Published online by Cambridge University Press: 03 March 2009
The genus Mycoblastus in cool temperate latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere is reviewed. Eight species are treated in detail: M. bryophilus Imshaug ex Kantvilas sp. nov., from Campbell Island and Tasmania; M. campbellianus (Nyl.) Zahlbr., M. coniophorus (Elix & A.W. Archer) Kantvilas & Elix comb. nov. and M. dissimulans (Nyl.) Zahlbr., all widespread across the austral region; M. disporus (C. Knight) Kantvilas comb. nov., from New Zealand and Tasmania; M. kalioruber Kantvilas sp. nov, from Tasmania; M. sanguinarioides Kantvilas sp. nov., from Tasmania and south-eastern Australia; and M. leprarioides Kantvilas & Elix sp. nov., from south-eastern Australia (Victoria). Notes are provided on many other species of Mycoblastus, including those recognised for the Northern Hemisphere, and those originally described from austral regions but now excluded from the genus. Major characters of the genus are discussed, including thallus morphology and chemistry, apothecial pigments and ascus structure. It is suggested that the genus is heterogeneous and that some of its closest affinities may lie with the family Megalariaceae and the genus Japewia.