Abramowicz Łukasz. (2007). Sociolinguistics meets exemplar theory: Frequency and recency effects in (ing). University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics
Anshen Frank, & Aronoff Mark. (1988). Producing morphologically complex words. Linguistics
Baayen R. Harald, Piepenbrock Richard, & Gulikers Leon. (1996). Celex2. Philadelphia: Linguistic Data Consortium. CD-ROM.
Baker Adam, Archangeli Diana, & Mielke Jeff. (2011). Variability in American English s-retraction suggests a solution to the actuation problem. Language Variation and Change
Bates Douglas, Maechler Martin, Bolker Ben, & Walker Steven. (2017). Package ‘lme4’. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Blevins James P. (2006). Word-based morphology. Journal of Linguistics
Brown Esther L., & Raymond William D. (2012). How discourse context shapes the lexicon: Explaining the distribution of Spanish f-/h words. Diachronica
Brysbaert Marc &, New Boris. (2009) Moving beyond Kucera and Francis: A critical evaluation of current word frequency norms and the introduction of a new and improved word frequency measure for American English. Behavior Research Methods
Burgess Curt, & Livesay Kay. (1998). The effect of corpus size in predicting reaction time in a basic word recognition task: Moving on from Kučera and Francis. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers
Burnham Kenneth P., & Anderson David R. (2004). Multimodel inference understanding AIC and BIC in model selection. Sociological Methods and Research
Bybee Joan. (1985). Morphology: A study of the relation between meaning and form. Vol. 9. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.
Bybee Joan. (1999). Usage-based phonology. Functionalism and Formalism in Linguistics
Bybee Joan. (2002). Word frequency and context of use in the lexical diffusion of phonetically conditioned sound change. Language Variation and Change
Bybee Joan. (2006). From usage to grammar: The mind's response to repetition. Language
Bybee Joan. (2010). Language, usage and cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clark Lynn, & Watson Kevin. (2011). Testing claims of a usage-based phonology with Liverpool English t-to-r. English Language and Linguistics
Cofer Thomas. (1972).
Linguistic variability in a Philadelphia community
. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Diessel Holger. (2007). Frequency effects in language acquisition, language use, and diachronic change. New Ideas in Psychology
Dinkin Aaron J. (2008). The real effect of word frequency on phonetic variation. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics
Dodsworth Robin. (2013). Retreat from the Southern Vowel Shift in Raleigh, NC: Social factors. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics
Dodsworth Robin, & Kohn Mary. (2012). Urban rejection of the vernacular: The SVS undone. Language Variation and Change
Erker Daniel, & Guy Gregory R. (2012). The role of lexical frequency in syntactic variability: Variable subject personal pronoun expression in Spanish. Language
Fischer John L. (1958). Social influences on the choice of a linguistic variant. Word-Journal of the International Linguistic Association
Forrest Jon. (2015). Community rules and speaker behavior: Individual adherence to group constraints on (ING). Language Variation and Change
Francis W. Nelson, & Kucera Henry. (1982). Frequency analysis of English usage: Lexicon and grammar. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Gahl Susanne. (2008). Time and thyme are not homophones: The effect of lemma frequency on word durations in spontaneous speech. Language
Guy Gregory R. (1991a). Explanation in variable phonology: An exponential model of morphological constraints. Language Variation and Change
Guy Gregory R. (1991b). Contextual conditioning in variable lexical phonology. Language Variation and Change
Guy Gregory R. (2007). Lexical exceptions in variable phonology. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics
Guy Gregory R., Hay Jen, & Walker Abby. (2008). Phonological, lexical, and frequency factors in coronal stop deletion in early New Zealand English. Paper presented at Laboratory Phonology 11, Wellington, New Zealand, June 30–July 2.
Hay Jennifer B., & Baayen R. Harald. (2005). Shifting paradigms: Gradient structure in morphology. Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Hay Jennifer, & Drager Katie. (2010). Stuffed toys and speech perception. Linguistics
Hay Jennifer, & Foulkes Paul. (2016). The evolution of medial/t/over real and remembered time. Language
Hay Jennifer, Nolan Aaron, & Drager Katie. (2006). From fush to feesh: Exemplar priming in speech perception. Linguistic Review
Hay Jennifer B., Pierrehumbert Janet B., Walker Abby J., & LaShell Patrick. (2015). Tracking word frequency effects through 130 years of sound change. Cognition
Hay Jennifer, Warren Paul, & Drager Katie. (2006). Factors influencing speech perception in the context of a merger-in-progress. Journal of Phonetics
Hazen Kirk. (2008). (ING): A vernacular baseline for English in Appalachia. American Speech
Hazen Kirk. (2011). Flying high above the social radar: Coronal stop deletion in modern Appalachia. Language Variation and Change
Houston Ann. (1985).
Continuity and change in English morphology: The variable (ING)
. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Johnson Keith. (1997). Speech perception without speaker normalization: An exemplar model. In Johnson K. and Mullennix J. (eds.), Talker Variability in Speech Processing. San Diego: Academic Press. 145–165.
Kendall Tyler. (2013). Speech rate, pause and sociolinguistic variation: Studies in corpus sociophonetics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Koops Christian, Gentry Elizabeth, & Pantos Andrew. (2008). The effect of perceived speaker age on the perception of PIN and PEN vowels in Houston, Texas. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics
Labov William. (1966). The social stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Labov William. (1972). Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Labov William. (2001).
Principles of linguistic change
. Vol. 2. Social factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
Labov William. (2010).
Principles of linguistic change
. Vol. 3. Cognitive and cultural factors. John Wiley & Sons.
Labov William, Ash Sharon, & Boberg Charles. (2006). The atlas of North American English: Phonetics, phonology, and sound change: A multimedia reference tool. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Lieberman Erez, Michel Jean-Baptiste, Jackson Joe, Tang Tina, & Nowak Martin A. (2007). Quantifying the evolutionary dynamics of language. Nature
Phillips Betty S. (1984). Word frequency and the actuation of sound change. Language
Pierrehumbert Janet B. (2001). Lenition and contrast. In Bybee J. and Hopper P. (eds.), Frequency and the Emergence of Linguistic Structure. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 137–157.
Pierrehumbert Janet B. (2002). Word-specific phonetics. Laboratory Phonology
Pierrehumbert Janet B. (2006). The next toolkit. Journal of Phonetics
Pierrehumbert Janet B. (2016). Phonological representation: Beyond abstract versus episodic. Annual Review of Linguistics
Poplack Shana, & Tagliamonte Sali. (2000). The grammaticization of going to in (African American) English. Language Variation and Change
Prince Alan, & Smolensky Paul. (2008). Optimality theory: Constraint interaction in generative grammar. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
R Core Team. (2017). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available at: http://www.R-project.org/. Accessed July 10, 2015.
Rácz Peter, Pierrehumbert Janet B., Hay Jennifer B., & Papp Viktoria. (2015). Morphological emergence. In MacWhinney B. and O'Grady W. (eds.), The Handbook of Language Emergence. Malden: Wiley Blackwell. 123–146.
Raymond William D., & Brown Esther L. (2012). Are effects of word frequency effects of context of use? An analysis of initial fricative reduction in Spanish. Frequency Effects in Language Learning and Processing
Raymond William D., Brown Esther L., & Healy Alice F. (2016). Cumulative context effects and variant lexical representations: Word use and English final t/d deletion. Language Variation and Change
Reid Euan. (1978). Social and stylistic variation in the speech of children: Some evidence from Edinburgh. In Coupland N. (ed.), Sociolinguistic Patterns in British English. London: Edward Arnold. 158–171.
Seyfarth Scott. (2014). Word informativity influences acoustic duration: Effects of contextual predictability on lexical representation. Cognition
Shuy Roger W., Wolfram Walter A., & Riley William K.. (1968). Linguistic correlates of social stratification in Detroit speech. Final report, Cooperative Research Project Number 6-1347. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, Bureau of Research.
Tagliamonte Sali. (2004). Someth [in]’s go [ing] on!: Variable ing at ground zero. Language Variation in Europe: Papers from ICLAVE
Tagliamonte Sali, & Temple Rosalind. (2005). New perspectives on an ol' variable:(t, d) in British English. Language Variation and Change
Tamminga Meredith J. (2014).
Persistence in the production of linguistic variation. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Tamminga Meredith. (2016). Persistence in phonological and morphological variation. Language Variation and Change
Thomas Erik. (2010). Sociophonetics: An introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Torres Cacoullos Rena, & Walker James A. (2009). The present of the English future: Grammatical variation and collocations in discourse. Language
Trudgill Peter. (1974). The social differentiation of English in Norwich. Vol. 13. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Archive.
Wagner Suzanne Evans. (2012). Real-time evidence for age grad(ing) in late adolescence. Language Variation and Change
Wald Benji, & Shopen Timothy. (1985). A researcher's guide to the sociolinguistic variable (ING). In Clark P. E. V., & Rosa A. (eds.), Language: Introductory readings. New York: St. Martin's Press. 219–249.
Walker James A. (2012). Form, function, and frequency in phonological variation. Language Variation and Change
Wolfram Walt, Christian Donna, & Center for Applied Linguistics. (1976). Appalachian speech. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Yuan Jiahong, & Liberman Mark. (2011). Automatic detection of “g-dropping” in American English using forced alignment. In Proceedings of 2011 IEEE Workshop on Automatic Speech Recognition and Understanding (ASRU). New York: IEEE. 490–493.
Zevin Jason D., & Seidenberg Mark S. (2002). Age of acquisition effects in word reading and other tasks. Journal of Memory and language