Recent field trips to Amapá and the adjacent states of Amazonas and Pará uncovered unknown lichen species with unexpected relationships. The following new species of Arthoniales are described, mainly from Amapá in North Brazil: Neosergipea hyphosa, a corticolous species with an olive-green thallus, central part verrucose, marginal zone of 5–10 mm wide consisting of procumbent branching rhizohyphae, surrounded by a pinkish brown hyphal prothallus c. 3 mm wide into which the rhizohyphae protrude, globose ascomata, c. 0·1 mm diam., arranged in stromatoid groups of 5–15, with hyaline walls, without ascospores; Neosergipea septoconidiata, a corticolous species with a bluish grey thallus and bright orange, mostly conical pycnidia with fluffy hyphal surface, hyaline conidia, 3–6-septate, filiform, 12–23×1·5–2·0 μm, with rounded ends; Nyungwea pycnidiata, from a termite nest on a tree, with abundant pycnidia that are whitish, papillate, smooth, c. 0·1–0·2 mm diam., c. 0·2–0·4 mm high, at the base covered by thallus, and hyaline conidia that are simple, ellipsoid, 2·5–4·0×1·5–2·0 μm; and Opegrapha ramisorediata, a corticolous species with a thallus with initially rounded soralia that soon cover the complete thallus with a layer of fine yellowish green branched soredia, and containing gyrophoric acid. Apothecia are not known from any of these species but sequencing elucidated their generic affiliation. The genera Neosergipea and Nyungwea were previously monotypic and Nyungwea was known only from Africa. Nyungwea anguinella (Nyl.) Aptroot comb. nov. is a further new species in the latter genus, and through these two extra species we now know about the morphology of the pycnidia and apothecia of Nyungwea, which were unknown in the type species (a sterile crust).