Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Exploring patterns of commonness and rarity in lichens: a case study from Italy (Southern Europe)

  • Pier Luigi NIMIS (a1), Stefano MARTELLOS (a1), Daniel SPITALE (a2) and Juri NASCIMBENE (a3)
Abstract

This paper, based on data from the latest checklist of Italy, analyzes the distribution patterns of rare and common lichen species within biogeographically homogeneous versus heterogeneous areas of Italy, and the relationships with some main drivers of rarity and commonness. The following data were used: 1) commonness-rarity values of 2565 species in nine ecoregions; 2) frequency of 353 nationally rare and 387 nationally common species in 21 administrative regions. The following functional and ecological traits were considered: growth form, photobiont(s), type of reproduction, substrata, bioclimatic range, ecological indicator values for aridity and eutrophication, and poleophoby. Within each ecoregion, rare species by far outweigh common species but about one third of these are common in other ecoregions. At the level of regional floras, rarity is significantly associated with epiphytic substrata, non-trebouxioid photobionts and high air humidity, while commonness is associated with saxicolous substrata, trebouxioid photobionts and eutrophication. Rarity seems to mainly depend on two factors, bioclimate (many rare species are outside the limit of their bioclimatic optima) and reduced availability of suitable habitats (e.g. old-growth forests), while commonness is mainly related to disturbance (eutrophication, creation of drier habitats). Most of the nationally rare lichens belong to an oceanic-suboceanic element with tropical affinities or to a small set of continental species with their optima in the dry steppe biome, which suggests that many rare species can persist in microrefugia, that is sites with microclimates that support small populations of species beyond the boundaries of the climatic limits of their main distributions.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Aizen, M. A. & Patterson, W. A. (1990) Acorn size and geographical range in the North American oaks (Quercus L.). Journal of Biogeography 17: 327332.
Allen, J. L. & Lendemer, J. C. (2016) Climate change impacts on endemic, high-elevation lichens in a biodiversity hotspot. Biodiversity and Conservation 25: 555568.
Aptroot, A. & van Herk, C. M. (2007) Further evidence of the effects of global warming on lichens, particularly those with Trentepohlia phycobionts. Environmental Pollution 146: 293298.
Aptroot, A., van Herk, C. M., Sparrius, L. B. & Spier, J. R. (2004) Checklist van de Nederlandse Korstmossen en korstmosparasieten. Buxbaumiella 69: 1755.
Arellano, G., Loza, M. I., Tello, J. S. & Macía, M. J. (2015) Commonness and rarity determinants of woody plants in different types of tropical forests. Biodiversity and Conservation 24: 10731087.
Asplund, J. & Wardle, D. A. (2017) How lichens impact on terrestrial community and ecosystem properties. Biological Reviews 92: 17201738.
Bielczyk, U., Cieslinski, S. & Faltynowicz, W. (eds) (2002) Atlas Rozmieszczenia Geograficznego Porostów w Polsce. 3. Kraków: Polish Academy of Sciences.
Brown, J. H. (1984) On the relationship between abundance and distribution of species. American Naturalist 124: 255279.
Davidar, P., Rajagopal, B., Arjunan, M. & Puyravaud, J. P. (2008) The relationship between local abundance and distribution of rain forest trees across environmental gradients in India. Biotropica 40: 700706.
Diaz, S. & Cabido, M. (2001) Vive la différence: plant functional diversity matters to ecosystem processes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 646655.
Dietrich, M., Stofer, S., Scheidegger, C., Frei, M., Groner, U., Keller, C., Roth, I. & Steinmeier, C. (2000) Data sampling of rare and common species for compiling a Red List of epiphytic lichens. Forest, Snow and Landscape Research 75: 369380.
Dobrowski, S. (2010) A climatic basis for microrefugia: the influence of terrain on climate. Global Change Biology 17: 10221035.
Edwards, T. C. Jr, Cutler, D. R., Geiser, L., Alegria, J. & McKenzie, D. (2004) Assessing rarity of species with low detectability: lichens in Pacific Northwest forests. Ecological Applications 14: 414424.
Edwards, T. C. Jr, Cutler, D. R., Zimmermann, N. E., Geiser, L. & Alegria, J. (2005) Model-based stratifications for enhancing the detection of rare ecological events. Ecology 86: 10811090.
Elbert, W., Weber, B., Burrows, S., Steinkamp, J., Büdel, B., Andreae, M. O. & Pöschl, U. (2012) Contribution of cryptogamic covers to the global cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Nature Geoscience 5: 459462.
Gaston, K. J. (1994) Rarity. London: Chapman & Hall.
Gaston, K. J. (2010) Valuing common species. Science 327: 154155.
Gaston, K. J. (2011) Common ecology. BioScience 61: 354362.
Gaston, K. J. (2012) The importance of being rare. Nature 487: 4647.
Gentry, A. H. (1991) The distribution and evolution of climbing plants. In The Biology of Vines (F. E. Putz & H. A. Mooney, eds): 349. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gilbert, O. L. (1990) The lichen flora of urban wasteland. Lichenologist 22: 87101.
Hanski, I. (1982) Dynamics of regional distribution: the core and satellite species hypothesis. Oikos 38: 210221.
Ihlen, P. G., Gjerde, I. & Saetersdal, M. (2001) Structural indicators of richness and rarity of epiphytic lichens on Corylus avellana in two different forest types within a nature reserve in south-western Norway. Lichenologist 33: 215229.
Jahns, H. M. & Ott, S. (1997) Life strategies in lichens – some general considerations. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 67: 4967.
Keim, J. L., Dewitt, P. D., Fitzpatrick, J. J. & Jenni, N. S. (2017) Estimating plant abundance using inflated beta distributions: applied learnings from a lichen-caribou ecosystem. Ecology and Evolution 7: 486493.
Kelly, C., Woodward, F. & Crawley, M. (1996) Ecological correlates of plant range size: taxonomies and phylogenies in the study of plant commonness and rarity in Great Britain. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences 351: 12611269.
Kristiansen, T., Svenning, J.-C., Grandez, C., Salo, J. & Balslev, H. (2009) Commonness of Amazonian palm (Arecaceae) species: cross-scale links and potential determinants. Acta Oecologica 35: 554562.
Kunin, W. E. & Gaston, K. J. (1997) The Biology of Rarity: Causes and Consequences of Rare-Common Differences. London: Chapman & Hall.
Kunin, W. E. & Shmida, A. (1997) Plant reproductive traits as a function of local, regional, and global abundance. Conservation Biology 11: 183192.
Legendre, P. & Legendre, L. (1998) Numerical Ecology, 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Letcher, S. G. & Chazdon, R. L. (2012) Life history traits of lianas during tropical forest succession. Biotropica 44: 720727.
Marini, L., Nascimbene, J. & Nimis, P. L. (2011) Large-scale patterns of epiphytic lichen species richness: photobiont dependent response to climate and forest structure. Science of the Total Environment 409: 43814386.
Martellos, S. (2012) From a textual checklist to an information system: the case study of ITALIC, the Information System on Italian Lichens. Plant Biosystems 146: 764770.
Matos, P., Pinho, P., Aragón, G., Martínez, I., Nunes, A., Soares, A. M. V. M. & Branquinho, C. (2015) Lichen traits responding to aridity. Journal of Ecology 103: 451458.
McCune, B., Rosentreter, R. & Debolt, A. (1997) Biogeography of rare lichens from the coast of Oregon. In Conservation and Management of Native Plants and Fungi (T. N. Kaye, A. Liston, R. M. Love, D. L. Luoma, R. J. Meinke & M. V. Wilson, eds): 234241. Corvallis, Oregon: Native Plant Society of Oregon.
Moles, A. T. & Westoby, M. (2004) Seedling survival and seed size: a synthesis of the literature. Journal of Ecology 92: 372383.
Murray, B. R. & Westoby, M. (2000) Properties of species in the tail of rank-abundance curves: the potential for increase in abundance. Evolutionary Ecology Research 2: 583592.
Murray, B. R., Thrall, P. H., Gill, A. M. & Nicotra, A. B. (2002) How plant life-history and ecological traits relate to species rarity and commonness at varying spatial scales. Australian Ecology 27: 291310.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., da Fonseca, G. A. B. & Kent, J. (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853858.
Nascimbene, J., Martellos, S. & Nimis, P. L. (2006) Epiphytic lichens of tree-line forests in the central-eastern Italian Alps and their importance for conservation. Lichenologist 38: 373382.
Nascimbene, J., Nimis, P. L. & Marini, L. (2007) Testing indicators of epiphytic lichen diversity: a case study in N Italy. Biodiversity and Conservation 16: 33773383.
Nascimbene, J., Nimis, P. L. & Ravera, S. (2013) Evaluating the conservation status of epiphytic lichens of Italy: a red list. Plant Biosystems 147: 898904.
Nascimbene, J., Lazzaro, L. & Benesperi, R. (2015) Patterns of beta-diversity and similarity reveal biotic homogenization of epiphytic lichen communities associated with the spread of black locust forests. Fungal Ecology 14: 17.
Nathan, R. & Muller-Landau, H. (2000) Spatial patterns of seed dispersal, their determinants and consequences for recruitment. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 278285.
Nimis, P. L. (2016) The Lichens of Italy. A Second Annotated Catalogue. Trieste: EUT.
Nimis, P. L. & Martellos, S. (2001) Testing the predictivity of ecological indicator values. A comparison of real and ‘virtual’ relevés of lichen vegetation. Plant Ecology 157: 165172.
Nimis, P. L. & Martellos, S. (2003) On the ecology of sorediate lichens in Italy. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 86: 393406.
Nimis, P. L. & Martellos, S. (2017) ITALICThe Information System on Italian Lichens. Version 5.0. Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste. Available at: http://dryades.units.it/italic.
Nimis, P. L. & Tretiach, M. (1995) The lichens of Italy – a phytoclimatical outline. Cryptogamic Botany 5: 199208.
Nimis, P. L. & Tretiach, M. (1999) Itinera Adriatica – lichens from the eastern part of the Italian Peninsula. Studia Geobotanica 18: 51106.
Nimis, P. L. & Tretiach, M. (2004) Delimiting Tyrrhenian Italy: a lichen foray in the SW part of the peninsula. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 88: 465478.
Oksanen, J., Guillaume Blanchet, F., Friendly, M., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., McGlinn, D., Minchin, P.R., O’Hara, R.B., Simpson, G.L., Solymos, P., et al. (2017) vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.4-2. Available at: https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan.
Pitman, N. C. A., Terborgh, J. W., Silman, M. R., Nuñez, P. V., Neill, D. A., Cerón, C. E., Palacios, W. A. & Aulestia, M. (2001) Dominance and distribution of tree species in upper Amazonian terra firme forests. Ecology 82: 21012117.
Poelt, J. (1994) Different species types in lichenized ascomycetes. In Ascomycete Systematics. Problems and Perspectives in the Nineties (D. L. Hawksworth, ed.): 273278. New York: Plenum Press.
Preston, F. W. (1948) The commonness, and rarity, of species. Ecology 29: 254283.
Qian, H. & Ricklefs, R. E. (2006) The role of exotic species in homogenizing the North American flora. Ecology Letters 9: 12931298.
R Development Core Team (2017) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.
Rabinowitz, D. (1981) Seven forms of rarity. In The Biological Aspects of Rare Plant Conservation (H. Synge, ed.): 205217. New York: Wiley.
Rabinowitz, D., Cairns, S. & Dillon, T. (1986) Seven forms of rarity and their frequency in the flora of the British Isles. In Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity (M. E. Soulé, ed.): 182204. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates.
Rodriguez, J. M., Renison, D., Filippini, E. & Estrabou, C. (2017) Small shifts in microsite occupation could mitigate climate change consequences for mountain top endemics: a test analyzing saxicolous lichen distribution patterns. Biodiversity and Conservation 26: 11991215.
Rogers, R. W. (1990) Ecological strategies of lichens. Lichenologist 22: 149162.
Roque, F. O., Zampiva, N. K., Valente-Neto, F., Menezes, J. F. S. & Hamada, N. (2016) Deconstructing richness patterns by commonness and rarity reveals bioclimatic and spatial effects in black fly metacommunities. Freshwater Biology 61: 923932.
Rull, V. (2009) Microrefugia. Journal of Biogeography 36: 481484.
Ruokolainen, K. & Vormisto, J. (2000) The most widespread Amazonian palms tend to be tall and habitat generalists. Basic and Applied Ecology 1: 97108.
Seaward, M. R. D. (1988) Progress in the study of the lichen flora of the British Isles. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 96: 8195.
Seaward, M. R. D. (1995) Lichen Atlas of the British Isles, Fascicles 1–6. London: British Lichen Society.
Sutherland, W. J., Freckleton, R. P., Godfray, H. C. J., Beissinger, S. R., Benton, T., Cameron, D. D., Carmel, Y., Coomes, D. A., Coulson, T., Emmerson, M. C. et al. (2013) Identification of 100 fundamental ecological questions. Journal of Ecology 101: 5867.
Walck, J. L., Baskin, J. M. & Baskin, C. C. (1999) Relative competitive abilities and growth characteristics of a narrowly endemic and a geographically widespread Solidago species (Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany 86: 820828.
Webb, C. T., Hoeting, J. A., Ames, G. M., Pyne, M. I. & Poff, N. L. (2010) A structured and dynamic framework to advance traits-based theory and prediction in ecology. Ecology Letters 13: 267283.
Wirth, V. (2001) Zeigerwerte von Flechten. Scripta Geobotanica 18: 221243.
Wirth, V. (2010) Ökologische Zeigerwerte von Flechten – erweiterte und aktualisierte Fassung. Herzogia 23: 229248.
Wirth, V. & Oberhollenzer, H. (eds) (1990) Lichen mapping in Europe. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Ser. A (Biologie) 456: 1200.
Wright, I. J., Ackerly, D. D., Bongers, F. J. J. M., Harms, K. E., Ibarra-Manriquez, G., Martinez-Ramos, M., Mazer, S. J., Muller-Landau, H. C., Paz, H., Pitman, N. C. A. et al. (2007) Relationships among ecologically important dimensions of plant trait variation in seven neotropical forests. Annals of Botany 99: 10031015.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Lichenologist
  • ISSN: 0024-2829
  • EISSN: 1096-1135
  • URL: /core/journals/lichenologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed