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Forty-six new species of Trypetheliaceae from the tropics

  • André APTROOT (a1), Damien ERTZ (a2), Javier Angel ETAYO SALAZAR (a3), Cécile GUEIDAN (a4), Joel Alejandro MERCADO DIAZ (a5), Felix SCHUMM (a5) and Gothamie WEERAKOON (a6)...
Abstract

The following 46 new species of Trypetheliaceae are described: Astrothelium aenascens Aptroot from Papua New Guinea, which is similar to A. aenoides but differs by the hamathecium which is not inspersed; A. alboverrucoides Aptroot from Indonesia with globose ascomata with constricted base, internally similar to A. megaspermum; A. clypeatum Aptroot & Gueidan from Vietnam with black conical ascomata in which the pseudostroma is reminiscent of a clypeus, a rimose thallus, and 3-septate ascospores, 85–95×22–25 µm; A. colombiense Aptroot from Colombia with 1 muriform ascospore of 240–300×45–50 µm per ascus, and an inspersed hamathecium; A. condoricum Aptroot from Ecuador with a bright orange thallus and contrasting bright scarlet internal pigment, and muriform ascospores, 38–42×18–21 µm; A. corallinum Aptroot from Guyana, which is most similar to A. ochroleucoides but the thallus is without lichexanthone; A. dicoloratum Aptroot from Venezuela with an orange thallus and more yellowish pseudostromata with usually only 1 ascoma, and 9–11-septate ascospores; A. ecuadoriense Aptroot from Ecuador with ascospores 2 per ascus, muriform, 80–175×25–50 µm, and an inspersed hamathecium; A. flavomaculatum Aptroot from Ecuador, Guyana and Venezuela which is similar to A. graphicum, but with ascospores 50–75×12–25 µm; A. flavomeristosporum Aptroot from the Philippines and Ecuador with mostly simple ascomata with an orange to yellow, inspersed hamathecium and muriform ascospores 140–200×25–30 µm; A. flavostiolatum Aptroot from Ecuador with bright yellow ostioles and a very irregular thallus, and muriform ascospores, 175–230×35–45 µm; A. guianense Aptroot from Guyana with a very irregular thallus, eccentric, fused ostioles and ascospores 4 per ascus, muriform, 70–80×20–25 µm; A. inspersogalbineum Aptroot & Weerakoon from Singapore which is similar to A. macrocarpum but with the hamathecium inspersed; A. komposchii Aptroot from Venezuela with chimney-like ostioles and a very irregular, almost squamulose thallus and muriform ascospores, 130–180×35–45 µm; A. laurerosphaerioides Aptroot from Guyana with aggregated ascomata with internally and partly (when abraded) also superficially orange anthraquinone pigment, ascospores 2 per ascus, muriform, 110–130×30–35 µm; A. lucidomedullatum Aptroot from Ecuador with lichexanthone in the medulla of the thallus, ascospores 4 per ascus, muriform, 80–115×25–35 µm; A. lucidostromum Aptroot from Guyana which is similar to A. eustomuralis but lichexanthone is present in the whole pseudostroma; A. lucidothallinum Aptroot from Guyana with the thallus containing lichexanthone, ascomata in pseudostromata without lichexanthone, ostioles apical, hamathecium not inspersed, ascospores muriform, 70–90×18–20 µm; A. mediocrassum Aptroot from Guyana which resembles A. octosporum but without lichexanthone in the thallus or pseudostromata, muriform ascospores, 70–80×2225 µm, with median septum strongly thickened; A. megatropicum Aptroot from Guyana with 3-septate ascospores 100–120×33–35 µm, and hemispherical dark brown pseudostromata; A. megochroleucum Aptroot from El Salvador with 3-septate ascospores 60–70×16–18 µm and lichexanthone in the thallus and pseudostromata; A. neoinspersum Aptroot from El Salvador which is similar to A. aenascens but with bright yellow pseudostromata; A. perspersum Aptroot & Ertz from Gabon which is similar to A. scoria but with ascospores 26–38×7–9 µm; A. philippinense Aptroot & Schumm from the Philippines without pseudostromata, ostiole apical, hamathecium inspersed, ascospores muriform, 125–170×30–35 µm, 4 per ascus; A. pseudannulare Aptroot & Etayo from Ecuador with the appearance of the A. puiggarii-group, but differing from all other species of it by the 3-septate ascospores 80–88×32–36 µm, which are 2–4 per ascus; A. pseudodissimulum Aptroot from Papua New Guinea with K+ red crystals in the ascoma wall and 5-septate ascospores of 25–33×9–11 µm; A. pseudoferrugineum Aptroot from Indonesia, of the A. conicum-group with an orange thallus and pseudostroma pruina, differing from A. ferrugineum by the ascospores 28–31×9–11 µm and the more glossy thallus; A. pseudomegalophthalmum Aptroot from Colombia, similar to A. megaspermum but differing by the 7-septate ascospores 152–166×32–37 µm; A. rimosum Aptroot from Guyana and Colombia with 7–11-septate ascospores 110–150×30–37 µm and a rimose thallus with yellow medulla; A. sanguineoxanthum Aptroot from Brazil with the thallus containing lichexanthone and pseudostromata with numerous immersed round ascomata, the whole inside of which is full of red, K+ green pigment; A. septemseptatum Aptroot from Guyana and Venezuela with the thallus and pseudostromata UV+ yellow and 7–9-septate ascospores 50–55×12–17 µm; A. sexloculatum Aptroot from Guyana and Papua New Guinea with 5-septate ascospores 25–27×7–11 µm and lichexanthone in the thallus and pseudostromata; A. sipmanii Aptroot from Guyana with simple ascomata with 5-septate ascospores 100–150×35–40 µm and an inspersed hamathecium; A. trypethelioides Aptroot from Venezuela with fused ostioles, an inspersed hamathecium and 7–9-septate ascospores 49–52×13–16 µm; A. ultralucens Aptroot from Venezuela with lichexanthone in the thallus and pseudostromata, fused ostioles and 3-septate ascospores over 105–130×35–42 µm; A. vulcanum from Guyana, of the A. nitidiusculum-group with simple ascomata, an inspersed hamathecium and lichexanthone; A. zebrinum Aptroot from Guyana with fused ostioles and 7-septate ascospores 60–70 µm long, without lichexanthone, anthraquinones and inspersion; Polymeridium rhodopruinosum Aptroot from Puerto Rico with red pruina on the ascomata and 3-septate ascospores 17–19×3·5–5·0 µm; Pseudopyrenula americana Aptroot from Guyana with 3-septate ascospores 26–32×7–10 µm, without inspersion and without lichexanthone; P. guianensis Aptroot from French Guiana and Surinam with a hyaline hamathecium with inspersion, a thallus with lichexanthone and 3-septate ascospores 21–25×6–9 µm; P. hexamera Aptroot from Venezuela with 5-septate ascospores 16–21×6–7 µm, lumina clearly diamond-shaped; P. thallina Lücking & Aptroot from Costa Rica with a greenish corticate thallus and 3-septate ascospores, 21–25×6–9 µm; Trypethelium infraeluteriae Aptroot & Gueidan from Vietnam which is similar to T. subeluteriae but with lower pseudostromata and ascospores 7–9-septate, 37–42×9–11 µm; Viridothelium inspersum Aptroot from Papua New Guinea with solitary, immersed ascomata, an inspersed hamathecium, and 12–14-septate ascospores, 60–75×12–17 µm; V. kinabaluense Aptroot from Sabah which is similar to V. indutum with emergent black ascomata, but with 17–25-septate ascospores 100–150×18–23 µm; and V. solomonense Aptroot from the Solomon Islands having ascomata with lateral, partly fused ostioles and black clypeus, and ascospores 15–19-septate, 75–98×17–20 µm. The new species are known from Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Gabon, Guyana, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Sabah, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Surinam, Venezuela and/or Vietnam.

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References
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Aptroot, A., Lücking, R., Sipman, H. J. M., Umaña, L. & Chaves, J. L. (2008) Pyrenocarpous lichens with bitunicate asci. A first assessment of the lichen biodiversity inventory in Costa Rica. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 98: 1162.
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Nelsen, M. P., Lücking, R., Aptroot, A., Andrew, C. J., Cáceres, M. E. S., Rivas Plata, E., Gueidan, C., da Silva Cañez, L., Knight, A., Ludwig, L. R. et al. (2014) Elucidating phylogenetic relationships and genus-level classification within the fungal family Trypetheliaceae (Dothideomycetes: Ascomycota). Taxon 63: 974992.
Orange, A., James, P. W. & White, F. J. (2001) Microchemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens. London: British Lichen Society.
Zenker, J. C. (1829) Kryptogamische Parasiten auf officinellen Rinden. In Pharmaceutische Waarenkunde (E. Schenk, ed.): 109200. Eisenach: Bäreck.
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The Lichenologist
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