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  • Cited by 3
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Stanford, James N. Severance, Nathan A. and Baclawski, Kenneth P. 2014. Multiple vectors of unidirectional dialect change in eastern New England. Language Variation and Change, Vol. 26, Issue. 01, p. 103.

    Dinkin, Aaron J. 2013. Settlement patterns and the eastern boundary of the Northern Cities Shift. Journal of Linguistic Geography, Vol. 1, Issue. 01, p. 4.

    Sankoff, Gillian 2013. The Handbook of Language Variation and Change.


Weakening resistance: Progress toward the low back merger in New York State

  • Aaron J. Dinkin (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 21 December 2011

This paper examines the status of the low back caught-cot merger in Upstate New York. Most of this region is subject to the Northern Cities Shift (NCS) and therefore, according to Labov, Ash, and Boberg (2006), ostensibly “resists” the spread of this merger. It is found that the phonology of this region is indeed trending toward the merger in apparent time, in terms of both phonetic distance between the two phonemes and speakers' explicit judgments. It is argued that the fronting of the cot vowel in the NCS region is not sufficient to withstand the spread of the merger because fronting a low vowel is a “reversible” sound change (Labov, 2010). It is further argued that the expansion of a merger to new communities may take place indirectly, through launching a sound change in the direction of merger rather than causing merger to take place immediately in the new community.

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Charles Boberg . (2000). Geolinguistic diffusion and the U.S.–Canada border. Language Variation and Change 12(1):124.

William Labov . (2007). Transmission and diffusion. Language 83(2):344387.

William Labov . (2010). Principles of linguistic change, volume 3: Cognitive and cultural factors. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Raven I McDavid . (1981). Low-back vowels in Providence: A note in structural dialectology. Journal of English Linguistics 15:2129.

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Language Variation and Change
  • ISSN: 0954-3945
  • EISSN: 1469-8021
  • URL: /core/journals/language-variation-and-change
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