Skip to main content Accessibility help

Molecular sequence data from populations of Bryoria fuscescens s. lat. in the mountains of central Spain indicates a mismatch between haplotypes and chemotypes

  • Carlos G. Boluda (a1), Víctor J. Rico (a1), Ana Crespo (a1), Pradeep K. Divakar (a1) and David L. Hawksworth (a1) (a2) (a3)...


In order to confirm and investigate the extent of reported mismatches between chemotypes and molecular sequence data in Bryoria fuscescens s. lat., we examined 15 morphologically similar thalli from each of three Pinus forest sites in the Sistema Central of central Spain. Three thalli were rejected due to infections by Phacopsis huuskonenii (not previously published from Spain). The remaining 42 thalli represented nine ITS rDNA haplotypes and four chemotypes (by TLC): fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids; norstictic and connorstictic acids; psoromic acid; and fumarprotocetraric, protocetraric and psoromic acids. The molecular phylogenetic tree was characterized by extremely short branch lengths, often only with a single mutational difference, and a single haplotype could have different chemical products. In some cases, adjacent specimens represented different chemotypes, and three thalli appeared to be mixed individuals. Consistency of both molecular and chemical data within individual specimens was demonstrated by examining four different parts of each thallus, which showed only a difference in the location of psoromic acid in some. This is the first population-level study of this taxon, and so it is premature to propose taxonomic changes at this time. Further populations in different parts of the geographical range of this widespread complex now need to be analyzed, and more sensitive chemical analyses conducted, in order to understand the basis of the variability and determine the appropriate taxonomic treatment.



Hide All
Boluda, C. G., Rico, V. J. & Hawksworth, D. L. (2014) Fluorescence microscopy as a tool for the visualization of lichen substances within Bryoria thalli. Lichenologist 46: 723726.
Brodo, I. M. & Hawksworth, D. L. (1977) Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42: 1142.
Crespo, A., Blanco, O. & Hawksworth, D. L. (2001) The potential of mitochondrial DNA for establishing phylogeny and establishing generic concepts in the parmelioid lichens. Taxon 50: 807819.
Del-Prado, R., Divakar, P. K. & Crespo, A. (2011) Using genetic distances in addition to ITS molecular phylogeny to identify potential species in the Parmotrema reticulatum complex: a case study. Lichenologist 43: 569583.
Excoffier, L., Laval, G. & Schneider, S. (2005) Arlequin (version 3.0): an integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online 1: 4750.
Frisvad, J. C. (2005) Halotolerant and halophilic fungi and their extrolite production. In Adaptation of Life at High Salt Concentrations in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya (N. Gunde-Cimerman, A. Oren & A. Plemenitas, eds): 415439. Rensing: Springer.
Gutiérrez, G., Blanco, O., Divakar, P. K., Lumbsch, H. T. & Crespo, A. (2007) Patterns of group I intron presence in nuclear SSU rDNA of the lichen family Parmeliaceae. Journal of Molecular Evolution 64: 181195.
Hawksworth, D. L. (1976) Lichen chemotaxonomy. In Lichenology: Progress and Problems (D. H. Brown, D. L. Hawksworth & R. H. Bailey, eds): 139184. London: Academic Press.
Hawksworth, D. L. (1988) The variety of fungal-algal symbioses, their evolutionary significance, and the nature of lichens. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 96: 330.
Hawksworth, D. L., Crespo, A., Rico, V. J. & Ruibal, C. (2011) Species concepts in the Bryoria capillaris / fuscescens / implexa complex – fresh specimens required to solve some current problems. British Lichen Society Bulletin 109: 911.
Holien, H. (1989) The genus Bryoria sect. Implexae in Norway. Lichenologist 21: 243258.
Huelsenbeck, J. P. & Ronquist, F. (2001) MrBayes: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17: 754755.
James, P. W., Hawksworth, D. L. & Rose, F. (1977) Lichen communities in the British Isles: a preliminary conspectus. In Lichen Ecology (M. R. D. Seaward, ed.): 295413. London: Academic Press.
Katoh, K. & Standley, D. M. (2013) MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30: 772780.
Krog, H. (1980) On Bryoria chalybeiformis and some related species. Lichenologist 12: 243245.
Librado, P. & Rozas, J. (2009) DnaSP v5: a software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Bioinformatics 25: 14511452.
Lumbsch, H. T. (1998) The use of metabolic data in lichenology at the species and subspecific levels. Lichenologist 30: 357367.
Miller, M. A., Pfeiffer, W. & Schwartz, T. (2010) Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. In Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), November 14, 2010, New Orleans, Louisiana, pp 1–8.
Myllys, L., Velmala, S., Holien, H., Halonen, P., Wang, L.-S. & Goward, T. (2011 a) Phylogeny of the genus Bryoria . Lichenologist 43: 617638.
Myllys, L., Velmala, S. & Holien, H. (2011 b) Bryoria. In Nordic Lichen Flora Vol. 4. Parmeliaceae (A. Thell & R. Moberg, eds): 2637. Uppsala: Nordic Lichen Society.
Orange, A., James, P. W. & White, F. J. (2010) Microchemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens. 2nd edn. London: British Lichen Society.
Posada, D. (2008) jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging. Molecular Biology and Evolution 25: 12531256.
R Development Core Team (2012) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Rambaut, A. (2009) FigTree v1.4. Available at:
Rambaut, A. & Drummond, J. (2007) Tracer v1.5. Available at:
Ramos-Onsins, S. E. & Rozas, J. (2002) Statistical properties of new neutrality tests against population growth. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19: 20922100.
Rodríguez, F., Oliver, J. F., Marín, A. & Medina, J. R. (1990) The general stochastic model of nucleotide substitution. Journal of Theoretical Biology 142: 485501.
Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J. P. (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 15721574.
Stamatakis, A. (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22: 26882690.
Stamatakis, A., Hoover, P. & Rougemont, J. (2008) A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RAxML webservers. Systematic Biology 57: 758771.
Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28: 27312739.
Toju, H., Tanabe, A. S., Yamamoto, S. & Sato, H. (2012) High-coverage ITS for the DNA-based identification of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes in environmental samples. PLoS ONE 7: e40863.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Lichenologist
  • ISSN: 0024-2829
  • EISSN: 1096-1135
  • URL: /core/journals/lichenologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed