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The genus Dirina (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales) revisited

  • Anders TEHLER (a1), Damien ERTZ (a2) and Martin IRESTEDT (a3)

Dirina (Roccellaceae, Arthoniales) is a monophyletic genus of crustose, saxicolous or corticolous lichenized fungi. Twenty-four species are accepted in the genus, including nine new species: Dirina angolana, D. arabica, D. astridae, D. canariensis, D. indica, D. madagascariensis, D. pacifica, D. pallescens and D. sorocarpa. A phylogenetic hypothesis is presented based on data from four molecular markers, β-tubulin, ITS 1 and 2, nuLSU and RPB2, including all recognized Dirina species worldwide. New combinations proposed include Dirina badia for Roccellina badia, Dirina jamesii for Roccellina jamesii, Dirina candida for Chiodecton candidum and Dirina teichiodes for Lecidea teichiodes. Two species are reinstated: Dirina approximata and D. monothalamia (as a new name of Chiodecton africanum). Asexual morphs described earlier at the rank forma are no longer recognized as taxonomic units viz., Dirina catalinariae f. sorediata, D. insulana f. sorediata, D. massiliensis f. sorediata, D. paradoxa ssp. paradoxa f. sorediata and D. massiliensis f. aponina. One species, Dirina calcicola, is transferred to Fulvophyton and two other species, Dirina insulae-howensis and Dirina neozelandica, are transferred to Schismatomma. Dirina follmannii is not accepted in Dirina and placed as incertae sedis. A key to the species of Dirina is provided. Vicariance through plate tectonics and continental drift versus long distance dispersal to explain biogeographical patterns is discussed.

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