Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The genus Dirina (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales) revisited

  • Anders TEHLER (a1), Damien ERTZ (a2) and Martin IRESTEDT (a3)
Abstract

Dirina (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales) is a monophyletic genus of crustose, saxicolous or corticolous lichenized fungi. Twenty-four species are accepted in the genus, including nine new species: Dirina angolana, D. arabica, D. astridae, D. canariensis, D. indica, D. madagascariensis, D. pacifica, D. pallescens and D. sorocarpa. A phylogenetic hypothesis is presented based on data from four molecular markers, β-tubulin, ITS 1 and 2, nuLSU and RPB2, including all recognized Dirina species worldwide. New combinations proposed include Dirina badia for Roccellina badia, Dirina jamesii for Roccellina jamesii, Dirina candida for Chiodecton candidum and Dirina teichiodes for Lecidea teichiodes. Two species are reinstated: Dirina approximata and D. monothalamia (as a new name of Chiodecton africanum). Asexual morphs described earlier at the rank forma are no longer recognized as taxonomic units viz., Dirina catalinariae f. sorediata, D. insulana f. sorediata, D. massiliensis f. sorediata, D. paradoxa ssp. paradoxa f. sorediata and D. massiliensis f. aponina. One species, Dirina calcicola, is transferred to Fulvophyton and two other species, Dirina insulae-howensis and Dirina neozelandica, are transferred to Schismatomma. Dirina follmannii is not accepted in Dirina and placed as incertae sedis. A key to the species of Dirina is provided. Vicariance through plate tectonics and continental drift versus long distance dispersal to explain biogeographical patterns is discussed.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Akaike, H. (1973) Information theory as an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In Second International Symposium on Information Theory (Petrov, B. N. & Csaki, F., eds): 267281. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado.
Amo de Paz, G., Cubas, P., Divakar, P. K., Lumbsch, H. T. & Crespo, A. (2011) Origin and diversification of major clades in Parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) during the Paleogene inferred by Bayesian analysis. Plos One 6: 113.
Amo de Paz, G., Cubas, P., Crespo, A., Elix, J. A. & Lumbsch, H. T. (2012) Transoceanic dispersal and subsequent diversification on separate continents shaped diversity of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group (Ascomycota). Plos One 7: 112.
Ayala, F. J. (1999) Molecular clock mirages. BioEssays 21: 7175.
Berbee, M. & Taylor, J. W. (2010) Dating the molecular clock in fungi – how close are we? Fungal Biology Reviews 24: 116.
de Notaris, G. (1846) Frammenti lichenographici. Giornale Botanico iItaliani 2: 174224.
del Prado, R., Divakar, P. K. & Crespo, A. (2011) Using genetic distances in addition to ITS molecular phylogeny to identify potential species in the Parmotrema reticulatum complex: a case study. Lichenologist 43: 569583.
Divakar, P. K., Figueras, G., Hladun, N. L. & Crespo, A. (2010) Molecular phylogenetic studies reveal an undescribed species within the North American concept of Melanelixia glabra (Parmeliaceae). Fungal Diversity 42: 4755.
Ertz, D. & Tehler, A. (2011) The phylogeny of Arthoniales (Pezizomycotina) inferred from nucLSU and RPB2 sequences. Fungal Diversity 49: 4771.
Farris, J. S., Albert, V. A., Källersjö, M., Lipscomb, D. L. & Kluge, A. G. (1996) Parsimony jackknifing outperforms neighbor-joining. Cladistics 12: 99124.
Goloboff, P. A., Farris, J. S. & Nixon, K. C. (2008) TNT, a free program for phylogenetic analysis. Cladistics 24: 774786.
Grube, M. & Kroken, S. (2000) Molecular approaches and the concept of species and species complexes in lichenized fungi. Mycological Research 104: 12841294.
Hennig, W. (1966) Phylogenetic Systematics. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Holder, M. & Lewis, P. O. (2003) Phylogeny estimation: traditional and Bayesian approaches. Nature Genetics 4: 275284.
Huelsenbeck, J. P., Ronquist, F., Nielsen, R. & Bollback, J. P. (2001) Bayesian inference of phylogeny and its impact on evolutionary biology. Science 294: 23102314.
Krempelhuber, A. (1877) Neue Beiträge zu Afrikas Flechten-Flora. Linnaea; Ein Journal für die Botanik in Ihrem Ganzen Umfange, Berlin 41: 135144.
Larkin, M. A., Blackshields, G., Brown, N. P., Chenna, R., McGettigan, P. A., McWilliam, H., Valentin, F., Wallace, I. M., Wilm, A., Lopez, R., et al. (2007) Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics 23: 29472948.
Leavitt, S. D., Frankhauser, J. D., Leavitt, S. D., Porter, L. D., Johnson, L. A. & St Clair, L. L. (2011) Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan “rock posy” lichens – discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 59: 587602.
Lücking, R., Huhndorf, S., Pfister, D., Plata, D. H. & Lumbsch, H. T. (2009) Fungi evolved right on track. Mycologia 101: 810822.
Lumbsch, H. T. & Leavitt, D. H. (2011) Goodbye morphology? A paradigm shift in the delimitation of species in lichenized fungi. Fungal Diversity 50: 5972.
Molina, M. C., Divakar, P. K., Millanes, A. M., Sánchez, E., del Prado, R., Hawksworth, D. L. & Crespo, A. (2011) Parmelia sulcata (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae), a sympatric monophyletic species complex. Lichenologist 43: 585601.
Myllys, L., Tehler, A. & Lohtander, K. (2001) β-tubulin, ITS and group I intron sequences challenge the species pair concept in Physcia aipolia and P. caesia . Mycologia 93: 335343.
Núñez-Zapata, J., Divakar, P. K., del Prado, R., Cubas, P., Hawksworth, D. L. & Crespo, A. (2011) Conundrums in species concepts: the discovery of a new cryptic species segregated from Parmelina tiliacea (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae). Lichenologist 43: 603616.
Nylander, J. A. A. (2005) MrModeltest v.2.2. Uppsala: Computer program distributed by the author.
Nylander, J. A. A., Ronquist, F., Huelsenbeck, J. P. & Nieves-Aldrey, J. L. (2004) Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of combined data. Systematic Biology 1: 4767.
Orange, A. (2012) Semi-cryptic marine species of Hydropunctaria (Verrucariaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) from north-west Europe. Lichenologist 44: 299320.
Orange, A., James, P. W. & White, F. J. (2001) Microchemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens. London: British Lichen Society.
Pino-Bodas, R., Burgas, A. R., Martin, M. P. & Lumbsch, H. T. (2012) Species delimitations in the Cladonia cariosa group (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota). Lichenologist 44: 121135.
Poelt, J. (1970) Das Konzept der Artenpaare bei den Flechten. Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft Neue Folge 4: 187198.
Poelt, J. (1972) Die taxonomische Behandlung von Artenpaaren bei den Flechten. Botaniska notiser 125: 7781.
Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J. P. (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 15721574.
Schwartz, J. H. & Maresca, B. (2006) Do molecular clocks run at all? A critique of molecular systematics. Biological Theory 1: 357371.
Swofford, D. L. (1998) PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (* and Other Methods). Version 4 . Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates.
Taylor, J. W., Jacobson, D. J., Kroken, S., Kasuga, T., Geiser, D. M., Hibett, D. & Fisher, M. C. (2000) Phylogenetic species recognition and species concepts in fungi. Fungal Genetics and Biology 31: 2132.
Tehler, A. (1982) The species pair concept in lichenology. Taxon 31: 708714.
Tehler, A. (1983) The genera Dirina and Roccellina (Roccellaceae). Opera Botanica 70: 186.
Tehler, A. (1985) Roccellina jamesii Tehler sp. nov. and Dirina insulana (C. Tav.) Tehler (Roccellaceae) from the Ascension Island. Bryologist 88: 131134.
Tehler, A. (1986) Dirina paradoxa (Fée) Tehler, the correct name for Dirina approximata Zahlbr. Lichenologist 18: 295296.
Tehler, A. (1988) Dirina massiliensis f. aponina (Massal.) Tehler, a pycnidial anamorph in the lichen genus Dirina (Roccellaceae). Lichenologist 20: 398399.
Tehler, A. (1990) A new approach to the phylogeny of Euascomycetes with a cladistic outline of Arthoniales focussing on Roccellaceae . Canadian Journal of Botany 68: 24582492.
Tehler, A. (2002) Dirina. In Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. I (Nash, T. H. III, Ryan, B. D., Gries, C. & Bungartz, F., eds): 178180. Tempe, Arizona: Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University.
Tehler, A. (2007) The Roccella lirellina and R. galapagoensis aggregates, taxonomy and nomenclature. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 93: 517530.
Tehler, A. & Irestedt, M. (2007) Parallel evolution of lichen growth forms in the family Roccellaceae (Arthoniales, Euascomycetes). Cladistics 23: 432454.
Tehler, A., Feige, G. B. & Lumbsch, H. T. (1995) Dirina mexicana, a new species to Mexico. Lichenologist 27: 255259.
Tehler, A., Dahlkild, Å., Eldenäs, P. & Feige, G. B. (2004) The phylogeny and taxonomy of Macaronesian, European and Mediterranean Roccella (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales). Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 34: 405428.
Tehler, A., Irestedt, M., Bungartz, F. & Wedin, M. (2009 a) Evolution and reproduction modes in the Roccella galapagoensis aggregate (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales). Taxon 58: 438456.
Tehler, A., Irestedt, M., Wedin, M. & Ertz, D. (2009 b) Origin, evolution and taxonomy of American Roccella (Roccellaceae, Ascomycetes). Systematics and Biodiversity 7: 307317.
Tehler, A., Irestedt, M., Wedin, M. & Ertz, D. (2010) The Old World Roccella species outside Europe and Macaronesia: taxonomy, evolution and phylogeny. Systematics and Biodiversity 8: 223246.
Wedin, M., Döring, H. & Gilenstam, G. (2004) Saprotrophy and lichenization as options for the same fungal species on different substrata: environmental plasticity and fungal lifestyles in the Stictis–Conotrema complex. New Phytologist 164: 459465.
Wedin, M., Westberg, M., Crewe, A. T., Tehler, A. & Purvis, O. W. (2009) Species delimitation and evolution of metal bioaccumulation in the lichenized Acarospora smaragdula (Ascomycota, Fungi) complex. Cladistics 25: 161172.
Yang, Z. (2006) Computational Molecular Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Lichenologist
  • ISSN: 0024-2829
  • EISSN: 1096-1135
  • URL: /core/journals/lichenologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed