1 Huener, Jonathan and Nicosia, Francis R., eds., The Arts in Nazi Germany: Continuity, Conformity, Change (New York and Oxford, 2006).
2 Kraus withheld printing of Third Walpurgis Nacht. The book was published for the first time only in 1952.
3 See e.g. Klaus R. Scherpe, “Nonstop nach Nowhere City? Wandlungen der Symbolisierung, Wahrnehmung und Semiotik der Stadt in der Literatur der Moderne,” in idem, Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte. Großstadtdarstellungen zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne (Hamburg, 1988), 136–7.
4 Kaufmann, Stefan, Kommunikationstechnik und Kriegsführung 1815–1945. Stufen medialer Rüstung (Munich, 1996), 281).
5 As Jürgen Manthey mentions, Döblin's female characters are shaped by Dostoevsky's protagonist Sonja and her self-sacrifice in Crime and Punishment; see Manthey, Jürgen, “Geschäfte der Innenstadt. Alfred Döblin: Modern. Ein Bild aus der Gegenwart,” in Marbach, Deutsches Literaturarchiv (ed.), Denkbilder und Schaustücke. Das Literaturmuseum der Moderne (Marbach, 2006), S.90; “Neue Sachlichkeit” and the artists' regress to traditional techniques would serve as one fine example, as well as (revolutionary) architect Bruno Taut's stress of the romantic symbol of the crystal.
6 Peter Sloterdijk, Kritik der zynischen Vernunft, Bd 2 (Frankfurt am Main), 705.
7 See Antliff, Mark, Inventing Bergson: Cultural Politics and the Parisian Avant-Garde (Princeton, 1993).
8 Hein, Peter Ulrich, Die Brücke ins Geisterreich. Künstlerische Avantgarde zwischen Kulturkritik und Faschismus (Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1992), 249.
9 Potter, Pamela, “The Arts in Nazi Germany: A Silent Debate,” Contemporary European History 15/4 (2006), 590.
10 The term “aesthetic regime of art” serves Jacques Rancière in replacing cultural theory notions like “modern” and “modernism,” which have become debatable due to their teleological implications (as a marker of the constant progress of humanity). Rancière's concept stresses modern art's function of offering new ways of living (lebensformen) to be redistributed by the political system, but rejects a genuine and autonomous critical quality of formal innovation in the arts. Referring, e.g., to Flaubert's realistic novels, he demonstrates how the (politically) conservative writer's work was misconceived by his contemporaries as significant “democratic” enunciation.
11 In July 1927, police attacked some fifty thousand people protesting against a judicial decision exculpating far-right-wing manslayers of murder. More than eighty protesters were shot dead. This episode is considered the “turning point” in the history of the first republic. On a poster published all over the city, Kraus, with a single sentence, requested chief of police (and twice chancellor) Johann Schober to resign. The poster has become an icon of Austrian contemporary history.
12 Le Rider, Jacques, Das Ende der Illusion. Die Wiener Moderne und die Krisen der Identität (Vienna, 1990), 352.
13 Johann Nestroy (1801–62), performer of his own plays onstage, was the most important Austrian satirist. He used improvised stanzas to circumvent censorship and to mock state authority as well as petty bourgeois attitudes.
14 Kamp, Walter Gross, Die unbewältigte Moderne. Kunst und Öffentlichkeit (Munich, 1994), 5. 135.
15 Agamben, Giorgio, Ausnahmezustand (Frankfurt am Main, 2004), 41.