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‘We Won’t Ban Castrating Pervs Despite What Europe Might Think!’: Czech Medical Sexology and the Practice of Therapeutic Castration

  • Kateřina Lišková (a1) and Andrea Bělehradová (a1)

Abstract

The Czech Republic holds one of the highest numbers of men labelled as sexual delinquents worldwide who have undergone the irreversible process of surgical castration – a policy that has elicited strong international criticism. Nevertheless, Czech sexology has not changed its attitude towards ‘therapeutic castration’, which remains widely accepted and practised. In this paper, we analyse the negotiation of expertise supporting castration and demonstrate how the changes in institutional matrices and networks of experts (Eyal 2013) have impacted the categorisation of patients and the methods of treatment. Our research shows the great importance of historical development that tied Czech sexology with the state. Indeed, Czech sexology has been profoundly institutionalised since the early 1970s. In accordance with the state politics of that era, officially named Normalisation, sexology focused on sexual deviants and began creating a treatment programme that included therapeutic castration. This practice, the aim of which is to protect society from sex offenders, has changed little since. We argue that it is the expert–state alliance that enables Czech sexologists to preserve the status quo in the treatment of sexual delinquents despite international pressure. Our research underscores the continuity in medical practice despite the regime change in 1989. With regard to previous scholarship on state-socialist Czechoslovakia, we argue that it was the medical mainstream that developed and sustained disciplining and punitive features.

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Corresponding author

*Email address for correspondence: katerina@fss.muni.cz

Footnotes

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This research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation, grant agreement number 16-10639Y. We would like to thank our anonymous reviewers for their helpful suggestions.

Footnotes

References

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1. CNN, ‘Rights Group Calls to Ban Czech Castration Law’, 5 February 2009, http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/europe/02/05/czech.castrate/(accessed 18 August 2018).

2. For example, there was an article from the BBC: BBC, Czechs Criticised over Castration, 5 February 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7871783.stm(accessed 18 August 2018).

3. Weiss, Petr, Poruchy Sexuální Preference (Praha: Galén, 2017), 339.

4. CPT, Report to the Czech Government on the Visit to the Czech Republic Carried out by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) from 27 March to 7 April 2006 and from 21 to 24 June 2006, 12 July 2007, https://rm.coe.int/1680695657(accessed 18 August 2018); CPT, Report to the Czech Government on the Visit to the Czech Republic Carried out by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) from 25 March to 2 April 2008, 5 February 2009, https://rm.coe.int/1680695679 (accessed 18 August 2018).

5. Czech Government, Response of the Czech Government to the Report of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) on Its Visit to the Czech Republic from 25 March to 2 April 2008, 5 February 2009, https://rm.coe.int/168069567b(accessed 18 August 2018).

6. Ministerstvo zdravotnictví České republiky, Vláda schválila novelu zákona o specifických zdravotních službách, 7 July 2016, http://www.mzcr.cz/dokumenty/vlada-schvalila-novelu-zakona-o-specifickych-zdravotnich-sluzbach_12280_3438_1.html(accessed 18 August 2018).

7. In the Netherlands, for example, surgical castration was practised on socially perceived sexual delinquents (as such, homosexuals were targeted); however, this was abandoned by the end of the 1960s. Roland M. Bertens, ‘Zedendelinquentie en chirurgische castratie’, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 21 May 2018, https://www.ntvg.nl/artikelen/zedendelinquentie-en-chirurgische-castratie/artikelinfo(accessed 18 August 2018).

8. Hacking, Ian, Rewriting the Soul: Multiple Personality and the Sciences of Memory (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995), 6.

9. Hacking, Ian, The Social Construction of What? (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003), 34.

10. Eyal, Gil, ‘For a Sociology of Expertise: The Social Origins of the Autism Epidemic’, American Journal of Sociology, 118, 4 (2013), 863.

11. Ibid., 899.

12. Delano Abbott, Andrew, Time Matters: On Theory and Method (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001).

13. Ibid., 289.

14. Ibid., 291.

15. We would like to thank Lucia Moravanská for drawing our attention to criminological sources.

16. Filip Kapras, interview with Andrea Bělehradová, Horní Beřkovice, 4 May 2015.

17. Jiří Švarc, interview with Andrea Bělehradová, Prague, 15 April 2015.

18. Zuzana Řeřichová, interview with Andrea Bělehradová, Prague, 15 April 2015.

19. Savelli, Mat and Marks, Sarah (eds), Psychiatry in Communist Europe (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015).

20. Sirotkina, Irina and Kokorina, Marina, ‘The dialectics of labour in a psychiatric ward: Work therapy in the Kaschenko hospital’, in Savelli, Mat and Marks, Sarah (eds), Psychiatry in Communist Europe (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), 2749.

21. Savelli, Mat, ‘Blame George Harrison: Drug use and psychiatry in communist Yugoslavia’, in Savelli, Mat and Marks, Sarah (eds), Psychiatry in Communist Europe (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), 180195.

22. Zajicek, Benjamin, Scientific Psychiatry in Stalins Soviet Union: The Politics of Modern Medicine and the Struggle to Define ‘Pavlovian’ Psychiatry, 1939–53 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2009); Robert van Voren, Cold War in Psychiatry: Human Factors, Secret Actors (New York: Rodopi, 2010).

23. Savelli and Marks, op. cit. (note 19).

24. Marks, Sarah, ‘Ecology, humanism and mental health in communist Czechoslovakia’, in Savelli, Mat and Marks, Sarah (eds), Psychiatry in Communist Europe (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), 135.

25. Hoffman, Lily M., ‘Professional Autonomy Reconsidered: The Case of Medicine under State Socialism’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 39, 2 (2012), 346372.

26. Dudová, Radka, ‘Regulation of Abortion as State-Socialist Governmentality: The Case of Czechoslovakia’, Politics and Gender, 8, 1 (2012), 140.

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28. Hrešanová, Ema, ‘The Psychoprophylactic Method of Painless Childbirth in Socialist Czechoslovakia: From State Propaganda to Activism of Enthusiasts’, Medical History, 60, 4 (2016), 534556.

29. Ibid., 556.

30. Hrešanová, Ema, ‘The Island of Alternatives: Power, Medical Science and “Gentle Birthing” in Socialist Czechoslovakia’, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 73, 1 (2018), 95.

31. Appeltová, Michaela, ‘“Tlusté” tělo v normalizačním Československu: Povinná zdatnost a gender v kampani proti obezitě’, Gender, rovné příležitosti, výzkum, 17, 1 (2016), 19.

32. Gjuričová, Adéla, ‘Bohatství pod neviditelným pláštěm? K psychoterapii v Československu po roce 1968’, Soudobé dějiny, 24, 3 (2017), 314.

33. Ibid., 323.

34. Seidl, Jan, Od žaláře k oltáři: Emancipace homosexuality v českých zemích od roku 1867 do současnosti (Brno: Host, 2012), 265295.

35. Waidzunas, Tom and Epstein, Steven, ‘“For Men Arousal Is Orientation”: Bodily Truthing, Technosexual Scripts and the Materialization of Sexualities through the Phallometric Test’, Social Studies of Science, 45, 2 (2015), 187213.

36. Sokolová, Věra, ‘State approaches to homosexuality and non-heterosexual lives in Czechoslovakia during state socialism’, in Havelková, Hana and Oates-Indruchová, Libora (eds), The Politics of Gender Culture under State Socialism: An Expropriated Voice (New York: Routledge, 2014), 82108.

37. See Rose, Nikolas, ‘Engineering the Human Soul: Analyzing Psychological Expertise’, Science in Context, 5, 2 (1992), 351369; Nikolas Rose, Inventing our Selves: Psychology, Power, and Personhood (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

38. Lišková, Kateřina, ‘“Now You See Them, Now You Don’t”: Sexual Deviants and Sexological Expertise in Communist Czechoslovakia’, History of the Human Sciences, 29, 1 (2016), 4974; Kateřina Lišková, ‘Sex under Socialism: From Emancipation of Women to Normalized Families in Czechoslovakia’, Sexualities, 19, 1–2 (2016), 211–35; Kateřina Lišková, Sexual Liberation, Socialist Style: Communist Czechoslovakia and the Science of Desire, 1945–89 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018).

39. Hacking, op. cit. (note 9), 17.

40. Eyal, Gil et al. , The Autism Matrix: The Social Origins of the Autism Epidemic (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2010), 6.

41. Urbánek, Václav and Pondělíčková–Mašlová, Jaroslava, ‘Josef Hynie (1900–89) – Sto let od narození zakladatele československé sexuologie’, Sborník lékařský, 101, 2 (2000), 173184.

42. ; Dobiáš, Jan, ‘K sedmdesátce prof. MUDr. Josefa Hynieho, DrSc.’, Československá psychiatrie, 66, 3 (1970), 191192 Josef Hynie, Československá sexuologie po osvobození, Časopis lékařů českých, 114, 24 (1975), 721–3.

43. For more on the history of sexology in Czechoslovakia, see Lišková, Sexual Liberation, op. cit. (note 38).

44. Czechoslovak sexologists in the 1950s explored the classical ‘aberration’, homosexuality, in laboratories and concluded it was an incurable condition. This finding led them to call for its decriminalisation, which was codified in 1961, earlier than in Western countries. Seidl, op. cit. (note 34).

45. Dobiáš, op. cit. (note 42).

46. Lišková, ‘Now You See Them’, op. cit. (note 38).

47. Nedoma, Karel and Freund, Kurt, ‘Otázka příčetnosti a nápravných opatření u sexuálních delikventů’, Československá psychiatrie, 55, 4 (1959), 264269.

48. Nedoma, Karel, ‘Nový trestní zákon a trestné činy lidí s odchylnými sexuálními tendencemi’, Praktický lékař, 33, 14 (1953), 316318.

49. Ibid., 318.

50. Nedoma and Freund, op. cit. (note 47), 266.

51. Hynie, Josef, ‘Problémy sexuologické péče v ČSSR’, Československá gynekologie, 31, 8 (1966), 561562.

52. Ibid., 561; Vladimír Barták, ‘Koncepce sexuologie a současný stav sexuologické preventivně léčebné péče v České socialistické republice’, Časopis lékařů českých, 116, 29–30 (1977), 912–14.

53. Vladimír Barták, ‘Československá sexuologie a dvacet let rozvoje Sexuologického ústavu’, Časopis lékařů českých, 104, 20 (1965), 529–30; Barták, ibid.

54. Mellan, Jiří, ‘Československá sexuologie 1961–70’, Časopis lékařů českých, 109, 26–7 (1970), 585.

55. Roubíček, Jiří, ‘Zpráva o odborné činnosti, sjezdech a pracovních schůzích v roce 1960’, Československá psychiatrie, 57, 1 (1961), 133139.

56. Nedoma, Karel, ‘Adaptační léčba sexuálních deviací u mužů’, Československá psychiatrie, 60, 4 (1964), 234239.

57. Nedoma quoted papers from the Journal of American Medical Association, the Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseaseand the Lancet published during the 1940s. None of the authors was from the USSR or an Eastern Bloc country. Similar to Mat Savelli, op. cit. (note 21), who showed how psychiatry in Yugoslavia was inspired by the West more than by Pavlov, we identified the same trend in the first half of the 1960s in Czechoslovakia. The therapeutic innovations were designed during that time and, similar to Yugoslavia, one of them – proposed by Nedoma – was inspired purely by Western methods of the treatment. However, the treatment took on a different direction during the era of Normalisation.

58. Nedoma, ‘Adaptační léčba’, op. cit. (note 56), 234.

59. Ibid.

60. Ibid., 234–5.

61. Ibid., 238.

62. Ibid., 235.

63. Ibid., 238.

64. Ibid.

65. Lumír Tauš and Lucie Sušická, ‘Pětileté sledování pěti sexuálních deviantů po terapeutickém zákroku’, Československá psychiatrie, 69, 1 (1973), 51. By the same law, the sterilisation of women was legalised and, like castration, further specified in the 1972 directive of the Ministry of Health. ‘Provádění sterilizace’, Věstník Ministerstva zdravotnictví České socialistické republiky, 20, 1–2 (1972), 1–3. Although the written law was ethnic-neutral, its implementation into practice (mostly by local doctors and social workers) was racially biased. Many Roma women were thus coercively sterilised on the basis of this law. Věra Sokolová, Cultural Politics of Ethnicity: Discourses on Roma in Communist Czechoslovakia (Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag, 2008). As in the case of castration, we do not have decisive statistics available about the number of sterilised women during socialism in Czechoslovakia. However, Otakar Motejl, former Czech ombudsman, stated in 2009 that it was about 90,000 Roma women. Claude Cahn, ‘Coercive sterilisation of Romani women in the Czech and Slovak Republics’, in Claude Cahn, Human Rights, State Sovereignty and Medical Ethics: Examining Struggles Around Coercive Sterilisation of Romani Women (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2014), 40–105. A closer comparison of both practices is beyond the scope of this study, but for more information on the sterilisation of Roma women, see ibid.; Sokolová, Cultural Politics of Ethnicity; Kristína Čajkovičová, ‘Shifting to the “Gadžo question”: The Role of Racialized Sexuality in the Biopolitical Consolidation of Czechoslovak Collectivity’ (unpublished MA thesis: Central European University, 2017).

66. Rubeš, Jaromír, ‘Psychiatrické služby v nápravné péči o delikventní jedince (cílová perspektiva)’, Československá psychiatrie, 63, 5 (1967), 353.

67. In the second half of the 1960s, Czech sexologists also briefly experimented with psychosurgical stereotactic operations on the brains of sexual deviants. The method was based on the premise that there is a distinct centre of sexual activity in the brain and, in the case of sexual deviants, there are specific qualitative changes that can be detected and then surgically modified. They assumed, then, that such medical intervention would result not only in the decrease of the deviants’ sex drive, but also (in comparison to surgical castration) in the correction and regulation of the deviant desires. A handful of trial operations were thus performed in Havlíčkův Brod between 1964–67. Jozef Pogády and Pavel Nádvorník, ‘Psychochirurgia’, Československá psychiatrie, 78, 1 (1982), 3–16. However, the method did not gain popularity amongst Czechsexologists because of the uncertain results and the considerable negative side-effects. Antonín Brzek and L. Ondruch, ‘Možnost chirurgické léčby sexuálního delikventa v průběhu trestního řízení’, Československá psychiatrie, 78, 6 (1982), 371–4. Nevertheless, the stereotactic method found its supporters in the Slovak part of the country. The Slovak experts thus established a stereotactic ward in Pezinok in 1971 ‘which gradually took over the nationwide task of surgically treating the disorders of the mentally ill’: Pogády and Nádvorník, ibid.. In spite of their attempts, stereotactic operations have never been broadly used because ‘the risk of the deterioration of other brain functions, even the death rate was …too high, and its effect on the relapse of the patients very inconclusive’: Weiss, op. cit. (note 3), 349. Interestingly, the case of stereotactic operations is probably the only example of Czech and Slovak sexological expertise slightly differing from one another.

68. Lišková, ‘Now You See Them’, op. cit. (note 38); Lišková, Sexual Liberation, op. cit. (note 38).

69. Lumír Tauš, ‘Postavení sexuálních deviantů v naší společnosti z hlediska psychiatra’, Československá kriminalistika, 3, 4 (1970), 280.

70. Ibid., 281.

71. Barták, op. cit. (note 52).

72. Hynie, op. cit. (note 42).

73. Barták, op. cit. (note 52), 914.

74. Karel Tabarka, ‘Vývoj a současný stav sexuologické péče v rámci sexuologického ordinariátu při psychiatrické klinice v Olomouci’, Časopis lékařů českých, 116, 29–30 (1977), 917.

75. Sýkora, Erich, ‘Zajištění sexuologické péče v Severomoravském kraji’, Časopis lékařů českých, 116, 29–30 (1977), 919.

76. Nedoma, Karel, ‘Recidivující sexuální agresor v posudku psychiatrickém a sexuologickém’, Československá psychiatrie, 68, 5 (1972), 309.

77. Dispenzární péče o sexuální devianty’, Věstník Ministerstva zdravotnictví, 39, 22–4(1974), 236237.

78. Singer, Viola et al. , ‘Režimové oddělení pro léčbu sexuálních delikventů’, Československá psychiatrie, 73, 1 (1977), 41.

79. Ibid., 42.

80. Barták, op. cit. (note 52), 914.

81. Singer et al., op. cit. (note 78), 43.

82. Hubálek, Slavomil and Zimanová, Jana, ‘Psychoterapie sexuálních deviantů’, Sborník prací přednesených na vědecko-pracovní schůzi České sexuologické společnosti, Opava – červen (Ostrava: KÚNZ, 1978).

83. Jaroslav Zvěřina and Jiří Mellan, , Československá psychiatrie, 80, 1 (1984), 50–6; Želmíra Herrová cited in Eliška Bártová, Proč se v Česku kastruje? Je to levnější, 21 May 2009, https://zpravy.aktualne.cz/domaci/proc-se-v-cesku-kastruje-je-to-levnejsi/r∼i:article:637904/ (accessed 18 August 2018).

84. Zimanová, Jana et al. , ‘Některé současné názory na terapeutickou kastraci sexuálních delikventů a naše zkušenosti’, Československá psychiatrie, 84, 3 (1988), 175.

85. Raboch, Jan and Nedoma, Karel, ‘Indikace testikulární pulpektomie u sexuálních delikventů’, Československá psychiatrie, 66, 3 (1970), 152–7.

86. Different kinds of expertise – sexological, psychiatric and criminological – intersect on the issue of sexual delinquents. Indeed, these groups of experts broadly cooperated and agreed that there was a need for specialised treatment (in many cases pointing to castration). Lucia Moravanská analyses Czechoslovak criminology in her paper ‘Towards a Psychopathology of Murder: Spousal Murder in Czechoslovak Criminological Discourse after 1968’ (manuscript).

87. Bažant, Zdeněk, ‘Vražda z vilnosti’, Kriminalistický sborník, 18, 4 (1974), 238.

88. Hesek, Emil and Bašný, Zdeněk, ‘Sexuální deviace a problémy ochranného léčení’, Kriminalistický sborník, 19, 6 (1975), 326.

89. Krtička, Jan, ‘Vražda nebo znásilnění se smrtelným následkem?’, Kriminalistický sborník, 20, 1 (1976), 39.

90. Ibid.

91. Weiss, Petr and Zimanová, Jana, ‘Deviantní a nedeviantní sexuální delikventi’, Časopis lékařů českých, 124, 20 (1985), 622625; Petr Weiss and Jana Zimanová, ‘K charakteristice deviantních a nedeviantních sexuálních delikventů’, Kriminalistický sborník, 30, 2 (1986), 122–8.

92. Zvěřina, Cf. Jaroslav and Pondělíčková, Jaroslava, ‘Psychopatologické nálezy u sexuálních agresorů’, Československá psychiatrie, 80, 5 (1984), 298302.

93. SOL was founded in Želiv in 1981, in Prague in 1986, etc. Slavoj Brichcín and Tereza Soukupová, ‘Čtvrtstoletí bohnické sexuologie’, XXIV. Bohnické sexuologické dny (Brno: CERM, 2012), 7–9.

94. list č, Metodický, ‘1/1985, hlavního odborníka pro obor psychiatrie MZ ČSR, o léčebných postupech při ochranném léčení sexuálních deviantů’, Československá psychiatrie, 82, 1 (1986), 6063.

95. Ibid., 60.

96. The problem was (and still is) that ‘not every sexual delinquent is forensically assessed because the need of such evaluation depends upon consideration of an investigator or other organs of criminal proceedings who are not always sufficiently informed’ and that ‘expert opinion is sometimes made by experts without psychiatric or sexological erudition’: Petr Weiss, Slavoj Brichcín and Hana Fifková, ‘Problémy ochranné léčby sexuologické’, Česko-slovenská psychiatrie, 89, 5 (1993): 308. Due to a lack of forensic experts and inconsistence in the practice of expert opinion- making, the decision about the types of men who are forced to undergo SOL became ambiguous. Uncertainties persist to this day. Recently, a 60-year-old man was reported to the police by some women who saw him on a remote road manipulating his pants – they suspected that he was masturbating. Yet, the man was changing the nappy he was using due to his persistently bleeding hemorrhoids. The police charged him with disorderly conduct and forensic experts subsequently diagnosed him with ‘incomplete sexuality’ and suggested SOL. Jan Kožnar, ‘Ochranné sexuologické léčení, popírání deliktu a soudní znalecké posouzení,’ XXIV. Bohnické sexuologické dny (Brno: CERM, 2012), 42–3.

97. Mezník, Jiří, ‘Zacházení se sexuálními delikventy ve výkonu trestu odnětí svobody ve věznici v Kuřimi’, České vězeňství, 6, 3–4 (1998), 3133.

98. Nowadays, many sexologists question practising any treatment in prison due to the fact that delinquents might not be fully open and speak honestly about their sexual crimes during imprisonment; indeed, this is problematic because effective therapy requires honesty and sincerity. Petr Weiss (ed.), Sexuologie (Praha: Grada, 2010); Zuzana Řeřichová, op. cit. (note 18).

99. Ibid.

100. Weiss, Petr, Sexuální deviace: klasifikace, diagnostika, léčba (Praha: Portál, 2002), 226.

101. As the criterion for the treatment’s effectiveness, ‘next to improving patients’ quality of life’, Czech sexologists deem the prevention of their ‘criminal relapse’ as the primary measurement. Weiss, op. cit. (note 3), 294. Thus, successful treatment is calculated based on the statistics of sexual recidivism. Ibid., 350.

102. Kapras, op. cit. (note 16).

103. Weiss, op. cit. (note 3).

104. Although Weiss advocates surgicalcastration again, he denounces hormonal castration at the same time when he explicitly states: ‘The use of chemical castration, which can have many negative side-effects, is ethically questionable in cases that exchange long-term imprisonment for treatment with drugs; this can pose serious danger and damage to [the deviant’s] health’. Ibid., 321. Thus, somewhat paradoxically, Weiss directs the same criticism against hormonal treatment that the CPT used against surgical castration.

105. The CPT pays expert visits to its member states and evaluates institutions (for example prisons or psychiatric hospitals) where people are deprived of their liberty. Thus, the CPTs main goal is to supervise compliance with human rights standards, and, as such, they uphold the rulings of the European Court of Human Rights. After every inspection, the Committee reports to the member state summarising in detail the shortcomings that should be corrected. The CPT’s recommendations do not possess a binding power, but they remain highly regarded and are expected to be followed. However, the case of the Czech Republic has proved to be otherwise.

106. CPT, Report 2006, op. cit. (note 4), 46.

107. Ibid., 47.

108. CPT, Report 2008, op. cit. (note 4), 5.

109. Ibid., 18.

110. Czech Government, op. cit. (note 5), 9.

111. IATSO cited in Vláda České republiky, Zpráva o stavu lidských práv v České republice v roce 2010, 21 July 2011, https://www.vlada.cz/assets/ppov/rlp/dokumenty/zpravy-lidska-prava-cr/Zprava-LP-2010_cz.pdf(accessed 18 August 2018), 84.

112. In the years 2008–13, Anna Šabatová was the head of the Czech Helsinki Committee. It should be noted that Šabatová, former dissident and one of the founders of Charter 77, was also a member of the CPT itself at the time (2008–11). In 2014, she was elected to the office of the Public Defender of Rights – ie. the Czech Ombudsman. Český helsinský výbor, Zpráva o stavu lidských práv v České republice za rok 2011, June 2012, http://www.helcom.cz/cs/zprava-o-stavu-lidskych-prav-v-cr-za-rok-2011/(accessed 18 August 2018); https://www.ochrance.cz/verejna-ochrankyne-prav-ombudsmanka/ (accessed 18 August 2018). Thus, she became the official state representative fighting against surgical castration.

113. Vláda ČR, op. cit. (note 111), 85.

114. As doctor Kapras from the sexological ward in Horní Beřkovice mentioned: ‘We had a serious sadistic killer in here who was not cooperating at all. He had to be in a closed ward, therefore he was not attending therapy and he kept refusing castration. So, we got stuck in terms of therapy because, really, we had to hold him in here for the safety of society but we were unable to cooperate with him. It was deliverance for him when the security detention was established’. Kapras, op. cit. (note 16).

115. Brichcín, Slavoj, ‘Soudní sexuologie’, in Weiss, Petr (ed.), Sexuologie (Praha: Grada, 2010), 540541.

116. Of course, if such an inmate in detention ‘honestly’ chooses to cure himself again, he can go back in SOL (if the court allows it).

117. Doporučený postup při provádění chirurgické kastrace v souvislosti s parafilně motivovanými sexuálními delikty’, Věstník Ministerstva zdravotnictví, 1(2010), 2427.

118. Doporučený postup při provádění kastrací v souvislosti s parafilně motivovanými sexuálními trestnými činy’, Věstník Ministerstva zdravotnictví, 5(2012), 26.

119. ‘Zákon č. 373/2011 Sb., o specifických zdravotních službách’ Sbírka zákonů České republiky, 131 (2011).

120. Ibid., § 20.

121. Ibid., § 18.

122. Švarc, op. cit. (note 17).

123. Ibid.

124. Jaroslav Zvěřina, Petr Weiss and Martin Hollý, Výsledky terapeutické kastrace u parafilních sexuálních delikventů, 16 February 2015, https://www.mzcr.cz/dokumenty/vysledky-terapeuticke-kastrace-u-parafilnich-sexualnich-delikventu_10012_1045_3.html(accessed 18 August 2018).

125. The sexologists used two types of questionnaires. First, the respondents filled-in the answers with the help of their attending physicians and, second, they were asked to share more intimate information in a more detailed survey that they could send anonymously by mail. (The idea was that the anonymity would break through any potential shyness or reluctance in responding to sensitive topics, and thus lead to more valid data.) The questions were focused on the patient’s reasons for undergoing surgical castration and its effect; the effect was evaluated on the basis of recidivism in sexual delinquency and any actual occurrences of somatic and/or psychological problems that can develop as a consequence of hormonal changes in the organism. More specific questionnaires also asked questions about the patients’ decision-making process when deciding to undergo the surgery; they also looked for an evaluation (with a timespan ranging from two to twenty-four years since castration) and a subjective assessment of the impact the procedure had on the respondent’s own health and social life: Ibid.

126. Ibid., 29.

127. Ibid.

128. It was the same left-wing government, under the leadership of Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka, which had tasked the sexological experts to conduct the research. It is interesting that, although there have been many changes in the composition of the government since the beginning of the dispute with the CPT (as the right-wing parties ODS or TOP 09 and also the left-wing ČSSD were in charge during this period), the politicians’ viewpoint on castration has remained the same all along (and in accordance with the Czech sexological discourse).

129. Svatopluk Němeček cited in Pavel Cechl, ‘Stát umožní kastrovat více deviantů’, Týden, 46 (2015), 21.

130. Petr Weiss cited in Hana Válková, Podmínky pro kastraci se změní: Nebude se čekat na znásilnění či vraždu, 9 July 2014, https://zpravy.idnes.cz/novela-zakona-kastrace-podminky-da5-/domaci.aspx?c=A140709_135942_domaci_hv(accessed 18 August 2018).

131. Štěpánka Čechová (then the spokesman for the ministry) cited in Pavel Cechl, op. cit. (note 129).

132. Ibid.; Ministerstvo zdravotnictví ČR, op. cit. (note 6).

133. Adamčíková, Naďa and Königová, Marie, ‘Kastrace úchylů vzdor Evropě nezakážeme’, Právo, 14 (2015), 1, 3.

This research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation, grant agreement number 16-10639Y. We would like to thank our anonymous reviewers for their helpful suggestions.

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