Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 14
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Coxhead, Averil 2016. Reflecting on Coxhead (2000), “A New Academic Word List”. TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 50, Issue. 1, p. 181.

    CROSSLEY, SCOTT SALSBURY, THOMAS and KYLE, KRISTOPHER 2016. A Usage-Based Investigation of L2 Lexical Acquisition: The Role of Input and Output. The Modern Language Journal,

    Karras, Jacob Nolen 2016. The effects of data-driven learning upon vocabulary acquisition for secondary international school students in Vietnam. ReCALL, Vol. 28, Issue. 02, p. 166.

    Seifert, Susanne Kulmhofer, Andrea Paleczek, Lisa Schwab, Susanne and Gasteiger-Klicpera, Barbara 2016. Suggestions for Vocabulary Focused Reading Lessons for Mainstream Classrooms Addressing Both L1 and L2 Learners. Early Childhood Education Journal,

    Zheng, Yongyan 2016. The complex, dynamic development of L2 lexical use: A longitudinal study on Chinese learners of English. System, Vol. 56, p. 40.

    Ding, Jun 2015. A study of English majors in a Chinese university as dictionary users. Lexicography, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 5.

    Handley, Zöe 2014. Engaging Language Learners through Technology Integration.

    Macalister, John 2014. Teaching reading: Research into practice. Language Teaching, Vol. 47, Issue. 03, p. 387.

    Schmitt, Norbert and Schmitt, Diane 2014. A reassessment of frequency and vocabulary size in L2 vocabulary teaching. Language Teaching, Vol. 47, Issue. 04, p. 484.

    Augustyn, Prisca 2013. Translation and Bilingual Practice for German Vocabulary Teaching and Learning. Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German, Vol. 46, Issue. 1, p. 27.

    Augustyn, P. 2013. No Dictionaries in the Classroom: Translation Equivalents and Vocabulary Acquisition. International Journal of Lexicography, Vol. 26, Issue. 3, p. 362.

    Eli Hinkel, 2013. Research Findings on Teaching Grammar for Academic Writing. English Teaching, Vol. 68, Issue. 4, p. 3.

    조영아, and 마지현, 2013. The Effects of Task-induced Involvement and Word Exposure Frequency on L2 College Students’ Vocabulary Acquisition. Studies in English Language & Literature, Vol. 39, Issue. 1, p. 339.

    Unterrainer, Eva Maria 2012. CALL: Using, Learning, Knowing, EUROCALL Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 22-25 August 2012, Proceedings. p. 296.


Research into practice: Vocabulary

  • I. S. P. Nation (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 26 August 2011
Editorial note

This new strand in the journal provides a space for contributors to present a personal stance either on future research needs or on the perceived current applications of research in the classroom. Like much of our current content, it echoes the historical uniqueness of this journal in terms of its rich and expert overview of recent research in the field of L2 teaching and learning. However, this new strand takes such research as its starting point and attempts to look forward, using these findings both to debate their application in the language learning classroom and also to suggest where research would be best directed in the future. Thus, the objective of both types of paper is eminently practical: contributors to the research agenda will present suggestions for what research might usefully be undertaken, given what is currently known or what is perceived to be necessary. In the research into practice papers there will be critical appraisal both of what research is, and is not, getting through to the language learning classroom, policy making, curriculum design, evaluation of teaching and/or assessment programmes, and practical suggestions made for improving such outcomes.

This article is a personal view of the application of research on vocabulary to teaching and how there are three different types or categories of relationship between that research and the teaching to which it is applied: first, where the research is not applied or not applied well, second, where it is reasonably well applied, and third, where it is over-applied. For each of these three categories, I look at what I consider to be the most important areas of research and suggest why they fit into that category. The topics covered include planning vocabulary courses, distinguishing high frequency and low frequency words, extensive reading, the deliberate learning of vocabulary, academic vocabulary and vocabulary teaching.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. Barcroft (2009). Effects of synonym generation on incidental and intentional L2 vocabulary learning during reading. TESOL Quarterly 43.1, 79103.

A. Beaton , M. Gruneberg & N. Ellis (1995). Retention of foreign vocabulary using the keyword method: a ten-year follow-up. Second Language Research 11.2, 112120.

A. Biemiller & C. Boote (2006). An effective method for building meaning vocabulary in the primary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology 98.1, 4462.

M. S. Carlo , D. August , B. McLaughlin , C. E. Snow , C. Dressler , D. N. Lippman , T. J. Lively & C. E. White (2004). Closing the gap: Addressing the vocabulary needs of English-language learners in bilingual and mainstream classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly 39.2, 188215.

A. Coxhead (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly 34.2, 213238.

E. Crothers & P. Suppes (1967). Experiments in second-language learning. New York: Academic Press.

I. Elgort (2011). Deliberate learning and vocabulary acquisition in a second language. Language Learning 61.2, 367413.

W. B. Elley (1989). Vocabulary acquisition from listening to stories. Reading Research Quarterly 24.2, 174187.

K. File & R. Adams (2010). Should vocabulary instruction be integrated or isolated? TESOL Quarterly 44.2, 222249.

K. Folse (2006). The effect of type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. TESOL Quarterly 40.2, 273293.

G. F. Griffin & T. A. Harley (1996). List learning of second language vocabulary. Applied Psycholinguistics 17, 443460.

J. H. Hulstijn (1992). Retention of inferred and given word meanings: Experiments in incidental vocabulary learning. In P. J. L. Arnaud & H. Bejoint (eds.), Vocabulary and applied linguistics. London: Macmillan, 113125.

J. Hulstijn & B. Laufer (2001). Some empirical evidence for the involvement load hypothesis in vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning 51.3, 539558.

K. Hyland & P. Tse (2007). Is there an ‘Academic Vocabulary’? TESOL Quarterly 41.2, 235253.

G. Keating (2008). Task effectiveness and word learning in a second language: The involvement load hypothesis on trial. Language Teaching Research 12.3, 365386.

Y. Kim (2008). The role of task-induced involvement and learner proficiency in L2 vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning 58.2, 285325.

B. Laufer & K. Shmueli (1997). Memorizing new words: Does teaching have anything to do with it? RELC Journal 28.1, 89108.

J. Macalister (2010). Investigating teacher attitudes to extensive reading practices in higher education: Why isn't everyone doing it? RELC Journal 41.1, 5975.

M. A. McDaniel , M. Pressley & P. K. Dunay (1987). Long-term retention of vocabulary after keyword and context learning. Journal of Educational Psychology 79.1, 8789.

P. Meara (1980). Vocabulary acquisition: A neglected aspect of language learning. Language Teaching and Linguistics: Abstracts 13.4, 221246.

I. S. P. Nation (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. New York: Cambridge University Press.

I. S. P. Nation (2006). How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening? Canadian Modern Language Review 63.1, 5982.

I. S. P. Nation (2007). The four strands. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching 1.1, 112.

M. Pressley (1977). Children's use of the keyword method to learn simple Spanish vocabulary words. Journal of Educational Psychology 69.5, 465472.

M. A. Pyc , & K. A. Rawson (2007). Examining the efficiency of schedules of distributed retrieval practice. Memory & Cognition 35.8, 19171927.

J. Read (2000). Assessing vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

N. Schmitt (2010). Researching vocabulary: A vocabulary research manual. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

E. L. Thorndike (1908). Memory for paired associates. Psychological Review 15, 122138.

T. Tinkham (1997). The effects of semantic and thematic clustering on the learning of second language vocabulary. Second Language Research 13.2, 138163.

J. Walters & N. Bozkurt (2009). The effect of keeping vocabulary notebooks on vocabulary acquisition. Language Teaching Research 13.4, 403423.

R. Waring (1997). The negative effects of learning words in semantic sets: A replication. System 25.2, 261274.

S. Webb (2007). Learning word pairs and glossed sentences: The effects of a single context on vocabulary knowledge. Language Teaching Research 11.1, 6381.

W. B. Webb (1962). The effects of prolonged learning on learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 1, 173182.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Language Teaching
  • ISSN: 0261-4448
  • EISSN: 1475-3049
  • URL: /core/journals/language-teaching
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *