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JOHN LOCKE, CHRISTIAN MISSION, AND COLONIAL AMERICA*

  • JACK TURNER (a1)

Abstract

John Locke was considerably interested and actively involved in the promotion of Protestant Christianity among American Indians and African slaves, yet this fact goes largely unremarked in historical scholarship. The evidence of this interest and involvement deserves analysis—for it illuminates fascinating and understudied features of Locke's theory of toleration and his thinking on American Indians, African slaves, and English colonialism. These features include (1) the compatibility between toleration and Christian mission, (2) the interconnection between Christian mission and English geopolitics, (3) the coexistence of ameliorative and exploitative strands within Locke's stance on African slavery, and (4) the spiritual imperialism of Locke's colonial vision. Analyzing evidence of Locke's interest and involvement in Christian mission, this article brings fully to light a dimension of Locke's career that has barely been noticed. In so doing, it also illustrates how the roots of toleration in the modern West were partly evangelical.

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1 Locke, John, A Third Letter for Toleration (1692), in The Works of John Locke, new ed., 10 vols. (London: Thomas Tegg, 1823), 6: 235.

2 I use the term “evangelization” and its variants (e.g. “evangelical”) in the generic sense of “spreading the Gospel and fostering conversion throughout the world,” not in any specific sectarian sense.

3 Marshall, John, John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture: Religious Intolerance and Arguments for Religious Toleration in Early Modern and “Early Enlightenment” Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 601–4, 613. See also Matar, Nabil I., “John Locke and the Jews,” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 44/1 (1993), 4562, and Popkin, Richard H. and Goldie, Mark, “Skepticism, Priestcraft, and Toleration,” in Goldie, Mark and Wokler, Robert, eds., The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 98100.

4 Marshall, Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture, 593–5, 599–600.

5 Farr, James, “‘So Vile and Miserable an Estate’: The Problem of Slavery in Locke's Political Thought,” Political Theory 14/2 (1986), 263289; idem, “Locke, Natural Law, and New World Slavery,” Political Theory 36/4 (2008), 495–522; idem, “Locke, ‘Some Americans’, and the Discourse on ‘Carolina’,” Locke Studies 9 (2009), 19–96.

6 Tully, James, “Placing the Two Treatises,” in Phillipson, Nicholas and Skinner, Quentin, eds., Political Discourse in Early Modern Britain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 266–80; idem, “Rediscovering America: The Two Treatises and Aboriginal Rights,” in idem, An Approach to Political Philosophy: Locke in Contexts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 137–77; idem, Strange Multiplicity: Constitutionalism in an Age of Diversity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 70–78.

7 Arneil, Barbara, John Locke and America: The Defence of English Colonialism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996); idem, “Citizens, Wives, Latent Citizens and Non-Citizens in the Two Treatises: A Legacy of Inclusion, Exclusion, and Assimilation,” Eighteenth-Century Thought 3 (2007), 207–33.

8 Armitage, David, “John Locke, Carolina, and the Two Treatises of Government,” Political Theory 32/5 (2004), 602–27; idem, “John Locke, Theorist of Empire?”, in Muthu, Sankar, ed., Empire and Modern Political Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming).

9 Hsueh, Vicki, “Giving Orders: Theory and Practice in the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina,” Journal of the History of Ideas 63/3 (2002), 425–46; idem, “Cultivating and Challenging the Common: Lockean Property, Indigenous Traditionalisms, and the Problem of Exclusion,” Contemporary Political Theory 5/2 (2006), 193–214; idem, “Unsettling Colonies: Locke, ‘Atlantis,’ and New World Knowledges,” History of Political Thought 58/1 (2008), 295–319; idem, Hybrid Constitutions: Challenging Legacies of Law, Privilege, and Culture in Colonial America (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010), chap. 3.

10 Farr, “So Vile and Miserable an Estate,” 265–6; Armitage, “Locke, Carolina, and the Two Treatises,” 609, 618–19; Hsueh, Hybrid Constitutions, 74, 78. See also Bernasconi, Robert and Mann, Anika Maaza, “The Contradictions of Racism: Locke, Slavery, and the Two Treatises,” in Valls, Andrew, ed., Race and Racism in Modern Philosophy (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005), 93–4.

11 For an important recent statement of the “secularization” position see Lilla, Mark, The Stillborn God: Religion, Politics, and the Modern West (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007). For an important recent critique of it see Nelson, Eric, The Hebrew Republic: Jewish Sources and the Transformation of European Political Thought (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010).

12 See, for example, Lilla, Stillborn God, 96–7, 101.

13 See Matar, “John Locke and the Jews”; Walker, William, “The Limits of Locke's Toleration,” Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century 332 (1995), 136–8, 145–6; McCabe, David, “John Locke and the Argument against Strict Separation,” Review of Politics 59/2 (1997), 248–52; and Nelson, Hebrew Republic, 136, 198 n. 232.

14 A fact mourned by Israel, Jonathan in Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man, 1670–1752 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 138–43.

15 See, for example, Kateb, George, “Locke and the Political Origins of Secularism,” Social Research 76/4 (2009), 1001–34.

16 Quoted in Fitzmaurice, Andrew, Humanism and America: An Intellectual History of English Colonisation, 1500–1625 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 138.

17 Quoted in Robinson, W. Stitt Jr, “Indian Education and Missions in Colonial Virginia,” Journal of Southern History 18/2 (1952), 153.

18 Quoted in Jernegan, M. W., “Slavery and Conversion in the American Colonies,” American Historical Review 21/3 (1916), 508.

19 Jacob, J. R., Robert Boyle and the English Revolution: A Study in Social and Intellectual Change (New York: Burt Franklin, 1977), 144; Woolhouse, Roger, John Locke: A Biography (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 3435 and passim.

20 Jacob, Robert Boyle, 148; Kellaway, William, The New England Company, 1649–1776 (London: Longmans, 1961), 45.

21 Kellaway, New England Company, 1.

22 Ibid., 133, 47.

23 Ibid., 173–4.

24 Milton, J. R., “Locke's Pupils,” Locke Newsletter 26 (1995), 106; Vaughan, Alden T., “Slaveholders’ ‘Hellish Principles’: A Seventeenth-Century Critique,” in idem, Roots of American Racism: Essays on the Colonial Experience (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 58.

25 Vaughan, “Slaveholders’ ‘Hellish Principles’,” 58–62.

26 Godwyn, Morgan, The Negro's and Indian's Advocate, Suing for Their Admission to the Church (London: J.D., 1680), 4; Vaughan, “Slaveholders’ ‘Hellish Principles’,” 56, 62.

27 Vaughan, “Slaveholders’ ‘Hellish Principles’,” 62.

28 Harrison, John and Laslett, Peter, The Library of John Locke (Oxford: Oxford Bibliographical Society, 1965), nos. 1279 and 1280.

29 Godwyn, Negro's and Indian's Advocate, 3.

30 Ibid., 30.

31 Godwyn, , A Supplement to the Negro's & Indian's Advocate (London: J.D., 1681), 7.

32 Godwyn, Negro's and Indian's Advocate, 28.

33 Harrison and Laslett, Library of John Locke, no. 481.

34 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, s.v. “Bray, Thomas (bap. 1658, d. 1730)” (by Leonard W. Cowie), http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/3296/, accessed 10 May 2010.

35 Thompson, H. P., Thomas Bray (London: S.P.C.K, 1954), 20.

36 Bray, Thomas, Apostolick Charity, Its Nature and Excellence Consider'd in a Discourse Upon Dan. 12.3 (London: W. Downing, for William Hawes, 1698), 24–6.

37 Fox Bourne, H. R., The Life of John Locke, 2 vols. (London: Henry S. King and Co., 1876), 2: 356; Cranston, Maurice, John Locke: A Biography (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1957), 419–20; Kammen, Michael, “Virginia at the Close of the Seventeenth Century: An Appraisal by James Blair and John Locke,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 74/2 (1966), 144.

38 Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and the West Indies, 1696–97, Preserved in the Public Records Office, ed. John W. Fortescue (London: His Majesty's Stationer's Office, 1904), nos. 268, 269, 858, 1050; Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and the West Indies, 1697–98, nos. 756, 976. Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and the West Indies will hereafter be referred to as CSP, followed by the year(s) and document number(s).

39 CSP 1699, nos. 1014, 1025.

40 Thompson, H. P., Into All Lands: The History of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1701–1950 (London: SPCK, 1951).

41 The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina (1669), in Locke: Political Essays, ed. Mark Goldie (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997). Hereafter FCC.

42 Haley, K. H. D., The First Earl of Shaftesbury (Oxford: Clarendon, 1968), 242; Milton, J. R., “John Locke and the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina,” Locke Newsletter 21 (1990), 111, 117, 127; Hsueh, “Giving Orders,” 427; Armitage, “Locke, Carolina, and the Two Treatises,” 607.

43 Goldie, Locke: Political Essays, 160–61; Armitage, “Locke, Carolina, and the Two Treatises,” 602–27; Woolhouse, John Locke, 90–91.

44 The Correspondence of John Locke, 8 vols., ed. E. S. de Beer (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976), 1: no. 279.

45 Goldie, Locke: Political Essays, 161.

46 Armitage, “Locke, Carolina, and the Two Treatises,” 612–14.

47 Marshall, Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture, 595, 600.

48 FCC, 177.

49 Cheves, Langdon, The Shaftesbury Papers (Charleston: South Carolina Historical Society, 2000; first published 1897), 312 n. 2; Haley, First Earl of Shaftesbury, 245–6; Goldie, Locke: Political Essays, 160; Armitage, “Locke, Carolina, and the Two Treatises,” 607–8; Woolhouse, John Locke, 91. Locke's opposition to establishing Anglicanism as Carolina's official religion might tell against my interpretation of Locke as supporting both toleration and an ecumenical form of religious establishment. But opposition to establishing Anglicanism does not necessarily entail opposition to establishing non-sectarian Protestantism. Locke's opposition to establishing Anglicanism, in fact, might have been an attempt to make Carolina more attractive to non-Anglican Protestants.

50 FCC, 178.

51 Locke, “An Essay on Toleration” (1667), in Locke: Political Essays, 156. It is also crucial to note the practical reasons why Locke and the proprietors extended religious toleration to Carolina's natives. Early English settlers in Carolina relied on Indians for geographical knowledge, military intelligence, and food and supplies. English awareness of the importance of Indian friendship is evident in documents preceding the composition of the Fundamental Constitutions. See “Second Charter Granted by King Charles the Second to the Proprietors of Carolina” (1665), in The Colonial Records of North Carolina, vol. 1, ed. William L. Saunders (New York: AMS Press, 1968), 75–92; “A True Relation of a Voyage upon discovery of part of the Coast of Florida” (1665), in Shaftesbury Papers, 18–25; “The Port Royal Discovery” (1666), in Shaftesbury Papers, 57–82. There are also abundant memoranda written by Locke recording instances of Indian assistance to English settlers in Carolina. See “Locke's Carolina Memoranda” (1670–72), in Shaftesbury Papers, 223–4, 245, 263, 349, 388. For penetrating analysis of these memoranda see Hsueh, “Giving Orders”; idem, “Cultivating and Challenging the Common”; idem, “Unsettling Colonies”; idem, Hybrid Constitutions; and Farr, “Locke, ‘Some Americans’, and the Discourse on ‘Carolina’.”

52 Another reason to suspect that Locke wrote the provision on toleration in the Constitutions is the striking parallel between its language of “good usage and persuasion, and all those convincing methods of gentleness and meekness suitable to the rules and design of the Gospel” and Locke's language of “the meekness and tender methods of the Gospel” in “Toleration A” (1675), in Locke: Political Essays, 231, and “the softness of Civility and good Usage” in A Letter Concerning Toleration, ed. James H. Tully (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1983; first published 1689), 33.

53 FCC, 179–80.

54 Locke, , A Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistles of St Paul to the Galatians, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Romans, Esphesians, 2 vols., ed. Wainwright, Arthur W. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987; first published 1707), 1: 198.

55 Ibid., 202 n. 23.

56 FCC, 180.

57 Jernegan, “Slavery and Conversion”; Davis, David Brion, The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966), 210–11; Jordan, Winthrop D., White over Black: American Attitudes toward the Negro, 1550–1812 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968), 180–81; Blackburn, Robin, The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492–1800 (London: Verso, 1997), 250–52.

58 Jernegan, “Slavery and Conversion,” 506.

59 Woolhouse, John Locke, 110–11; Farr, “Locke, Natural Law, and New World Slavery,” 497.

60 Locke, , Two Treatises of Government, ed. Laslett, Peter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988; first published 1690), 284–5 n; Popkin, Richard H., “The Philosophical Bases of Modern Racism,” in Walton, Craig and Anton, John P., eds., Philosophy and the Civilizing Arts: Essays Presented to Herbert W. Schneider on His Eightieth Birthday (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1974), 133; Bernasconi and Mann, “Contradictions of Racism.”

61 Locke, Two Treatises, 284.

62 Ibid., 389–92.

63 Dunn, John, The Political Thought of John Locke: An Historical Account of the Argument of the “Two Treatises of Government” (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969), 175 n. 4; Farr, “So Vile and Miserable an Estate,” 273–4; idem, “Locke, Natural Law, and New World Slavery,” 516; Waldron, Jeremy, God, Locke, and Equality: Christian Foundations in Locke's Political Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 201.

64 FCC, 179.

65 Peter Laslett, , “John Locke, the Great Recoinage, and the Origins of the Board of Trade: 1695–1698,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, 14/3 (1957), 370402; Woolhouse, John Locke, 361–70.

66 Rouse, Parker Jr, James Blair of Virginia (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1971), 64–6.

67 Quoted in ibid., 183.

68 Kammen, “Virginia at the Close of the Seventeenth Century,” 143–7; Laslett, “Locke, the Great Recoinage, and the Board of Trade,” 397–402.

69 The original is in the Bodleian Library, Oxford University: John Locke and James Blair, “Some of the Cheif Grievances of the present constitution of Virginia, with an Essay towards the Remedies thereof” (1697), MS Locke, e. 9, fols. 1–38. For the purposes of this essay, I rely on the authoritative reprint in Kammen, “Virginia at the Close of the Seventeenth Century.” Kammen's commentary is at 141–53, and the text is at 153–69. I cite the commentary as Kammen, “Virginia at the Close of the Seventeenth Century,” and the text as Locke and Blair, “Grievances of Virginia.”

70 Locke and Blair, “Some of the Cheif Grievances,” MS Locke, e. 9, fols. 1–38; Laslett, “Locke, the Great Recoinage, and the Board of Trade,” 399–400; Kammen, “Virginia at the Close of the Seventeenth Century,” 141; Ashcraft, Richard, “Political Theory and Political Reform: John Locke's Essay on Virginia,” Western Political Quarterly 22/4 (1969), 742.

71 Locke and Blair, “Grievances of Virginia,” 159.

72 Locke, “An Essay on the Poor Law” (1697), in Locke: Political Essays, 186.

73 Locke, “For a General Naturalisation” (1693), in Locke: Political Essays, 322.

74 Correspondence of John Locke, 7: nos. 2380, 2545.

75 Ashcraft, “Political Theory and Political Reform,” 742–743 n. 2.

76 Kammen, “Virginia at the Close of the Seventeenth Century,” 148.

77 Ashcraft, “Political Theory and Political Reform” analyzes the political dimension of the “Grievances of Virginia,” but stops short of analyzing its economic, religious, and Christian missionary dimensions.

78 Locke and Blair, “Grievances of Virginia,” 166.

80 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, s.v. “Blair, James (1655/6–1743),” (by James B. Bell), http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/2564/, accessed 10 May 2010; Rouse, James Blair; Anesko, Michael, “So Discreet a Zeal: Slavery and the Anglican Church in Virginia, 1680–1730,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 93/3 (1985), 256–78.

81 Locke and Blair, “Grievances of Virginia,” 159.

82 Locke, Letter Concerning Toleration, 27. Cf. Marshall, Locke, Toleration, and Early Enlightenment Culture, 557–8.

83 Popkin and Goldie, “Skepticism, Priestcraft, and Toleration,” 99–100. Popkin and Goldie co-authored this article, but Goldie is responsible for the section in which this point appears. See 79 n.

84 Interestingly, Locke condemns policies of mandatory church attendance in A Second Letter Concerning Toleration, in Works of John Locke, 6: 87. The specific object of condemnation is King Louis XIV's requirement that all French Protestants attend Catholic Mass. At the same time, in A Third Letter for Toleration, Locke argues that baptism is one of the few truly essential Christian rites (154–6). This helps to explain why he and Blair so directly address it in the “Grievances of Virginia.”

85 Stanton, Timothy, “Locke and the Politics and Theology of Toleration,” Political Studies 54/1 (2006), 89.

86 I thank an anonymous reviewer for suggesting this possibility.

87 Godwyn, Negro's and Indian's Advocate, 136–7.

88 Locke, “Sacerdos” (1698), in Locke: Political Essays, 344.

89 Quoted in Rouse, James Blair, 72, emphasis in charter.

90 Locke, Letter Concerning Toleration, 27. One final feature of the “Grievances of Virginia” deserves mention. The document confirms Locke's knowledge of and interest in the work of Thomas Bray, future founder of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK): “The encouraging of Dr. Brays project of Parochial Libraries would in a great measure supply the want of Books.” Locke and Blair, “Grievances of Virginia,” 167. This reference to Bray—written in late August 1697—comes one year after Locke would have begun seeing Board memoranda mentioning Bray, but four months before Bray delivered his sermon Apostolick Charity at St Paul's. This indicates that Locke became acquainted with Bray's colonial Christian missionary work before acquiring Apostolick Charity. It is even possible that Bray himself sent it to Locke. Kammen, “Virginia at the Close of the Seventeenth Century,” 141.

91 CSP 1696–97, no. 286. An office copy of this paper—“Representation concerning the Northern Collonies in America” (1696)—is in the British National Archives, London: CO 324/6, 59–68. There are slight differences between the Calendar and office copies. I will quote from the office copy since it is presumably closer to the original.

92 These were the Cayugas, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onadagas, and Senecas. Mohawk served as the “lingua franca for diplomacy and trade.” Jackson, H. Ward, “The Seventeenth Century Mission to the Iroquois,” Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church 29/3 (1960), 240.

93 For background on English and French efforts to win the Iroquois to their respective sides see Trelease, Allen W., Indian Affairs in Colonial New York: The Seventeenth Century (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997; first published 1960), chap. 11, and Richter, Daniel K., The Ordeal of the Long-House: The Peoples of the Iroquois League in the Era of European Colonization (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1992), chap. 8.

94Signed Tankerville, Ph. Meadows, John Pollexfen, John Locke, Abr. Hill.”

95 Fox Bourne, Life of John Locke, 2: 353. Cf. Cranston, John Locke, 406; Laslett, “Locke, the Great Recoinage, and the Board of Trade,” 399; Woolhouse, John Locke, 366–7.

96 Quoted in Woolhouse, John Locke, 366.

97 Fox Bourne, The Life of John Locke, 2: 352–3; Cranston, John Locke, 406; Laslett, “Locke, the Great Recoinage, and the Origins of the Board of Trade,” 390–91; Woolhouse, John Locke, 366, 370.

98 See CSP 1696–97, no. 157 (i) for Locke and the Board's referral of a report on Iroquois affairs to the Lords Justice of England; ibid., no. 1274 for Locke and the Board's authorization to the New York government to distribute powder and bullets to the Five Nations; CSP 1699, no. 726 for Locke and the Board's inquiry regarding the employment of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel vis-à-vis the Five Nations; and CSP 1700, no. 577 for a record of Locke and the Board's shipment of presents and arms to the Five Nations.

99 Locke, “New Yorke Representation” (1696), MS Locke c. 30, folio 40, Bodleian Library, Oxford University.

100 “Representation concerning the Northern Collonies,” 67; CSP 1699, no. 726.

101 Correspondence of John Locke, 6: no. 2396; CSP 1696–1697, no. 250.

102 Cranston, John Locke, 420–21.

103 Kellaway, New England Company, 260–65.

104 Correspondence of John Locke, 6: no. 2614.

105 Ibid., 6: no. 2503.

106 “Representation concerning the Northern Collonies,” 66–7.

107 CSP 1696–97, no. 157 (ii).

108 Ibid.

109 “Representation concerning the Northern Collonies,” 67.

110 CSP 1699, no. 726. “Signed, Ph. Meadows, Jno. Pollexfen, Jno. Locke, Abr. Hill.”

111 CSP 1700, no. 600.

112 Correspondence of John Locke, 7: nos. 2843, 2846.

113 Dunn, John, Locke (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984), 18.

114 Locke, Letter Concerning Toleration, 27.

115 For a general contextualization of the debate between Locke and Proast see Goldie, , “John Locke, Jonas Proast, and Religious Toleration, 1688–1692,” in Walsh, John, Haydon, Colin, and Taylor, Stephen, eds., The Church of England, c.1689–c.1833: From Toleration to Tractarianism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 143–71.

116 Locke, Letter Concerning Toleration, 54.

117 Proast, Jonas, The Argument of the Letter Concerning Toleration, Briefly Consider'd and Answer'd (Oxford: George West and Henry Clements, 1690), 2.

118 Locke, Second Letter, 62. Cf. Locke, Letter Concerning Toleration, 43.

119 Proast, , A Third Letter Concerning Toleration: In Defense of the Argument of the Letter Concerning Toleration, Briefly Consider'd and Answer'd (Oxford: George West and Henry Clements, 1691), 4.

120 Locke, Third Letter, 234, 233.

121 Ibid., 233–5.

122 Proast, Third Letter, 2–3.

123 Locke, Third Letter, 235.

124 Ibid., 390.

125 Ibid., 234. Cf. Locke, “Toleration A,” 231: “Methinks the clergy should, like ambassadors, endeavour to entreat, convince, and persuade men to the truth rather than thus solicit the magistrate to force them into their fold.”

126 Locke, Third Letter, 234.

127 Ibid., 436.

128 Locke, , The Reasonableness of Christianity with A Discourse on Miracles and a Part of A Third Letter Concerning Toleration, ed. Ramsey, I. T. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1958), 58.

129 FCC, 179.

130 A humanity also conceded in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, ed. Peter H. Nidditch (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975; first published 1689), IV.vii.16, where Locke cites “the Child [that] can demonstrate to you, that a Negro is not a Man, because White-colour was one of the constant simple Ideas of the complex Idea he calls Man” as an example of erroneous generalization.

131 Anesko, “So Discreet a Zeal,” 264.

132 Godwyn, Negro's and Indian's Advocate, 7.

133 Patterson, Orlando, Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982).

134 Locke's only allusions to African native religion are expressions of shock over its supposed absence: in the Essays on the Law of Nature and An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, he observes that “the Inhabitants of Soldania Bay [in Southern Africa] acknowledge or worship no god at all.” Locke, Essays on the Law of Nature (1663–4), in Locke: Political Essays, 113–14. Cf. Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding, I.iv.8. This raises the possibility that Locke thought that compelling slaves to attend church was morally permissible because Africans were atheistic. Locke excepted atheists from toleration. Locke, “Essay on Toleration,” 137; idem, Letter Concerning Toleration, 51. Yet for this explanation to obtain, Locke would have had to generalize from the inhabitants to Soldania Bay to all of Africa. Locke usually resisted this kind of overgeneralization.

135 Farr, “Locke, ‘Some Americans’, and the Discourse on ‘Carolina’,” 26.

136 Locke, Reasonableness of Christianity, 61.

137 Farr, “Locke, ‘Some Americans’, and the Discourse on ‘Carolina’,” 68, 72–4; Armitage, “John Locke, Theorist of Empire?”, ms, 2, 5, 11.

138 Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding, I.iv.12; cf. Carey, Daniel, Locke, Shaftesbury, and Hutcheson: Contesting Diversity in the Enlightenment and Beyond (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), chap. 3; and Farr, “Locke, ‘Some Americans’, and the Discourse on ‘Carolina’,” 46–50.

139 Locke, Third Letter, 436.

140 Armitage, “John Locke, Theorist of Empire?,” ms., 2.

141 Locke, Letter Concerning Toleration, 26.

142 Cf. Walker, “Limits of Locke's Toleration,” 137–8.

* The Rufus B. Kellogg University Fellowship from Amherst College and a Resident Fellowship from the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities funded this project. The penultimate version was presented at the United States Studies Centre at the University of Sydney and a conference on Thinking the Human in the Era of Enlightenment at the Australian National University. I thank David Armitage, Lawrie Balfour, Cristina Beltrán, Charles Capper, Alexander Cook, Roberta Culbertson, Jillian Cutler, Christine Di Stefano, Denise Gagnon, Margaret Levi, Jamie Mayerfeld, Kirstie McClure, Sankar Muthu, Melvin Rogers, Rachel Sanders, and the editors and anonymous reviewers at MIH for their help, encouragement, and advice. Special thanks to Mark Goldie for his remarkable generosity as a teacher and scholar.

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