el maestro no habla español: Children's bilingual language practices in the classroom. TESOL Quarterly 28.3, 507535.
Pennington, M. (1995). Pattern and variation in the use of two languages in the Hong Kong secondary English class. RELC Journal 26, 89102.
Pennycook, A. (2004). History: After 1945. In Byram, M. (ed.), Routledge encyclopedia of language teaching and learning. London: Routledge, 275282.
Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Polio, C. & Duff, P. (1994). Teachers’ language use in university foreign language classrooms: A qualitative analysis of English and target language alternation. The Modern Language Journal 78.3, 313326.
Prince, P. (1996). Second language vocabulary learning: The role of context versus translations as a function of proficiency. The Modern Language Journal 80.4, 478493.
Prodromou, L. (2002). The liberating role of the mother tongue. In Deller, S. & Rinvolucri, M. (eds.), Using the mother tongue: Making the most of the learner's language. London: ETP and DELTA Publishing, 5.
Qian, X., Tian, G. & Wang, Q. (2009). Codeswitching in the primary EFL classroom in China – Two case-studies. System 37.4, 719730.
Rampton, B. (1990). Displacing the ‘native speaker’: Expertise, affiliation and inheritance. ELT Journal 44.2, 97101.
Rampton, B. (2005). Crossing: Language and ethnicity among adolescents (2nd edn). Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.
Robinson, P. (2003). Attention and memory during SLA. In Doughty, C. & Long, M. (eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell, 631678.
Rolin-Ianziti, J. & Brownlie, S. (2002). Teacher use of learners’ native language in the foreign language classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review 58.3, 402426.
Rolin-Ianziti, J. & Varshney, R. (2008). Students’ views regarding the use of the first language: An exploratory study in a tertiary context maximizing target language use. Canadian Modern Language Review 65.2, 249273.
Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics 11.1, 1746.
Schweers, C. (1999). Using L1 in the L2 classroom. English Teaching Forum 37.2, 613.
Scott, V. & de la Fuente, M. J. (2008). What's the problem? L2 learners’ use of the L1 during consciousness-raising, form-focused tasks. The Modern Language Journal 92.1, 100113.
Seargeant, P. (2012) Exploring world Englishes: Language in a global context. London: Routledge.
Seidlhofer, B. (2002). Closing a conceptual gap: The case for a description of English as a lingua franca. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 11.2, 133158.
Seidlhofer, B. (2011). Understanding English as a lingua franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics 10, 209–31.
Snellings, P., van Gelderen, A. & de Glopper, K. (2002). Lexical retrieval: An aspect of fluent second language production that can be enhanced. Language Learning 52.4, 723754.
Soars, J. & Soars, L. (1986) onwards. Headway intermediate. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sridhar, K. & Sridhar, S. (1986). Bridging the paradigm gap: Second language acquisition theory and indigenized varieties of English. World Englishes 5.1, 314.
Stables, A. & Wikeley, F. (1999). From bad to worse? Pupils’ attitudes to modern foreign languages at ages 14 and 15. Language Learning Journal 20, 2731.
Stern, H. (1992). Issues and options in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stetsenko, A. & Arievitch, I. (1997). Constructing and deconstructing the self: Comparing post-Vygotskian and discourse-based versions of social constructivism. Mind, Culture, and Activity 4, 159172.
Stibbard, R. (1998). The principled use of oral translation in foreign language teaching. In Malmkjaer, K. (ed.), Translation and language teaching. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing, 6976.
Stiefel, L. (2009). Translation as a means to intercultural communicative competence. In Witte, A., Harden, T. & Ramos de Oliveira Harden, A. (eds.), 99–118.
Storch, N. & Wigglesworth, G. (2003). Is there a role for the use of the L1 in an L2 setting? TESOL Quarterly 37.4, 760770.
Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In Gass, S. & Madden, C. (eds.), Input in second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 235253.
Swain, M. & Lapkin, S. (2000). Task-based second language learning: The uses of the first language. Language Teaching Research 4.3, 251274.
Swain, M. & Lapkin, S. (2005). The evolving sociopolitical context of immersion education in Canada: Some implications for programme development. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 15.2, 169186.
Swan, M. & Smith, B. (1987/2001). Learner English: A teacher's guide to interference and other problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Swan, M. & Walter, C. (1990) onwards). The Cambridge English course; The new Cambridge English course. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sweet, H. (1899/1964). The practical study of languages: A guide for teachers and learners. London: Dent. Republished by Oxford University Press in 1964, Mackin, R. (ed.).
Thomas, W. P. & Collier, V. P.. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students’ long-term academic achievement. Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence, University of California Santa Cruz. Available at
Thoms, J., Liao, J. & Szustak, A. (2005). The use of L1 in an L2 on-line chat activity. Canadian Modern Language Review 62.1, 161182.
Thorpe, K. (2009). Zwischen Tür und Angel – Metaphoric speech and literary translation in second language teaching and learning. In Witte, A., Harden, T. & Ramos de Oliveira Harden, A. (eds.), 261–270.
Tudor, I. (1987a). Using translation in ESP. ELT Journal 41.4, 268273.
Tudor, I. (1987b). Guidelines for the communicative use of translation. System 15.3, 365371.
Turnbull, M. (2001). There is a role for the L1 in second and foreign language teaching, but. . .. Canadian Modern Language Review 57.4, 531540.
Turnbull, M. & Arnett, K. (2002). Teachers’ uses of the target and first languages in second and foreign language classrooms. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 22, 204218.
Turnbull, M. & Dailey-O'Cain, J. (2009). Concluding reflections: Moving forward. In Turnbull, M. & Dailey-O'Cain, J. (eds.), 182–207.
Turnbull, M. & Dailey-O'Cain, J. (eds.) (2009). First language use in second and foreign language learning. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Unamuno, V. (2008). Multilingual switch in peer classroom interaction. Linguistics and Education 19, 119.
Ustunel, E. & Seedhouse, P. (2005). Why that, in that language, right now? Code-switching and pedagogical focus. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 15.3, 302325.
van der Meij, H. & Zhao, X. (2010). Codeswitching in English courses in Chinese universities. The Modern Language Journal 94.3, 396411.
van Lier, L. (2000). From input to affordance: Social-interactive learning from an ecological perspective. In Lantolf, J. (ed.), Socio-cultural theory and second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 245260.
van Lier, L. (2004). The ecology and semiotics of language learning: A sociocultural perspective. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Vilamil, O. S. & de Guerrero, M. (1996). Peer revision in the L2 classroom: Social-cognitive activities, mediating strategies, and aspects of social behaviour. Journal of Second Language Writing 5.1, 5175.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Weinreich, U. (1953). Languages in contact. The Hague: Mouton.
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Widdowson, H. G. (1978). Teaching language as communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Widdowson, H. G. (1990) Problems with solutions. In Widdowson, H. G., Aspects of language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 729.
Widdowson, H. G. (1994). The ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly, 28.2, 377389.
Widdowson, H. G. (2003). Defining issues in English language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wildsmith-Cromarty, R. (2009). Multilingualism in south African schools. Where to now? In Torres-Guzmán, M. & Gómez, J. (eds.), Global perspectives on multilingualism: Unity in diversity. New York: Teachers College Press, 3653.
Witte, A., Harden, T. & Ramos de Oliveira Harden, A. (2009). Translation in second language learning and teaching. Bern: Peter Lang.
Zuengler, J. & Miller, E. (2006). Cognitive and sociocultural perspectives: Two parallel SLA worlds. TESOL Quarterly 40.1, 3558.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Language Teaching
  • ISSN: 0261-4448
  • EISSN: 1475-3049
  • URL: /core/journals/language-teaching
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed