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Loss of Innocence: Albert Moll, Sigmund Freud and the Invention of Childhood Sexuality Around 1900

  • Lutz D.H. Sauerteig (a1)

This paper analyses how, prior to the work of Sigmund Freud, an understanding of infant and childhood sexuality emerged during the nineteenth century. Key contributors to the debate were Albert Moll, Max Dessoir and others, as fin-de-siècle artists and writers celebrated a sexualised image of the child. By the beginning of the twentieth century, most paediatricians, sexologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts and pedagogues agreed that sexuality formed part of a child’s ‘normal’ development. This paper argues that the main disagreements in discourses about childhood sexuality related to different interpretations of children’s sexual experiences. On the one hand stood an explanation that argued for a homology between children’s and adults’ sexual experiences, on the other hand was an understanding that suggested that adults and children had distinct and different experiences. Whereas the homological interpretation was favoured by the majority of commentators, including Moll, Freud, and to some extent also by C.G. Jung, the heterological interpretation was supported by a minority, including childhood psychologist Charlotte Bühler.

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1. Contemporary authors hardly ever provided clear definitions of the age range for infants and children. In this paper, I will use ‘infants’ for children during their first years of life and ‘children’ for older children up to adolescence.

2. Kern, Stephen , ‘Freud and the Discovery of Child Sexuality’, History of Childhood Quarterly, 1 (1973), 117141: 117.

3. Ellenberger, Henri , The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry (New York: Basic Books, 1970), 295296, 504; Sterling Fishman, ‘The History of Childhood Sexuality’, Journal of Contemporary History, 17 (1982), 269–83.

4. Fishman, op. cit. (note 3); also K. Codell Carter, ‘Infantile Hysteria and Infantile Sexuality in Late Nineteenth-Century German-Language Medical Literature’, Medical History, 27 (1983), 186–96.

5. Sulloway, Frank , Freud, Biologist of the Mind: Beyond the Psychoanalytic Legend (New York: Basic Books, 1979), the revised German translation, idem, Freud, Biologe der Seele: Jenseits der psychoanalytischen Legende, Hans-Horst Henschen (trans.) (Cologne: Hohenheim, 1982). I am using here the revised German edition.

6. Freud, Sigmund , ‘Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie (1905, 1910, 1925)’, in idem, Studienausgabe, 10 vols and supplement, Alexander Mitscherlich, Angela Richards and James Strachey (eds), Vol. 5 (Frankfurt: Fischer, 2000), 37–145, also in Sigmund Freud, Gesammelte Werke: Chronologisch geordnet, Vol. 5 (London: Imago, 1942), 27–145.

7. Davidson, Arnold , ‘How to do the History of Psychoanalysis: A Reading of Freud’s Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality’, Critical Inquiry, 13 (1986/7), 252–77: 257.

8. Ariès, Philip , Centuries of Childhood (London: Cape, 1962) (French original 1960).

9. Gebhardt, Miriam , Die Angst vor dem kindlichen Tyrannen: Eine Geschichte der Erziehung im 20. Jahrhundert (Munich: DVA, 2009); Vern Bullough, ‘Children and Adolescents as Sexual Beings: A Historical Overview’, Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 13 (2004), 447–59; John Gillis, ‘The birth of the virtual child: a victorian progeny’, in Willem Koops and Michael Zuckerman (eds), Beyond the Century of the Child: Cultural History and Developmental Psychology (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003), 82–95; Michael Zuckerman, ‘The millennium of childhood that stretches before us’, in Koops and Zuckerman (eds), ibid., 225–42; James Kincaid, Child-Loving: The Erotic Child and Victorian Culture (New York: Routledge, 1992), ch. 2; Harry Hendrick, Children, Childhood and English Society, 1880–1990 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), ch. 2; Hugh Cunningham, Children and Childhood in Western Society Since 1500 (London: Longman, 1995); Roger Cooter, ‘Introduction’, in idem (ed.), In the Name of the Child: Health and Welfare, 1880–1940 (London: Routledge, 1992), 1–18; Jacques Gélis, ‘Die Individualisierung der Kindheit’, in Philippe Ariès and Roger Chartier (eds), Von der Renaissance zur Aufklärung, Holger Fliessbach and Gabriele Krüger-Wirrer (trans.) (Frankfurt: Fischer, 1991) (Geschichte des privaten Lebens, Vol. 3), 313–31; Stevi Jackson, Childhood and Sexuality (Oxford: Blackwell, 1982), 22–43; from a sociologist’s point of view, Chris Jenks, Childhood (London: Routledge, 1996).

10. American psychologist, G. Stanley Hall (1844–1924), whose research focused on childhood development and evolutionary theory, is credited with shaping the concept of adolescence around 1900 and popularising it in America and Europe with his comprehensive two-volume tome Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education (New York: Appleton, 1904); see also, Jon Savage, Teenage: The Creation of Youth Culture (London: Viking Penguin, 2007), 66–73; Jeffrey Moran, Teaching Sex: The Shaping of Adolescence in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), 1–4, 14–22; on the ‘invention’ of the Jugend (youth) in Germany around 1900, Sterling Fishman, ‘Suicide, Sex, and the Discovery of the German Adolescent’, History of Education Quarterly, 10 (1970), 170–88: 171–3; John Gillis, Youth and History: Tradition and Change in European Age Relations, 1770–Present (New York: Academic Press, 1981), chs 4 and 5.

11. Toulalan, Sarah , ‘ “Unripe” bodies: children, sex and the body in early modern England’, in Sarah Toulalan and Kate Fisher (eds), Bodies, Sex and Desire from the Renaissance to the Present (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2011), 131–50.

12. Gilman, Sander , ‘Male stereotypes of female sexuality in Fin-de-Siècle Vienna’, in idem (ed.), Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985), 39–58.

13. Schmidt, Gunter , ‘Kindersexualität – Konturen eines dunklen Kontinents’, Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung, 17(2004), 312322.

14. Schulz, Andreas , ‘Der “Gang der Natur” und die “Perfektibilität” des Menschen: Wissensgrundlagen und Vorstellungen von Kindheit seit der Aufklärung’, in Lothar Gall and Andreas Schulz (eds), Wissenskommunikation im 19. Jahrhundert (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2003), 15–39: 23, 25; Anne Higonnet, The History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood (London: Thames and Hudson, 1998); Kincaid, op. cit. (note 9), 172–6; Franz Eder, Kultur der Begierde: Eine Geschichte der Sexualität (Munich: Beck, 2002), 83–5; Gélis, op. cit. (note 9), 323–6; Jacques Revel, ‘Vom Nutzen der Höflichkeit’, in Ariès and Chartier (eds), op. cit. (note 9), 173–211: 179–87.

15. There is an abundance of historiography discussing the eighteenth-century anti-masturbation campaigns, including Thomas Laqueur, Solitary Sex: A Cultural History of Masturbation (New York: Zone, 2003); Patrick Singy, ‘The History of Masturbation: An Essay Review’, Journal for the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 59 (2004), 112–21; Michael Stolberg, ‘An Unmanly Vice: Self-Pollution, Anxiety, and the Body in the Eighteenth Century’, Social History of Medicine, 13 (2000), 1–21; idem, ‘The Crime of Onan and the Laws of Nature: Religious and Medical Discourses on Masturbation in the Late Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries’, Paedagogica Historica, 39 (2003), 701–17; Eder, op. cit. (note 14), 92–127; Karl Braun, Die Krankheit Onania. Körperangst und die Anfänge der modernen Sexualität im 18. Jahrhundert (Frankfurt: Campus, 1995).

16. Braun, Karl , ‘ “Gläserne Körper”? Sexualaufklärung in Deutschland 1770–1800’, Hessische Blätter für Volks- und Kulturforschung, NF 31 (1996), 89–101; Charles Taylor, Sources of the Self: The Making of Modern Identity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989), 173–5.

17. Baader, Meike Sophia , Die romantische Idee des Kindes und der Kindheit: Auf der Suche nach der verlorenen Unschuld (Neuwied: Luchterhand, 1996), 35–66; Hans-Heino Ewers, Kindheit als poetische Daseinsform: Studien zur Entstehung der romantischen Kindheitsutopie im 18. Jahrhundert: Herder, Jean Paul, Novalis und Tieck (Munich: Fink, 1989), chs 1 and 2.

18. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques , Emilius; or, a Treatise of Education, (Émile, ou, De l’éducation, 1762), 3 vols (Edinburgh: Donaldson, 1768); see Schulz, op. cit. (note 14), 19; on Rousseau’s notion of the ‘innocent child’, see Mary McAlpin, ‘Innocence of Experience: Rousseau on Puberty in the State of Civilization’, Journal of the History of Ideas, 71 (2010), 241–61; Taylor, op. cit. (note 16), 357.

19. Rousseau, ibid., Vol. 2, Book 4, 12.

20. Ibid., 1–10.

21. Ibid., 12.

22. Schulz, op. cit. (note 14), 19–32; Gebhardt, op. cit. (note 9), 37.

23. (Johann Ludwig) Casper, ‘Ueber Nothzucht und Päderastie und deren Ermittlung Seitens des Gerichtarztes. Nach eigenen Beobachtungen’, Vierteljahrsschrift für gerichtliche und öffentliche Medicin, 1 (1852), 21–78; Eder, op. cit. (note 14), 83–5.

24. Hall, Lesley , ‘ “It was Affecting the Medical Profession”: The History of Masturbatory Insanity Revisited’, Paedagogica Historica, 39 (2003), 685–99; George Makari, ‘Between Seduction and Libido: Sigmund Freud’s Masturbation Hypotheses and the Realignment of his Etiologic Thinking, 1897–1905’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 72 (1998), 638–62: 645–7.

25. von Krafft-Ebing, Richard , Psychopathia sexualis: Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der conträren Sexualempfindung: Eine medizinisch-gerichtliche Studie für Ärzte und Juristen (Stuttgart: Enke, 1886), 7th rev. edn 1892, eg. 28, 38–9, 50; cf. Harry Oosterhuis, Stepchildren of Nature: Krafft-Ebing, Psychiatry, and the Making of Sexual Identity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 57, 131–3, 142, 161–4.

26. Gillis, Jonathan , ‘Bad Habits and Pernicious Results: Thumb Sucking and the Discipline of Late-Nineteenth-Century Paediatrics’, Medical History, 40 (1996), 5573; 61; Schulz, op. cit. (note 14), 24–39; Gebhardt, op. cit. (note 9), 40–1, 49–50.

27. Gebhardt, op. cit. (note 9), 24. This and all subsequent translations, unless otherwise stated, are the author’s own.

28. Foucault, Michel , The History of Sexuality, Vol. 1, R. Hurley (trans.) (New York: Pantheon, 1978); Roy Porter and Lesley Hall, The Facts of Life: The Creation of Sexual Knowledge in Britain, 1650–1950 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995), ch. 7; Oosterhuis, op. cit. (note 25); Oosterhuis’ paper in this issue; Philipp Sarasin, Reizbare Maschinen: Eine Geschichte des Körpers 1765–1914 (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2001), in particular ch. 5; Eder, op. cit. (note 14), chs 4 and 5; Schmidt, op. cit. (note 13).

29. For instance, George Rousseau, ‘Introduction’, in idem (ed.), Children and Sexuality: From the Greeks to the Great War (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), 1–38; R. Danielle Egan and Gail Hawkes, ‘Imperiled and Perilous: Exploring the History of Childhood Sexuality’, Journal of Historical Sociology, 21 (2008), 355–67; R. Danielle Egan and Gail Hawkes, ‘Producing the Prurient through Pedagogy of Purity: Childhood Sexuality and the Social Purity Movement’, Journal of Historical Sociology, 20 (2007), 443–61; Brigitte Kerchner, ‘ “Unbescholtene Bürger” und “gefährliche Mädchen” um die Jahrhundertwende: Was der Fall Sternberg für die aktuelle Debatte um sexuellen Mißbrauch an Kindern bedeutet’, Historische Anthropologie, 6 (1998), 1–32. About changing concepts of child abuse in the twentieth century, see Ian Hacking, ‘The Making and Molding of Child Abuse’, Critical Inquiry, 17, 2 (1991/2), 253–88. About the booming market of ‘misery literature’, see Esther Addley, ‘So Bad It’s Good’, The Guardian, G2, 15 June 2007, 4, online:, accessed 6 June 2011; Brendan O’Neill, ‘Misery Lit... Read On’, BBC News, 17 April 2007, online:, accessed 6 June 2011.

30. Carter, op. cit. (note 4), 196.

31. Scholz, Friedrich , Die Charakterfehler des Kindes: Eine Erziehungslehre für Haus und Schule (Leipzig: Mayer, 1891), 151–2.

32. On the discussion during the second half of the nineteenth century about masturbation as a cause for hysteria, see Carter, op. cit. (note 4).

33. Henoch, Eduard , Vorlesungen über Kinderkrankheiten: Ein Handbuch für Ärzte und Studierende (Berlin: Hirschwald, 1883), lecture on ‘Hysterische Affektion’, 193–211: 207.

34. Entry in, online:, accessed 6 June 2011. I am grateful to Gábor Szegedi (Budapest) for helping me to identify Lindner.

35. Lindner, Sámuel , ‘Das Saugen an den Fingern, Lippen etc. bei den Kindern (Ludeln): Eine Studie’, Jahrbuch für Kinderheilkunde und physische Erziehung, 14 (1879), 6891: 73–4, 81–2 and 89.

36. See Gillis, op. cit. (note 26), 57–61 and 67–8.

37. Ibid., 61.

38. Stekel, Wilhlem , ‘Ueber Coitus im Kindesalter: Eine hygienische Studie’, Wiener medizinische Blätter, 18, 16 (1895), 247249: 247.

39. Ibid., 248.

40. Ibid., 249.

41. Freud, Sigmund , ‘Zur Ätiologie der Hysterie (1896)’, in idem, Studienausgabe, op. cit. (note 6), Vol. 6, 51–81: 75; also in idem, Gesammelte Werke, op. cit. (note 6), Vol. 1 (London: Imago, 1952), 425–59. Freud’s letters to Fließ allow us to follow closely the development of his thinking about sexual experiences in childhood, and seduction and masturbation as causes of neurosis; see Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson (ed.), Sigmund Freud: Briefe an Wilhelm Fliess 1887–1904 (Frankfurt: Fischer, 1986), eg. letters 24 (30 May 1893); 33 (27 November 1893); 42 (21 May 1894); 75 (8 October 1895); 76 (15 October 1895). In letter 77 (16 October 1895), he explained to Fließ that he was ‘quite sure’ that his ‘formula of infantile sexual shock and sexual lust’ (Sexualschreck und Sexuallust) was the answer to the mystery of neurosis (Masson (ed.), ibid, 148). In the mid-1890s, cases from Freud’s psychoanalytical practice confirmed him in the seduction theory; see eg. letters 80 (2 November 1895); 112 (6 December 1896); 116 (11 January 1897); and 125 (28 April 1897). On Freud’s seduction theory, Allen Esterson, ‘The Mythologizing of Psychoanalytic History: Deception and Self-Deception in Freud’s Accounts of the Seduction Theory Episode’, History of Psychiatry, 12 (2001), 329–52; Makari, op. cit. (note 24); Han Israëls and Morton Schatzman, ‘The Seduction Theory’, History of Psychiatry, 4 (1993), 23–59: 26–39.

42. Freud, Ätiologie der Hysterie, ibid., 74–6.

43. Freud, Sigmund , ‘L’hérédité et l’étiologie des névroses’ [‘Heredity and the Aetiology of the Neuroses’] (1896), in idem, The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, James Strachey, in collaboration with Anna Freud (eds), 24 vols (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1943–74), Vol. 3, 1962, 141–56: 152–4; also in Freud, Gesammelte Werke, op. cit. (note 6), Vol. 1 (London: Imago, 1952), 407–22: 419.

44. Stekel, op. cit. (note 38), 249.

45. Moll, Albert , Die konträre Sexualempfindung (Berlin: Fischer’s Medicinische Buchhandlung, 1891), 167 (note 2). In the third and largely extended edition, Moll listed further such examples, in order to make an even stronger case for his argument about the normality of children’s sexuality; ibid., 3rd rev. edn (1899), 374–5 (note 2).

46. Dessoir, Max , ‘Zur Psychologie in der Vita sexualis’, Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie und psychisch-gerichtliche Medizin, 50 (1894), 941975.

47. Ibid., 942.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid., 947.

50. Ibid., 948.

51. Moll, Albert , Untersuchungen über die Libido sexualis (Berlin: Fischer’s Medicinische Buchhandlung, 1898), 421–5 and 325, note. Moll did not entirely agree with Dessoir’s definition of the first phase as undifferentiated. Instead, he assumed that the sexual drive in childhood was not always undifferentiated, as in some cases a heterosexual tendency in childhood remained heterosexual after puberty, and likewise a homosexual tendency continued after puberty (ibid., 426–7).

52. Ibid., 8–11.

53. For instance, in Johann Erdwin Christoph Ebermaier, Taschenbuch der Chirurgie für angehende practische Aerzte und Wundärzte, 3rd rev. edn (Leipzig: Barth, 1819), Vol. 2, 545.

54. For instance in the journal Rechtsprechung und Medizinal-Gesetzgebung, 7 (1897), 453.

55. ‘an den Genitalien eine Veränderung herbeizuführen’, Moll, op. cit. (note 51), 10.

56. Ibid., 10 (note 1).

57. Ibid., 10.

58. Ibid., 44–5. Although having interviewed many people, Moll was unable to find out which of the two developed first more often, but presumed that in most cases the impulse to touch the genitals, the Detumescenztrieb, developed first (ibid., 54). This would be supported by the observations of the Italian psychiatrist and director of the asylum in Catanzaro, Silvio Venturi (1850–1900), who, according to Moll, suggested that temporary masturbation could be explained physiologically, Silvio Venturi, Le degenerazioni psico-sessuali nella vita degli individui e nella storia delle societa (Turin: Bocca, 1892), 6–8.

59. Moll, op. cit. (note 51), 43–4.

60. Ibid., 44.

61. Ibid., 55. However, even those social feelings, such as a child’s love for the parent, could have a sexual element, for instance, when the child experienced pleasure (Lust) when kissing the mother, or jealousy when the mother paid more attention to another child. R. Speyer reported of several cases of children showing passionate feelings of love, jealousy and hatred (towards other children or adults) in letters, R. Speyer, ‘Die Liebe bei den Kindern’, Zeitschrift für Kinderforschung, 9, 1 (1904), 21–5.

62. Groos, Karl , Die Spiele der Thiere (Jena: Fischer, 1896). Moll referred to pages 6, 230–2, and 253–5.

63. Moll, op. cit. (note 51), 44, 437.

64. ‘[D]ass diese Beobachtungen in der Tierwelt ungemein wichtig sind, um den Glauben zu zerstören, dass die körperliche Pubertät eine Vorbedingung für die sexuelle Zuneigung der Geschlechter sei…’. Ibid., 44.

65. Ibid., 45.

66. Ibid., 13–4 (‘masslosesten Masturbationsakten’).

67. ‘Es ist auch eine Art Wollustgefühl, eine Art Kitzel, den derartige Personen an den Genitalien empfinden oder empfinden wollen, wobei es lange Zeit vor der Pubertät zu Erektionen kommen kann.’ Ibid., 45–6: 46. Moll referred here to a case of a one-and-a-half-year-old girl who was seen playing at her genitals with her fingers, ibid., 50.

68. Ibid., 46–7.

69. On the contemporary knowledge about hormones and the function of the gonads, see Chandak Sengoopta, The Most Secret Quintessence of Life: Sex, Glands, and Hormones, 1850–1950 (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2006), ch. 2. Moll did not make any reference to the emerging endocrinological literature.

70. Moll, op. cit. (note 51), 50–1.

71. Ibid., 51–2. However, Moll made a distinction between the two drives. The detumescence-impulse, he thought, was a direct consequence of the gonads, at least in men, whereas in women during intercourse the detumescence-impulse was separated from the functioning of the gonads. Originally, in men, the detumescence-impulse was nothing more than the urge to empty glandular secretions, an urge Moll likened to the urge to empty one’s full bladder (ibid., 52–3). The contrectation-impulse, in contrast, he interpreted as an indirect consequence of the gonads that could only be understood from an evolutionary perspective in relation to the purpose of the genitals (ibid., 53). Moll explained this indirect effect of the gonads as excitement (Erregung) stemming from the testicles or ovaries. This excitement, however, he understood to be probably independent from the secretion of semen or from ovulation (ibid., 55).

72. See for instance, Oosterhuis, op. cit. (note 25), 46.

73. Sulloway, op. cit. (note 5), 430.

74. An anonymous review appeared in Journal of Mental Science, 44 (1898), 347–9; and Albert Eulenburg reviewed the book for the Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift, 27 (1901), 26.

75. Havelock Ellis, ‘Auto-Erotism: A Psychological Study’, The Alienist and Neurologist, 19 (1898), 260-99; cf. Ivan Crozier, ‘Introduction: Havelock Ellis, John Addington Symonds and the construction of “sexual inversion” ’, in idem (ed.), Havelock Ellis and John Addington Symonds, Sexual Inversion: A Critical Edition (Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 1–86.

76. Ellis, ibid., 283.

77. Ibid., 283–4.

78. Ibid., 270; Ellis referred to a paper by Charles Townsend, ‘Thigh Friction in Children Under One Year’, Transactions of the American Pediatric Society, 8 (1896), 186–9.

79. ‘das eigenartige und unzweifelhaft bedeutende Werk’, Eulenburg, op. cit. (note 74).

80. Sulloway, op. cit. (note 5), 699–702.

81. Letter 146 (14 November 1897), Masson (ed.), op. cit. (note 41), 302. See Moll, op. cit. (note 51), 93.

82. See Freud’s copy of Moll, op. cit. (note 51), in The Freud Museum, London (shelfmark 1378), 44. According to the Museum’s librarian, Keith Davis, it is certain that these marginal markings are from Freud as they are consistent with his writing and annotations in other books. See, on markings in Freud’s books and their complexity; Gerhard Fichtner, ‘ “Favourite food, books”: Freud’s library and its significance for his life and work’, in J. Keith Davis and Gerhard Fichtner (eds), Freud’s Library: A Comprehensive Catalogue / Freuds Bibliothek: vollständiger Katalog (London: The Freud Museum and Tübingen: Edition Diskord, 2006), 9–77: 31–8.

83. Freud first indicated in September 1897 that he had developed serious doubts about his seduction theory during the previous couple of months; Letter 139 (21 September 1897), Masson (ed.), op. cit. (note 41), 283–5; for detailed accounts of Freud’s retreat from his seduction theory, see Esterson, op. cit. (note 41); Israëls and Schatzman, op. cit. (note 41), 39–56.

84. Sulloway, op. cit. (note 5), 433–5.

85. Oosterhuis, op. cit. (note 25), 88–9; Sulloway, op. cit. (note 5), 433. Moll and Krafft-Ebing regularly corresponded (Sulloway, ibid., 418), and Sulloway suggests that Krafft-Ebing became convinced about the flaws of Freud’s seduction theory by Moll’s case about epidemic mutual masturbation at a Berlin boarding school, that I have mentioned above.

86. ‘Nach der Überwindung dieses Irrtums eröffnete sich der Einblick in die spontanen Äußerungen der kindlichen Sexualität…’, as Freud explained his change of mind in 1924 in a new footnote to an article he had originally published in 1896 (‘Weitere Bemerkungen über die Abwehr-Neuropsychosen’), quote in Masson (ed.), op. cit. (note 41), 285 (note 4).

87. ‘…aller psychischer und vieler somatischer Sexualleistungen fähig…’, Sigmund Freud, ‘Die Sexualität in der Ätiologie der Neurosen (1898)’, in idem, Studienausgabe, op. cit. (note 6), Vol. 5, 12–35: 31; also in idem, Gesammelte Werke, op. cit. (note 6), Vol. 1 (London: Imago, 1952), 489–516: 511; English translation: Sigmund Freud, ‘Sexuality in the Aetiology of the Neuroses’, in idem, Standard Edition, op. cit. (note 43), Vol. 3, 259–85: 280.

88. Freud, ‘Sexualität’, ibid., 31; English translation, ibid., 280–1; see also, Sulloway, op. cit. (note 5), 255–6.

89. ‘Auf die Frage, was in der ersten Kindheit vorgefallen, lautet die Antwort: Nichts, aber es war ein Keim sexueller Regung da.’ Letter 188 (3 January 1899), Masson (ed.), op. cit. (note 41), 370.

90. Davidson, op. cit. (note 7).

91. ‘…daß das Neugeborene Keime von sexuellen Regungen mitbringt, die sich eine Zeitlang weiterentwickeln, dann aber einer Fortschreitenden Unterdrückung unterliegen, welche selbst wieder durch regelrechte Vorstöße der Sexualentwicklung durchbrochen und durch individuelle Eigenheiten aufgehalten werden kann’. Freud, ‘Drei Abhandlungen’, op. cit. (note 6), 84; translation slightly modified, Sigmund Freud, ‘Three essays on the theory of sexuality’, in idem, Standard Edition, op. cit. (note 43), Vol. 7 (1953), 123–243: 176.

92. ‘Gesetzmäßigkeit eines Sexualtriebes in der Kindheit’, Freud, ‘Drei Abhandlungen’, op. cit. (note 6), 81; translation idem, ‘Three Essays’, op. cit. (note 91), 173.

93. Moll, Albert , Ein Leben als Arzt der Seele: Erinnerungen (Dresden: Reissner, 1936), 146.

94. Freud, ‘Drei Abhandlungen’, op. cit. (note 6), 82–4.

95. ‘für die Entstehung gewisser wichtiger, vom Geschlechtsleben abhängiger Phänomene’, ibid., 84; translation idem, ‘Three Essays’, op. cit. (note 91), 176.

96. Freud, ‘Ätiologie der Hysterie’, op. cit. (note 41), 63; English translation idem, ‘The Aetiology of Hysteria (1896)’, in idem, Standard Edition, op. cit. (note 43), Vol. 3 (1962), 187–221: 202.

97. Freud, ‘Drei Abhandlungen’, op. cit. (note 6), 82–4, 87.

98. Ibid., 89.

99. Freud acknowledged Lindner’s article from 1879 [op. cit. (note 35)] but criticised Moll’s interpretation of thumb sucking; Freud, ‘Drei Abhandlungen’, op. cit. (note 6), 87-9.

100. Ibid., 90–5.

101. Ibid., 106-09.

102. Ibid., 94 (note 1); translation Freud, ‘Three Essays’, op. cit. (note 91), 188 (note 1); Freud removed the reference to nature in later editions of the essays as he had been criticised for its teleological implication. See also Sulloway, op. cit. (note 5), 435–6. In his copy of Moll’s book, Freud had annotated the paragraph where the relevance of childhood play as an adaptive ‘pre-activity’ for the sexual drive in adulthood was explained; see Moll, op. cit. (note 51), in The Freud Museum, London (shelfmark 1378), 44.

103. ‘…die tiefsten (unbewußten) Eindrucksspuren im Gedächnis der Person…’, Freud, ‘Drei Abhandlungen’, op. cit. (note 6), 95–7: 95; translation idem, ‘Three Essays’, op. cit. (note 91), 189–91: 189.

104. Freud, ‘Drei Abhandlungen’, ibid., 97–8.

105. Freud, Sigmund , ‘Über infantile Sexualtheorien (1908)’, in idem, Studienausgabe, op. cit. (note 6), 169–84; also in idem, Gesammelte Werke, op. cit. (note 6), Vol. 7 (London: Imago, 1941), 171–88.

106. Freud, ‘Drei Abhandlungen’, op. cit. (note 6), 100–2.

107. Freud, Sigmund , ‘Die infantile Genitalorganisation: (Eine Einschaltung in die Sexualtheorie) (1923)’, in idem, Studienausgabe, op. cit. (note 6), 235–41: 237; also in idem, Gesammelte Werk, op. cit. (note 6), Vol. 13 (London: Imago, 1940), 293–8.

108. Moll, Albert , Das Sexualleben des Kindes (Berlin: Walther, 1909), 13. The distinction between Moll’s narrower and Freud’s much wider definitions of sexuality was already noted by some contemporary reviewers, eg. L. B., The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 42 (1915), 719–20: 719.

109. Wagner, Nike , Geist und Geschlecht: Karl Kraus und die Erotik der Wiener Moderne (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1981); Gilman, op. cit. (note 12), 41–2 on child prostitutes in Vienna.

110. See, for instance, with numerous examples, the exhibition catalogue by Tobias Natter and Max Hollein (eds): Die nackte Wahrheit: Klimt, Schiele, Kokoschka und andere Skandale (Munich: Prestel, 2005); Patrick Werkner, ‘The child–woman and hysteria: images of the female body in the art of Schiele, in Viennese modernism, and today’, in idem (ed.), Egon Schiele: Art, Sexuality, and Viennese Modernism (Palo Alto: Society for the Promotion of Science and Scholarship, 1994), 51–78.

111. Keiser, Brenda , ‘The “süßes Mädel” in Fin-de-Siècle and Modern Vienna’, in Christiane Schönfeld (ed.), Commodities of Desire: The Prostitute in Modern German Literature (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2000), 62–76.

112. Altenberg not only wrote erotic sketches with young girls as the object of desire (eg. Peter Altenberg, ‘Musik’, in idem, Wie ich es sehe (Berlin: Fischer, 1896), 57). He also collected a large number of picture postcards and had photographs taken of young girls he favoured and admired, many of them in the nude and put on display on the walls of his room in the Grabenhotel where he lived. Hans Christian Kosler (ed.), Peter Altenberg: Leben und Werk in Texten und Bildern (Munich: Matthes & Seitz, 1981), with images from Altenberg’s collection; Werkner, op. cit. (note 110), 62, 64; Leo Lensing, ‘Peter Altenberg’s fabricated photographs: literature and photography in fin-de-siècle Vienna’, in Edward Timms and Ritchie Robertson (eds), Vienna 1900: From Altenberg to Wittgenstein (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1990), 47–72; Gilman, op. cit. (note 12), 48–50; Wolfgang Till, ‘Zwei galante Sammler aus Wien: Anton Pachinger und Peter Altenberg‘, in Michael Köhler and Gisela Barche (eds), Das Aktfoto: Ansichten vom Körper im fotografischen Zeitalter: Ästhetik, Geschichte, Ideologie, rev. edn (Munich: Bucher, 1996), 285–8.

113. Wittels gained some prominence in Vienna with articles he published in Kraus’ Die Fackel. He later fell out with Kraus when he began an affair with one of Kraus’ girlfriends, the teenage actress Irma Karczewska, who became the archetype for the ‘child–woman’. Fritz Wittels, Freud and the Child Woman: The Memoirs of Fritz Wittels, Edward Timms (ed.) (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995); Leo Lensing: ‘ “Freud and the Child Woman” or “The Kraus Affair”? A Textual “Reconstruction” of Fritz Wittels’s Psychoanalytic Autobiography’, The German Quarterly, 69 (1996), 322–32; Edward Timms, ‘The “Child–Woman”: Kraus, Freud, Wittels, and Irma Karczewska in Fin-de-Siècle Vienna’, in Timms and Robertson (eds), ibid., 87–107.

114. Loos commented in an essay in 1902, ‘There was a call for youth. The child–woman came into fashion. There was thirst after immaturity.’ Adolf Loos: ‘Damenmode’, Dokumente der Frauen, 6, 23 (1902), 660–4: 661–2 (‘Der Ruf nach Jugend erscholl. Das Weibkind kam in Mode. Man lechzte nach Unreife.’). In 1928 he came into conflict with the law when he was accused of sexually molesting and abusing underage girls in the Vienna Forest; Werkner, op. cit. (note 110), 62, 64, 66–8; Klaralinda Ma: ‘Der “Fall” Loos’, in Inge Podbrecky and Rainald Franz (eds), Leben mit Loos (Vienna, Cologne & Weimar: Böhlau, 2008) 161–72.

115. ‘Lauter fünfzehnjährige Mädel hätten Deinen Sarg tragen sollen.’ Alfred Kerr, ‘Dem toten Peter Altenberg’, Die Neue Rundschau, 30 (1919), 329–35: 335.

116. Avicenna (ie. Fritz Wittels), ‘Das Kindweib’, Die Fackel, 9, 230–1 (15 July 1907), 14–33: 14.

117. Wittels, op. cit. (note 113), ch. 5; Lensing, op. cit. (note 113); Timms, ‘Child–Woman’, op. cit. (note 113); Wagner, op. cit. (note 109), 134–6.

118. Natter, Tobias , ‘Über die Grenzen des Ausstellbaren – Das Nackte und das Öffentliche in der Wiener Kunst um 1900’, in Natter and Hollein (eds), op. cit. (note 110), 17–41: 38–41; Werkner, op. cit. (note 110), 68.

119. Mutzenbacher, Josefine , Die Lebensgeschichte einer wienerischen Dirne, von ihr selbst erzählt (Reinbek: Rowohlt, 1978) (first, Vienna: Fritz Freund, 1906). It is not clear who the author was, but Felix Salten (1869–1945), the author of Bambi, has been alleged to have written the novel, although he had denied this. See K.H. Kramberg, ‘Vorbemerkung’, in Mutzenbacher, ibid., 5–6; Gilman, op. cit. (note 12), 44–8.

120. Mutzenbacher, ibid., 8–12.

121. ‘Ich war erst sieben Jahre alt, aber meine Geschlechtlichkeit kam voll zum Ausbruch.’ Ibid., 12.

122. Gilman, op. cit. (note 12), 46.

123. Ibid., 50–4.

124. Smith, Alison  (ed.), Prüderie und Leidenschaft: Der Akt in viktorianischer Zeit (Ostfildern-Ruit: Cantz, 2001), 166–8, 178, 251, 262, 268–75, and 278–9; Claudia Nelson, ‘That Other Eden: Adult Education and Youthful Sexuality in “The Pearl”, 1879–1880’, in Claudia Nelson and Michelle Martin (eds), Sexual Pedagogies: Sex Education in Britain, Australia, and America, 1879–2000 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), 15–32; Sally Shuttleworth, The Mind of the Child: Child Development in Literature, Science, and Medicine, 1840–1900 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 213–20. One of the most famous examples was Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) and his fascination with young girls, whom he photographed in the nude from the late 1860s. Researchers on Carroll are much divided about how to interpret Carroll’s photographs. Some scholars (eg. Morton Cohen) defend them as representations of innocence and others, such as art historian Carol Mavor, emphasise their sexual nature; Morton Cohen, Lewis Carroll, Photographer of Children: Four Nude Studies (New York: Potter, 1978), 5–6; Carol Mavor, ‘Dream-rushes: Lewis Carroll’s photographs of the Little Girl’, in Claudia Nelson and Lynne Vallone (eds), The Girl’s Own: Cultural Histories of the Anglo-American Girl, 1830–1915 (Athens and London: University of Georgia Press, 1994), 156–93.

125. Sauerteig, Lutz , Krankheit, Sexualitat, Gesellschaft: Geschlechtskrankheiten und Gesundheitspolitik in Deutschland im 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert (Stuttgart: Steiner, 1999); Dorothy Rowe, Representing Berlin: Sexuality and the City in Imperial and Weimar Germany (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003); Joachim Schlör, Nights in the Big City: Paris, Berlin, London 1840–1930, P.G. Imhof and D.R. Roberts (trans.) (London: Reaktion, 1998) ch. IV; Ulfried Geuter, Homosexualität in der deutschen Jugendbewegung. Jugendfreundschaft und Sexualität im Diskurs von Jugendbewegung, Psychoanalyse und Jugendpsychologie am Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1994); Maren Möhring, Marmorleiber: Körperbildung in der deutschen Nacktkultur (1890–1930) (Cologne: Böhlau, 2004); Karl Toepfer, Empire of Ecstasy: Nudity and Movement in German Body Culture, 1910–1935 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997); Frank Bösch, ‘Das Private wird politisch. Die Sexualität des Politikers und die Massenmedien des ausgehenden 19. Jahrhunderts’, Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft, 52 (2004), 781–801; Kerchner, op. cit. (note 29).

126. Moll, op. cit. (note 93), 174–7: 175; idem, op. cit. (note 108), 183–4; Hugo Friedländer, Interessante Kriminal-Prozesse von kulturhistorischer Bedeutung. Darstellung merkwürdiger Strafrechtsfälle aus Gegenwart und Jüngstvergangenheit, 11 vols, Vol. 2 (Berlin: Barsdorf, 1911), 229–319.

127. Moll, op. cit. (note 108); there is an earlier edition of Das Sexualleben des Kindes (Leipzig: Vogel, 1908). In 1912, Moll’s book was translated into English: idem, The Sexual Life of the Child, E. Paul (trans.) (London: Allen, 1912), repr. 1929.

128. See, for example, (Oscar) Rie, Wiener klinische Rundschau, 22 (1908), 796–7; James Heymann, Zeitschrift für pädagogische Psychologie, Pathologie und Hygiene, 10 (1908/09), 358–65; Saenger, Das Schulzimmer, 7, 2 (1909), 132–3; Pädagogische Zeitung, Literarische Beilage, 34, 5 (1909), 29; (Friedrich) Siebert, Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 56, 20 (1909), 1029–30; Karl Gumpertz, Deutsche Medizinische Presse, 13, 20 (1909), 157; Otto Adler, Geschlecht und Gesellschaft, 4 (1909), 442–53; Fürstenheim, Jahrbuch für Kinderheilkunde und physische Erziehung, 60 (1909), 372–4; Grätzer, Zentralblatt für Kinderheilkunde, 14 (1909), 83; (Wilhelm) Wechselmann, Sexual-Probleme, 5 (1909), 59–61; (Karl) Abraham, Centralblatt für Nervenheilkunde und Psychiatrie, 32 (1909), 446; Bs., Zeitschrift für Krüppelfürsorge, 2 (1909/10), 138–9; Numa Praetorius (Eugen Daniel Wilhelm), Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen, 1 (=10) (1909/10), 87–93; Karl Wilker, Die Neue Generation, 6 (1910), 167–9; Ernst Levy, Zeitschrift für pädagogische Psychologie und experimentelle Pädagogik, 12 (1911), 493–4; Die höhere Mädchenschule, 25 (1912), 149; W.C.B. (William Chandler Bagley), Journal of Educational Psychology, 4 (1913), 102–3. Reports in Archiv für Kinderheilkunde, 49 (1909), 464; Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 36 (1910), 862–3; Die höhere Mädchenschule, 25 (1912), 149; American Journal of Psychology, 24 (1913), 285; American Journal of Medical Sciences, 147 (1914), 753.

129. Agahd, Konrad and Kühne, Walter , Die Kinderfehler, 14 (1909), 253256.

130. ‘[F]üllt…eine Lücke aus, da wir bisher eine so umfangreiche und ausführliche Darstellung aller Erscheinungen des sexuellen Lebens des Kindes nicht besitzen.’ (Emil) Meirowsky, Zeitschrift für Bekämpfung der Geschlechtskrankheiten, 10 (1909/10), 255.

131. Näcke, P(aul) , Archiv für Kriminal-Anthropologie und Kriminalistik, 21 (1911), 165; Näcke, however, disagreed with Moll’s view on homosexuality and instead supported Hirschfeld.

132. Müller, Robert , Sexualbiologie: Vergleichend-entwicklungsgeschichtliche Studien über das Geschlechtsleben des Menschen und der höheren Tiere (Berlin: Marcus, 1907); see Sulloway, op. cit. (note 5), 431.

133. Edgar, John , Mind, N.S. 22 (1913), 299301: 300.

134. The Athenaeum (London), 4428 (7 September 1912), 250.

135. Birk, Monatsschrift für Kinderheilkunde, 8 (1909), 50–1.

136. Moll, op. cit. (note 108), 46–102.

137. Moll referred here to Sanford Bell, ‘A Preliminary Study of the Emotion of Love Between the Sexes’, The American Journal of Psychology, 13, 2 (1902), 325–54. Bell had been a student of G. Stanley Hall (cf. above note 10), at Clark University where Freud received an honorary doctorate in 1909.

138. Moll, op. cit. (note 108), 63.

139. ‘In der sogenannten Entwicklungszeit bricht dann gewöhnlich das Normale durch. Die Undifferenziertheit des Seelenlebens in der Kindheit lässt es verstehen, dass nicht ohne weitres solche konträr sexuellen Neigungen des Kindes auf das spätre dauernde Bestehenbleiben und die weitre Entwicklung konträr sexueller Eigenschaften hinweisen’. Moll, ibid., 113; idem, op. cit. (note 127), 126 (my own translation).

140. ‘[D]ass sexuelle Erscheinungen in der Kindheit an sich nicht pathologisch sind’, Moll, op. cit. (note 108), 131; idem, op. cit. (note 127), 146.

141. Moll, op. cit. (note 108), 133.

142. Ibid., 153.

143. ‘Was er aber darüber bringt und als Symptome infantiler Sexualität schildert…hat meiner Meinung nach mit dem Geschlechtsleben des Kindes nicht zu tun…’, Moll, op. cit. (note 108), 13; translation, slightly rephrased, idem, op. cit. (note 127), 14. Moll repeated his criticism of Freud several times throughout his study, see, for example, idem, op. cit. (note 108), 154; Freud, ‘Drei Abhandlungen’, op. cit. (note 6), 87–9, had followed Lindner [op. cit. (note 35)], whose claims Moll rejected in op. cit. (note 108), 155.

144. Moll, op. cit. (note 108), 53–4.

145. ‘Ueberhaupt tun wir gut, das Sexualleben des Kindes vorsichtig zu begrenzen’. Ibid., 156–8, 161: 156.

146. ‘Jedenfalls hat Freud nicht in systematischer Weise die einzelnen Aeusserungen des Sexuallebens beim Kinde untersucht’. Ibid., 13; Moll, op. cit. (note 127), 14. See Moll’s critique of Freud’s seduction theory and his theory of the sexual aetiology of neuroses, Moll, op. cit. (note 108), 171–3.

147. Shamdasani, Sonu , Jung and the Making of Modern Psychology: The Dream of a Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 2; from a Freudian perspective, Peter Gay, Freud: A Life for our Time (1988) (repr. London: Max, 2006), 197–206 and 218–43.

148. ‘…eine Konstatierung aus dem Leben des Erwachsenen in die Seele des Kindes projizieren’. Carl Gustav Jung, ‘Versuch einer Darstellung der psychoanalytischen Theorie’, in idem (ed.), Gesammelte Werke, Vol. 4: Freud und die Psychoanalyse (Zurich and Stuttgart: Rascher, 1969), 107–255: 131; first published in Jahrbuch für psychoanalytische und psychopathologische Forschungen, 5 (1913). On Jung’s libido theory, see Shamdasani, ibid., 210–13, 220–30 and 243–51; George Makari, Revolution in Mind: The Creation of Psychoanalysis (New York: Harper Collins, 2008), 267–79.

149. Jung, ibid., 128–31. A similar point was made by Eugen Bleuler, Jung’s former chief, in 1912, although he thought Jung had gone too far in de-sexualising libido. Bleuler saw himself standing somewhere between Freud and Jung in this respect but leaning more towards Freud; Shamdasani, ibid., 224–5.

150. Jung, ibid., 141, 152–3. In a later lecture on the Oedipus complex, Jung slightly rephrased his claim stating that in early infanthood the sexual element is ‘evanescent (verschwindend) small’, ibid., 179.

151. ‘Perversitäten sind Störprodukte der ausgebildeten Sexualität, aber niemals die Vorstufen der Sexualität…’, ibid., 153.

152. Ibid., 142.

153. Shamdasani, op. cit. (note 147), 226.

154. Bühring, Gerald , William Stern oder Streben nach Einheit (Frankfurt: Lang, 1996). On the strained relationship between Stern and Freud and other psychoanalysts, ibid., 64–79; Angela Graf-Nold, ‘Stern versus Freud: Die Kontroverse um die Kinder-Psychoanalyse. Vorgeschichte und Folgen’, in Werner Deutsch (ed.), Über die verborgene Aktualität von William Stern (Frankfurt: Lang, 1991), 49–91; Peter Dudek, Jugend als Objekt der Wissenschaften: Geschichte der Jugendforschung in Deutschland und Österreich 1890–1933 (Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1990), 111–13.

155. ‘Sie halten das für eine allgemeine Eigenschaft der Menschen, was in Wirklichkeit höchstens einem bestimmten psychologischen Typus zukommt’, William Stern, ‘Die Anwendung der Psychoanalyse auf Kindheit und Jugend. Ein Protest. Mit einem Anhang: Kritik einer Freudschen Kindes-Psychoanalyse, von Clara und William Stern’, Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie und psychologische Sammelforschung, 8 (1913/4), 71–101: 73.

156. Ibid., 76.

157. Ibid., 77–8; on the harm suggestions were causing, 94–7.

158. Ibid., 86–7; Bühring, op. cit. (note 154), 72–3.

159. Lensing, op. cit. (note 113).

160. ‘Psychoanalyse ist jene Geisteskrankheit, für deren Therapie sie sich hält.’ Karl Kraus, (Aphorisms), Die Fackel, 15, 376 (30 May 1913), 21. On the relationship between Kraus and Freud, Wagner, op. cit. (note 109), 118–31.

161. Bühler, Charlotte , ‘Zum Problem der sexuellen Entwicklung’, Zeitschrift für Kinderheilkunde, 51(1931), 612642; Charlotte Bühler, ‘Zum Problem der sexuellen Entwicklung: Replik auf die kritischen Bemerkungen von J.K. Friedjung’, Zeitschrift für Kinderheilkunde, 52 (1931/2), 295–8. On Bühler, see Gerald Bühring, Charlotte Bühler oder Der Lebenslauf als psychologisches Problem (Frankfurt: Lang, 2007).

162. Bühler, ‘Zum Problem’, ibid., 613.

163. Ibid., 623–9; Bühler (ibid., 625) referred to Moll’s book [op. cit. (note 108)].

164. ‘[U]nzulängliches, minderwertiges und vor allem als ein unredliches Buch’, Herman Nunberg and Ernst Federn (eds), Protokolle der Wiener Psychoanalytischen Vereinigung, 4 vols, Vol. 2, 1908–1910 (Frankfurt: Fischer, 1977), minutes 58, 11 November 1908, 39–47: 43–4; Herman Nunberg and Ernst Federn (eds), Minutes of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, Vol. 2 (New York: International University Press, 1967), 43–52: 48. A few days before the meeting, Freud had made a similar negative comment in a letter to C.G. Jung calling Moll’s book ‘dishonest and incompetent’, Sigmund Freud, ‘(Letter 112F to Jung, 8 November 1908)’, in William McGuire (ed.), The Freud/Jung Letters: The Correspondence Between Sigmund Freud and C.G. Jung, Ralph Manheim and R.F.C. Hull (trans.) abridged by Alan McGlashan (London: Penguin, 1991), 125–6: 126; cf. Sulloway, op. cit. (note 5), 636–43; Volkmar Sigusch’s paper in this issue.

165. Freud, Sigmund , Letter 114F to Jung (12 November 1908), in McGuire (ed.), ibid., 127.

166. Moll, op. cit. (note 93), 54–5; Sigmund Freud, Letter 141F to Jung (16 May 1909), in McGuire (ed.), ibid., 147–8: 148.

167. Freud, ‘Drei Abhandlungen’, op. cit. (note 6), 81–2 (note 2); Isidor Sadger, ‘Sexualität und Erotik im Kindesalter. Eine psychoanalytische Studie’, Moderne Medizin, 6 (1915), 11–17 and 21–7: 16.

168. Oosterhuis, op. cit. (note 25), 279.

169. Sulloway, op. cit. (note 5), 415–6; Makari, op. cit. (note 148); Gebhardt, op. cit. (note 9), ch. 1; Dudek, op. cit. (note 154), chs 5 and 7; Bühring, op. cit. (note 154).

170. See, for instance, Makari, op. cit. (note 148); Gay, op. cit. (note 147).

171. Rie, op. cit. (note 128).

172. Jones, Ernest , Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, 10 (1913), 188190: 189; likewise Otto Rank (Internationale Zeitschrift für ärztliche Psychoanalyse, 2 (1914), 284–6: 285) in a review of Moll’s Handbuch der Sexualwissenschaften, claiming that Moll discovered childhood sexuality four years after Freud.

173. L.B., op. cit. (note 108), 719.

174. Friedjung, Josef K. , Die kindliche Sexualität und ihre Bedeutung für Erziehung und ärztliche Praxis (Berlin: Springer, 1923) (offprint from, Ergebnisse der inneren Medizin und Kinderheilkunde, Vol. 24), 5–6.

175. Blüher, Hans , Die Wandervogelbewegung als erotisches Phänomen. Ein Beitrag zur Erkenntnis der sexuellen Inversion (Berlin: Weise, 1912), cf. Geuter, op. cit. (note 125), 84 and 276.

176. Rie, op. cit. (note 128), 797; The Athenaeum, op. cit. (note 134). A reviewer for the American Journal of Psychology, op. cit. (note 128), even suggested an abridged version of Moll’s book to be published with his conclusions and recommendations but without all the details.

177. However, not all psychoanalysts agreed with Freud. Wilhelm Stekel, for instance, did not believe masturbation was pathological as such; rather, the pathological effect was caused by those fighting against masturbation. Nunberg and Federn (eds), op. cit. (note 164), Vol. 1, 1906–1908 (1976), 264–8; Vol. 2, 1908–1910 (1977), 502–28; Vol. 3, 1910–1911 (1979), 306–13, 321–30 and 339–47; Vol. 4, 1912–1918 (1981), 18–25, 32–9, 53–7, 63–76 and 86–90.

I am very grateful to Rosemary Elliot, Hans-Georg Hofer, James Kennaway, to our research associate, Sebastian Pranghofer, and to the two anonymous reviewers whose comments and critique helped me to sharpen my argument. I am also indebted to questions and comments from participants in research seminars at the universities of Warwick, Leeds and Oxford, UCL and the Institute for Historical Research, London, where I had the opportunity to present and discuss different versions of this paper. Great thanks go to the Wellcome Trust for its continuous support of my research and to Mike Laycock for his editorial assistance. Any flaws are my own responsibility.

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