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    Nance, Claire McLeod, Wilson O'Rourke, Bernadette and Dunmore, Stuart 2016. Identity, accent aim, and motivation in second language users: New Scottish Gaelic speakers’ use of phonetic variation. Journal of Sociolinguistics, Vol. 20, Issue. 2, p. 164.

    Forrest, Jon 2015. Community rules and speaker behavior: Individual adherence to group constraints on (ING). Language Variation and Change, Vol. 27, Issue. 03, p. 377.

    Newlin-Łukowicz, Luiza 2015. Language Variation in the Diaspora: Polish Immigrant Communities in the U.S. and the U.K.. Language and Linguistics Compass, Vol. 9, Issue. 8, p. 332.

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    2013. A Dictionary of Varieties of English.


Aspects of identity in a second language: ING variation in the speech of Polish migrants living in Manchester, UK

  • Rob Drummond (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 30 March 2012

This study uses variationist methods in an L2 context to investigate ING variation in the English speech of UK-based Polish migrants. The results suggest that such variation is as consistent in an L2 context as it is in an L1 context, with several of the expected L1 factors emerging as statistically significant constraints. However, two social factors emerge as particularly worthy of further discussion: the reversal of the typical gender pattern (in this case women are more likely to use the alveolar variant than men), and the question of whether the speaker intends to return to Poland in the future. Gender is discussed from the perspective of contexts of language use (occupation), and future plans is discussed in terms of its role in the construction of identity. There is a strong indication that the intention to return to Poland encourages the use of an ING variant, [ɪŋk], that signals this allegiance to the L1 identity.

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Penelope Eckert , & Sally McConnell-Ginet . (1992). Think practically and look locally: Language and gender as community-based practice. Annual Review of Anthropology 21(1):461488.

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Erik Schleef , Miriam Meyerhoff , & Lynn Clark . (2011). Teenagers’ acquisition of variation: A comparison of locally-born and migrant teens’ realisation of English (ing) in Edinburgh and London. English World-wide 32(2):206236.

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Language Variation and Change
  • ISSN: 0954-3945
  • EISSN: 1469-8021
  • URL: /core/journals/language-variation-and-change
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