Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

The spread of Standard Albanian: An illustration based on an analysis of vowels

  • Sylvia Moosmüller (a1) and Theodor Granser (a1)
Abstract

Modern Standard Albanian is a young variety, proclaimed in 1972 at the Congress of Orthography in Tirana. It is based on the Tosk variety, one of the two main varieties (Tosk and Gheg) of the Albanian language, which is spoken in the South of the country. The aim of the current investigation is to look at the way in which this Standard is realized by its representatives, the educated speakers of four geographical regions: South Albania, Middle Albania, North Albania, and Kosovo. The analysis is based on the realization of stressed vowels. It can be shown that there are striking differences between the speakers of the Republic of Albania and Kosovo, whereas within Albania, speakers from the different geographical regions adopt characteristic features from the other geographical regions. The spread of Standard Albanian is, therefore, not solely an intrusion of the Tosk-based variety into the Gheg varieties, but rather, speakers counterbalance among their varieties on the basis of the alleged variety.This article is a considerably revised version of a presentation given at the 2nd International Conference on Language Variation in Europe at Uppsala University in June, 2003. We are grateful for the comments of participants there and especially grateful for helpful comments by Werner Deutsch and two anonymous referees.

Copyright
References
Hide All

REFERENCES

Barbour, Stephen, & Stevenson, Patrick. (1990). Variation in German: A critical approach to German sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Båvegård, Mats, & Fant, Gunnar. (1996). Parameterized VT Area Function Inversion. Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Philadelphia, PA, October 3–6.
Beci, Bahri. (1995). Të folmet veriperëndimore të Shqipërisë dhe sistemimi fonetik i së folmes së Shkodrës. Tiranë, Akademia e Shkencave e RSh.
Byron, Janet. (1976). Selection among alternates in language standardization: The case of Albanian. The Hague: Mouton.
Carré, René. (2004). From an acoustic tube to speech production. Speech Communication 42:227240.
Coulmas, Florian. (2000). Die Frage des Standards. Grazer Linguistische Monographien 11:2134.
Desnickaja, Agnija V. (1968). Albanskij jazyk i ego dialekty [Die albanische Sprache und ihre Dialekte]. Leningrad: Nauka.
Dressler, Wolfgang U. (1984). Explaining natural phonology. Phonology Yearbook 1:2950.
Fabricius, Anne. (2002). Weak vowels in modern RP: An acoustic study of happy-tensing and KIT/schwa shift. Language Variation and Change 14:211237.
Fant, Gunnar. (2001). Swedish vowels and a new three-parameter model. TMH-Quarterly Progress and Status Report 1:4349.
Fant, Gunnar. (2004). Speech acoustics and phonetics: Selected writings. The Hague: Mouton.
Granser, Theodor, & Moosmüller, Sylvia. (2001). The schwa in Albanian. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, Eurospeech, Aalbourg. 317320.
Granser, Theodor, & Moosmüller, Sylvia. (2002). Phonemic schwa—A challenge for natural phonology? The case of Albanian. In K. Dziubalska-Kołaczyk & J. Weckwerth (eds.), Future challenges for natural linguistics. München: Lincom Europa. 165178.
Haar, Carel ter. (2001). Die niederländische Hochsprache. In K. Ehlich, J. Ossner, & H. Stammerjohann (eds.), Hochsprachen in Europa. Entstehung, Geltung, Zukunft. Freiburg im Breisgau: Fillibach. 123144.
Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel, & Jiménez-Cano, José María. (2003). Broadcasting standardisation: An analysis of the linguistic normalisation process in Murcian Spanish. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7(3):321347.
Hetzer, Armin. (1995). Nominalisierung und verbale Einbettung in Varietäten des Albanischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Hetzer, Armin, & Finger, Zuzanna. (1993). Lehrbuch der albanischen Schriftsprache. Hamburg: Helmut Buske.
Iivonen, Antti. (1994). A psychoacoustical explanation for the number of major IPA vowels. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 24:7390.
Iivonen, Antti. (1995). Explaining the dispersion of the single-vowel occurrences in an F1/F2 Space. Phonetica 52:221227.
Kerswill, Paul. (2001). Mobility, meritocracy and dialect leveling: The fading (and phasing) out of received pronunciation. Proceedings of the Third Tartu Conference on British Studies. University of Tartu, Estonia. (http://www.shunsley.eril.net/armoore/lang/dialect.PDF).
Kerswill, Paul. (2002). Koineization and accommodation. In J. K. Chambers, P. Trudgill, & N. Schilling-Estes (eds.), The handbook of language variation and change. Oxford: Blackwell. 669702.
Kuhlmann, Heide. (1999). Orthographie und Politik. Zur Debatte um die deutsche Rechtschreibreform. Hannover: Magisterarbeit.
Lloshi, Xhevat. (1999). Albanian. In U. Hindrichs (ed.), Handbuch der Südosteuropa-Linguistik. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz Verlag. 277299.
Martin, Pierre. (1998). À Québec, a-t-on l'schwa? In Y. Duhoux (ed.), Langue et langues. Hommage à Albert Maniet. Louvain-la-Neuve: Peeters. 163179.
Milroy, James. (2001). Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization. Journal of Sociolinguistics 5:530555.
Moosmüller, Sylvia. (1991). Hochsprache und Dialekt in Österreich: Soziophonologische Untersuchungen zu ihrer Abgrenzung in Wien, Graz, Salzburg und Innsbruck. Köln, Weimar: Böhlau.
Nehring, Gerd-Dieter. (2000). Der albanische Alphabetenkongress 1908: Reflexionen aus standardsprachlicher Sicht. Zeitschrift für Balkanologie 36:5775.
Nehring, Gerd-Dieter. (2002). Albanisch. In M. Okuka & G. Krenn (eds.), Lexikon der Sprachen des europäischen Ostens. Klagenfurt/Celovec: Wieser Verlag. 4765.
Schröder, Konrad. (2001). Englisch als Nachbarsprache, Englisch als internationale Sprache. In K. Ehlich, J. Ossner, & H. Stammerjohann (eds.), Hochsprachen in Europa: Entstehung, Geltung, Zukunft. Freiburg im Breisgau: Fillibach. 301308.
Stevens, Kenneth N. (1989). On the quantal nature of speech. Journal of Phonetics 17:346.
Stratka, Georges. (1978). A propos du classement articulatoire des voyelles. In Hans-Heinrich Wängler (ed.), Festschrift für Otto von Essen. Hamburg: Buske. 437460 (Hamburger Phonetische Beiträge 25).
Trudgill, Peter. (1986). Dialects in contact. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wood, Sidney. (1979). A radiographic analysis of constriction location for vowels. Journal of Phonetics 7:2543.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Language Variation and Change
  • ISSN: 0954-3945
  • EISSN: 1469-8021
  • URL: /core/journals/language-variation-and-change
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 11
Total number of PDF views: 24 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 329 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.