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LIBERTY, POVERTY AND CHARITY IN THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF JOSIAH TUCKER AND JOSEPH BUTLER*

  • PETER XAVIER PRICE (a1)
Abstract

Josiah Tucker, who was the Anglican dean of Gloucester from 1758 until his death in 1799, is best known today as a controversialist, a political economist and a lesser contemporary of Adam Smith. Little attention has been paid, however, to the important relationship between his religious writings and his wider economic thought. This article addresses this lack of attention in two ways: first by demonstrating the link between Tucker's conception of civil and religious liberty and his “science” of political economy, and second by drawing sustained attention to his economic adaptation and reformulation of the moral philosophy of Bishop Joseph Butler, Tucker's ecclesiastical mentor from 1739 to 1752. Emphasizing Butler and Tucker's views on the traditional Christian virtue of charity, and the moral duty of the rich towards the poor, the article suggests that both clergymen were proponents of a sociability-based, neo-Stoic conception of human nature, which was not only compatible with, but also dependent upon, the established Anglican Church and state and the predominantly Whig commercial order. In consequence, Tucker's political economy was premised on the unavoidability of social subordination and economic inequality as necessary hallmarks of modern commercial society. Accordingly, the article closes with a brief discussion of Tucker's “Butlerian” assessment and rejection of the “anti-social” doctrine of individual natural rights, associated with the popular radicalism of the American and French Revolutions in the latter half of the eighteenth century.

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The present author is indebted to Iain McDaniel, Norman Vance, A. M. C. Waterman, Richard Whatmore, the late Donald Winch, Brian W. Young, and the three anonymous referees and editors of Modern Intellectual History, especially Tracie M. Matysik, for reading and providing helpful comments on various—often inchoate—drafts of this paper. Certain of its aspects was delivered at the John W. Kluge Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, June 2013.

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1 Semmel, Bernard, “The Hume–Tucker Debate and Pitt's Trade Proposals,” Economic Journal 75/300 (1965), 759–70.

2 Classic accounts and biographies of Tucker in this vein include Ford, Paul Leicester, “Appendix II: Josiah Tucker and His Writings: An Eighteenth Century Pamphleteer on America,” Journal of Political Economy 2/2 (1894), 330–47; Clark, W. E., Josiah Tucker Economist: A Study in the History of Economics (New York, 1903); Schuyler's, Robert L. introduction to Josiah Tucker, A Selection from His Economic and Political Writings (New York, 1931); George Shelton, W., Dean Tucker and Eighteenth-Century Economic and Political Thought (London, 1981).

3 Smith owned several of Tucker's tracts; see Bonar, James, ed., A Catalogue of the Library of Adam Smith (London & New York, 1894), 115 ; updated in Mizuta, Hiroshi, ed., Adam Smith's Library: A Supplement to Bonar's Catalogue (Cambridge, 1967), 147–8.

4 Pocock, J. G. A., “Clergy and Commerce: The Conservative Enlightenment in England,” in Ajello, Raffaele, Firpo, Massimo, Guerci, Luciano and Ricuperati, Giuseppe, eds., L'età dei lumi: Studi storici sul Settecento europeo in onore di Franco Venturi, 2 vols. (Naples, 1985), 1: 523–62; Pocock, “Conservative Enlightenment and Democratic Revolutions: The American and French Cases in British Perspective,” Government and Opposition 24/1 (1989), 81–105.

5 Hont, Istvan and Ignatieff, Michael, eds., Wealth and Virtue: The Shaping of Political Economy in the Scottish Enlightenment (Cambridge, 1983); Sakamoto, Tatsuya and Tanaka, Hideo, eds., The Rise of Political Economy in the Scottish Enlightenment (London and New York, 2003).

6 Young, B. W., “Christianity, Commerce and the Canon: Josiah Tucker and Richard Woodward on Political Economy,” History of European Ideas 22/5–6 (1996), 385400, at 395. Young, Cf., “Christianity, Secularisation and Political Economy,” in Jeremy, David J., ed., Religion, Business and Wealth in Modern Britain (London and New York, 1998), 3554 .

7 Tucker, Josiah, “Preliminary Discourse,” in Tucker, The Elements of Commerce and the Theory of Taxes (privately published, 1755), 3–8, at 6. Here and below, all italics in Tucker's quotes are in the original.

8 Waterman, A. M. C., Political Economy and Christian Theology since the Enlightenment: Essays in Intellectual History (New York, 2004), 88106 .

9 For the “parsimonious treatment [Smith] accorded to some of his predecessors and closest contemporaries,” see Winch, Donald, Riches and Poverty: An Intellectual History of Political Economy in Britain, 1750–1834 (Cambridge, 1996), 35 . By comparison, Tucker was readily forthcoming with his intellectual debts and influences—see, e.g., Instructions for Travellers (Dublin, 1758; first published privately, 1757), 5–9.

10 Upon reading the first edition of Fifteen Sermons, Hutcheson praised Butler as a thinker who “has done so much justice to the wise and good Order of our Nature, that . . . Gentlemen . . . [now] seem convinc'd of a Moral sense.” Hutcheson, Francis, An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections, with illustrations upon the Moral Sense (London, 1728), xix .

11 Henry Home, Lord Kames, Essays on the principles of morality and natural religion. In two parts (Edinburgh, 1751), 61 .

12 Hume, David, A Treatise of Human Nature (1739), ed. Selby-Bigge, L. A. (Oxford, 1896), xxi , original emphasis. See also Smith, Adam, The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1758), ed. Haakonssen, Knud (Cambridge, 2004), 53, 363–4. Here Smith labels Butler a “late ingenious and subtle philosopher,” and bases his “impartial spectator”—the individual of genuine “self-command” who is capable of looking beyond their narrow self-interest towards the public good—on the bishop's ideas.

13 Walsh, John, Hayden, Colin and Taylor, Stephen, eds., The Church of England c.1680–c.1833: From Toleration to Tractarianism (Cambridge, 1993); Young, B. W., Religion and Enlightenment in Eighteenth-Century England: Theological Debate from Locke to Burke (Oxford, 1998); Rivers, Isabel, Reason, Grace and Sentiment: A Study of the Language of Religion and Ethics in England, 1660–1770, vol. 2, Shaftesbury to Hume (Cambridge, 2000), esp. 7–84; Lieberman, David, “The Mixed Constitution and the Common Law,” in Goldie, Mark and Wokler, Robert, eds., The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought (Cambridge, 2008), 317–46.

14 Dickenson, P. G. M., The Financial Revolution in England: A Study in the Development of Public Credit (London, 1967); Roseveare, Henry, The Financial Revolution, 1660–1760 (London, 1991); Kenyon, J. P., Revolution Principles: The Politics of Party 1689–1720 (Cambridge, 1990 ; first published 1977); Stasavage, David, “Partisan Politics and Public Debt: The Importance of the Whig Supremacy for Britain's Financial Revolution,” European Review of Economic History 11 (2007), 123–53; Goldie, Mark, “The English System of Liberty,” in Goldie and Wokler, The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought, 40–78; Steven Pincus, 1688: The First Modern Revolution (New Haven, 2009), esp. 49–90. For the seventeenth-century background see Slack, Paul, “Material Progress and the Challenge of Affluence in Seventeenth-Century England,” Economic History Review 62/3 (2009), 576603 .

15 E.g. Winch, Donald, “The Emergence of Economics as a Science 1750–1870,” in Cippola, Carlo M., ed., The Fontana Economic History of Europe, vol. 3 (London, 1971), 507–73; Hont and Ignatieff, Wealth and Virtue; Haakonssen, Knud, Natural Law and Moral Philosophy from Grotius to the Scottish Enlightenment (Cambridge, 1996); Hont, Istvan, Jealousy of Trade: International Competition and the Nation State in Historical Perspective (Cambridge, MA, 2005), esp. “The Language of Sociability and Commerce: Samuel Pufendorf and the Theoretical Foundations of the ‘Four-Stages’ Theory,” 159–84; Robertson, John, The Case for Enlightenment: Scotland and Naples 1680–1760 (Cambridge, 2007).

16 Hanley, Ryan Patrick, “The Eighteenth-Century Context of Sympathy from Spinoza to Kant,” in Schliesser, Eric, ed., Sympathy: A History (Oxford, 2015), 171–98, at 173.

17 E.g. the early modern revivals of Stoicism and skepticism are given equal parity in Tuck, Richard, Philosophy and Government 1572–1651 (Cambridge, 1993), esp. chap. 2, “Scepticism, Stoicism and Raison d’État,” 31–64.

18 E.g., classically, Viner, Jacob, “‘Possessive Individualism’ as Original Sin,” Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 29/4 (1963), 548–59; Hirschman, Albert O., The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments for Capitalism Before its Triumph, twentieth anniversary edn (Princeton, 1997; first published 1977), esp. 9–12, 15, 20, 44; Hayek, F. A., “Competition as a Discovery Procedure,” in Hayek, New Studies in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and the History of Ideas (London: Routledge, 1978), 179–90; Hamowy, Ronald, The Scottish Enlightenment and the Theory of Spontaneous Order (Carbondale, IL, 1987); Faccarello, Gilbert, The Foundations of Laissez-Faire: The Economics of Pierre de Boisguilbert (London, 1999). Sahlins, Cf. Marshall, Thomas Bargatzky, Nurit Bird-David, John Clammer, Jacques Hamel, Keiji Maegawa and Jukka Siikala, “The Sweetness of Sadness: The Native Anthropology of Western Cosmology,” with comments and reply, Current Anthropology 37/3 (1996), 395428 .

19 Pocock, J. G. A., Virtue, Commerce, and History: Essays on Political Thought and History, Chiefly in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1985); Goldsmith, M. M., “Liberty, Luxury and the Pursuit of Happiness,” in Pagden, Anthony, ed., The Languages of Political Theory in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, 1987), 225–52; Peltonen, Markku, “Politeness and Whiggism, 1688–1732,” Historical Journal 48 (2005), 391414 .

20 Klein, Lawrence E., “Shaftesbury, Politeness and the Politics of Religion,” in Phillipson, Nicholas and Skinner, Quentin, eds., Political Discourses in Early Modern England (Cambridge, 1993), 283301 ; Phillipson, Nicholas, “Politeness and Politics in the Reigns of Anne and the Early Hanoverians,” in J. G. A. Pocock, Schochet, Gordon J. and Schwoerer, Lois G., eds., The Varieties of British Political Thought: 1600–1800 (Cambridge, 1993), 211–45, esp. 224–7; Miller, Peter. N., Defining the Common Good: Empire, Religion and Philosophy in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Cambridge, 1994), 58, 149; Miller, “Hercules at the Crossroads in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Neo-Stoicism between Aristocratic and Commercial Society,” in Christian Mouchel and Colette Nativel, eds., République des Lettres, Republique des Arts (Geneva, 2008), 167–92. For an additional perspective see Aravamudan, Srinivas, “The Stoic's Voice,” chap. 3 of Aravamudan, Tropicopolitans: Colonialism and Agency, 1688–1804 (Durham, NC, 1999), 102–56.

21 Waterman, Political Economy and Christian Theology, 16–69. Cf. Clark, J. C. D., English Society, 1688–1832: Ideology, Social Structure, and Political Practice during the Ancien Régime, revised 2nd edn (Cambridge, 2000; first published 1985).

22 For treatment of the seventeenth-century rise of reason and ethical rationalism in the English Church consult Beiser, Frederick C., The Sovereignty of Reason: The Defense of Rationality in the Early English Enlightenment (Princeton, 1996). For treatment of Butler as a latitudinarian rationalist see Johnson, Clifford, “Joseph Butler, Laodicean Rationalist?”, Modern Language Studies 4/2 (1974), 7885 .

23 Tombs, Robert and Tombs, Isabelle, That Sweet Enemy: The French and British from the Sun King to the Present (London, 2006), esp. 5305 ; Colley, Linda, Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707–1837, Yale University Press edn (New Haven, 2005; first published 1992); Crouzet, Francois, “The Second Hundred Years War: Some Reflections,” French History 10/4 (1996), 432–50; Whatmore, Richard, “‘Neither Masters nor Slaves’: Small States and Empire in the Long Eighteenth Century,” in Kelly, Duncan, ed., Lineages of Empire: The Historical Roots of British Imperial Thought (Oxford, 2009), 5381 .

24 Armitage, David, The Ideological Origins of the British Empire (Cambridge, 2000), 173 , argues that British national identity—one that was self-consciously “Protestant, commercial, maritime and free,” or a “commercial thalassocracy”—had emerged by the 1730s.

25 Whatmore, “Neither Masters nor Slaves,” 65–6; Whatmore, Richard, “Burke on Political Economy,” in Dwan, David and Insole, Christopher J., eds., The Cambridge Companion to Edmund Burke (Cambridge, 2012), 8091 .

26 Tucker's, Josiah full title reads A Brief Essay on the Advantages and Disadvantages Which respectively attend Britain and France With Regard to Trade, 3rd edn (London, 1753; first published 1749).

27 Ibid., ii, iv–vi, viii, 147. For Tucker's neo-Stoicism see Dickey, Laurence, “Doux-Commerce and Humanitarian Values,” in Blom, Hans W. and Winkel, Laurens C., eds., Grotius and the Stoa (Van Gorcum, 2004), 271317 .

28 Tucker, Josiah, Hospitals and Infirmaries Considered as Schools of Christian Education for the Adult Poor . . . towards a National Reformation of Common People (Gloucester, 1746), 10 ; Tucker, Six Sermons on Important Subjects (Bristol, 1772), 73; Tucker, Seventeen Sermons on some of the Most Important Points on Natural and Revealed Religion (Gloucester, 1776), 104–5.

29 Tucker, Essay, 36–7.

30 Tucker, Hospitals and Infirmaries, 12, 14; Tucker, Six Sermons, 73–4; Tucker, Seventeen Sermons, 106, 108.

31 Tucker, Essay, 67.

32 Miller, Defining the Common Good, 401.

33 Tucker, Seventeen Sermons, 154.

34 Hume, David, “Of Commerce,” in Hume, Essays Moral, Political and Literary, ed. Miller, Eugene F. (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1987; first published London, 1742), II.I, available from the online Library of Economics and Liberty at www.econlib.org/library/LFBooks/Hume/hmMPL.html. Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu, “Of Commerce,” in Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws (1748), ed. A. M. Cohler, B. C. Miller and H. S. Stone (Cambridge, 1989), XX, I. “On Commerce,” 338.

35 Miller, Peter N., “‘Freethinking’ and ‘Freedom of Thought’ in Eighteenth-Century Britain,” Historical Journal 36/3 (1993), 599617 ; Berg, Maxine, Luxury and Pleasure in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Oxford, 2005), esp. 31–7; Peltonen, “Politeness and Whiggism”; Istvan Hont, “The Early Enlightenment Debate on Commerce and Luxury,” in Goldie and Wokler, The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought, 377-418; Whatmore, Richard, “Luxury, Commerce, and the Rise of Political Economy,” in Harris, James A., ed., The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century (Oxford, 2013), 575–95.

36 For surveys of “Augustinian–Epicurean versus Stoic” themes in the early modern and eighteenth-century period see Osler, Margaret J., Atoms, Pneuma, and Traquillity: Epicurean and Stoic Themes in European Thought (Cambridge, 1991); LaFond, Jean, L'homme et son image: Morales et littératures de Montaigne à Mandeville (Paris, 1996), esp. “Augustinisme et Épicurisme,” 353–4; Force, Pierre, Self-Interest before Smith, A Genealogy of Economic Science (Cambridge, 2003); Brooke, Christopher, Philosophic Pride: Stoicism and Political Thought from Lipsius to Rousseau (Princeton, 2012), esp. 153–9 for Mandeville's anti-Stoicism; Dew, Ben, “Epicurean and Stoic Enlightenments: The Return of Modern Paganism?,” History Compass 11/6 (2013), 486–95.

37 Hundert, E. J., “Sociability and Self-Love in the Theatre of Moral Sentiments: Mandeville to Adam Smith,” in Stefan Collini, Richard Whatmore and Brian Young, eds., Economy, Polity, and Society: British Intellectual History 1750–1850 (Cambridge, 2000), 3147 .

38 Mandeville, Bernard de, The Fable of the Bees: or, Private Vices, Publick Benefits (1714, 1723), 2 vols., ed. Kaye, F. B. (Oxford, 1924), 24–6, 1: 51.

39 Tucker, Essay, 130 n.

40 For Mandeville's reception see Hundert, E. J., The Enlightenment's “Fable”: Bernard Mandeville and the Discovery of Society (Cambridge, 1994), 7586 , 96–115, 117–26, 153–68.

41 Ibid., 154.

42 Law, William, Remarks upon a late Book, intitled, The Fable of the Bees (1724) , in The Works of the Reverend William Law, A.M., 9 vols. (London, 1762), 2: 67, 31, original emphasis. For discussion see also Nieli, Russell, “Commercial Society and Christian Virtue: The Mandeville–Law Dispute,” Review of Politics 51/4 (1989), 581610 ; Young, “Christianity, Commerce and the Canon,” 386–7; Starkie, Andrew, “William Law and the Fable of the Bees ,” Journal of Eighteenth-Century Studies 32/3 (2009), 307–19.

43 Hundert, Enlightenment's “Fable”, 126; Waterman, Political Economy and Christian Theology, 110, 112.

44 Viner, Cf., The Role of Providence in the Social Order: An Essay in Intellectual History (Princeton, 1972); Gerhard Oestreich, Brigitta Oestreich and Koenigsberger, H. G., eds., Neostoicism and the Early Modern State, trans. McLintock, David (Cambridge, 1982).

45 For Butler's “crisis of faith” regarding his dissenting heritage while studying in Tewkesbury, his resulting correspondence with Clarke, and his eventual conversion to the Church of England, see Tennant, Bob, Conscience, Consciousness and Ethics in Joseph Butler's Philosophy and Ministry (Woodbridge, 2011), 1937 ; Garret, Aaron, “Reasoning about Morals from Butler to Hume,” in Savage, Ruth, ed., Philosophy and Religion in Enlightenment Britain (Oxford, 2012), 169–86, at 173–6.

46 Butler, Joseph, Fifteen Sermons Preached at the Rolls Chapel, 1st edn (London, 1726), 39 , 2nd edn (London, 1729), 39, henceforth Fifteen Sermons 1726; Fifteen Sermons 1729.

47 Butler, Fifteen Sermons 1729, 139. Contrariwise, for Butler self-love was in fact a duty commanded by Christ himself, as asserted in Waterman, Political Economy and Christian Theology, 110. This is in reference to Sermons XI and XII: “Upon the Love of our Neighbour.”

48 Butler, Fifteen Sermons 1726, 139–40; Fifteen Sermons 1729, 140.

49 Butler, Fifteen Sermons 1726, 171; Fifteen Sermons 1729, 171.

50 Butler, Fifteen Sermons 1729, xvii, original emphasis. Lavery, Cf. Jonathan, “Reflection and Exhortation in Butler's Sermons: Practical Deliberation, Psychological Health and the Philosophical Sermon,” European Legacy 10/4 (2005), 329–48.

51 Butler, Fifteen Sermons 1729, xxvii.

52 E.g. Gregory, Jeremy, “Anglicanism and the Arts,” in Black, Jeremy and Gregory, Jeremy, eds., Culture, Politics and Society in Britain 1660–1800 (Manchester, 1991), 82109 ; J. G. A. Pocock, Virtue, Commerce, and History, 236; Pocock, Barbarism and Religion, I: The Enlightenments of Edward Gibbon, 1737–1764 (Cambridge, 1999), 22, 26, 27.

53 For the Anglican “organicist conception of the state” as the theological and philosophical harbinger of eighteenth-century British political economy see Waterman, Political Economy and Christian Theology, 32–9, 41–6.

54 Annas, Julia, “The Stoics: Human Nature and the Point of View of the Universe,” chap. 5 of Annas, The Morality of Happiness (Oxford, 1993), 159–79. For Stoicism in Butler's thought see Irwin, T. H., “Stoic Naturalism in Butler,” in Inwood, John and Miller, Brad, eds., Hellenistic and Early Modern Philosophy (Cambridge 2003), 274300 . For acknowledgment of the theory of oikeiosis in Butler's scheme see Long, A. A., “Stoicism in the Philosophical Tradition: Spinoza, Lipsius, Butler,” in Inwood, John, ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Stoics (Cambridge, 2003), 365–92, esp. 368–9. For Stoic moral philosophy and oikeiosis in Adam Smith's economic thought see Brown, Vivienne, Adam Smith's Discourse: Canonicity, Commerce and Conscience (London, 1994); Forma-Barzilai, Fonna, Adam Smith and the Circles of Sympathy: Cosmopolitanism and Moral Theory (Cambridge, 2009).

55 Butler, Fifteen Sermons 1726, 18; Fifteen Sermons 1729, 17.

56 Butler, Fifteen Sermons 1726, 188–9, 190, original emphasis; Fifteen Sermons 1729, 188–9, 190.

57 Butler, Fifteen Sermons 1726, 229–30; Fifteen Sermons 1729, 235–6.

58 Tucker, Elements, 6, 7 (“A Preliminary Discourse, Setting Forth the natural Disposition, or instinctive Inclination of Mankind towards Commerce”).

59 Ibid., 8.

60 Ibid., 6, 8. For further discussion see Peter Xavier Price, “Self-Love and Sociability: The ‘Rudiments of Commerce’ in the State of Nature,” Global Intellectual History (forthcoming).

61 Tucker, Elements, 8.

62 This is stated implicitly, e.g., in Tucker, Josiah, Four Tracts, Together with Two Sermons, on Political and Commercial Subjects (Gloucester, 1774), 41 ; and explicitly in Tucker, A Brief and Dispassionate View of the Difficulties Attending the Trinitarian, Arian and Socinian Systems (Gloucester, 1776). In the latter, Tucker bases his defence of orthodox Trinitarianism on Butler's anti-Lockean “Of personal Identity” argument, which was appended to Joseph Butler, The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed (London, 1736), 301–8.

63 Tucker, Instructions for Travellers, 6.

64 Wesley, John, The Journal of the Rev. John Wesley, A. M., 8 vols., ed. Curnock, N. (London, 1909–16), 5: 265 .

65 Secker, Thomas, The Autobiography of Thomas Secker, Archbishop of Canterbury, ed. Macauley, J. S. and Greaves, R. W. (Lawrence, KS, 1988), 10 .

66 See notes 10–12 above.

67 Butler, Fifteen Sermons 1726, 17-8; Fifteen Sermons 1729, 16–17.

68 Waterman, A. M. C., “The Relation between Economics and Theology in Caritas in Veritate ,” Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 6/2 (2013), 2442 .

69 Butler, Joseph, A Sermon Preached before the House of Lords . . . Jan. 30, 1740–1 (London, 1741) (henceforth Martyrdom), 3. For detailed discussion of the “six occasional sermons” see Tennant, Butler's Philosophy and Ministry, 146–76.

70 Butler, A Sermon Preached . . . for the Relief of Sick and Diseased Persons (London, 1748) (henceforth Infirmary), 5.

71 Hanley, “The Eighteenth-Century Context of Sympathy,” 185.

72 E.g. Valenze, Deborah, “Charity, Custom, and Humanity: Changing Attitudes towards the Poor in Eighteenth-Century England,” in Garnett, J. and Matthew, C., eds., Revival and Religion since 1700: Essays for John Walsh (London, 1993), 5978 ; Tomkins, Alannah, The Experience of Urban Poverty 1723–82: Parish, Charity and Credit (Manchester, 2006).

73 Young, Religion and Enlightenment, esp. 19–44.

74 Madden, Deborah, A Cheap and Safe Natural Medicine: Religion, Medicine and Culture in John Wesley's Primitive Psychic (Amsterdam and New York, 2007), esp. 4960 .

75 Hanley, “The Eighteenth-Century Context of Sympathy.”

76 Entitled A Sermon Preached before the Incorporated Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (London, 1739) (henceforth SPG), and A Sermon Preached . . . on Thursday May the 9th, 1745 (London, 1745) (henceforth Charity Schools).

77 Tennant, Bob, Corporate Holiness: Pulpit Preaching and the Church of England Missionary Societies, 1760–1870 (Oxford, 2013), 26, 63–5. Tennant does not refer to Butler's “theory of ethics as circles of benevolence” in explicitly Stoic terms. However, the similarities between this explanation and Butler's incorporation of Stoic oikeiosis, as discussed above, are unambiguous.

78 Butler, Infirmary, 4.

79 Ibid., 12.

80 Ibid., 23, 24.

81 For relevant discussion of the transition from seventeenth-century aristocratic society to eighteenth-century commercial society see Miller, “Hercules at the Crossroads.”

82 Butler, Infirmary, 5.

83 Butler, SPG, 12, 14.

84 Tennant, Butler's Philosophy and Ministry, 147, 149, 154.

85 Tucker, Josiah, The Causes of the Dearness of Provisions assigned; with Effectual Methods for Reducing . . . Them (Gloucester, 1766), 34, 5.

86 Butler, Charity Schools, 8.

87 Tucker, Josiah, A Sermon Preached in the Parish-Church of Christ-Church . . . the Yearly Meeting of the . . . Charity Schools . . . To which is annexed, An Account of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (London, 1766) (henceforth SPCK), 5.

88 Ibid., 7. Tucker is referring to London here, but he may just as well be speaking of any number of “proto-industrial” cities across eighteenth-century Britain.

89 Tucker, Essay, 53–8. This proposal is repeated in greater detail in Josiah Tucker, The Manifold Causes of the Increase of the Poor Distinctly Set Forth (Gloucester, 1760), 12–16.

90 Bernard de Mandeville, An Essay on Charity and Charity-Schools, in Mandeville, Fable of the Bees, 2nd edn (London, 1723), 285–370.

91 Butler, Martyrdom, 6. Cf. Tennant, Butler's Philosophy and Ministry, 159.

92 Tucker, Josiah, Expediency of a Law for the Naturalization of Foreign Protestants: . . . Part II . . . Containing Important Queries relating to Commerce . . . and the Principles of the Christian Religion, 2nd edn (London, 1753) (henceforth NFP II), ix.

93 Tucker, SPCK, 25.

94 Ibid., 18.

95 Tucker, Four Tracts . . . Two Sermons, 67. As Tucker elsewhere puts it, this was tantamount to a “Plan of good Œconomy,” ensuring economic progress from “Generation to Generation throughout an almost endless Progression and Variety.” Tucker, Seventeen Sermons, 156–8.

96 Tucker, NFP II, 10.

97 Tucker, Seventeen Sermons, 19. Lovejoy, Cf. Arthur O., The Great Chain of Being (Cambridge, MA, 1936); Viner, Role of Providence in the Social Order, 90–95.

98 Tucker, SPCK, 18–20, 24–5; cf. Tucker, Essay, 34.

99 Semmel, “The Hume–Tucker Debate”; Elmslie, B. T., “Retrospectives: The Convergence Debate between David Hume and Josiah Tucker,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 9/4 (1995), 207–16; Dickey, “Doux-Commerce and Humanitarian Values”; Istvan Hont, “The ‘Rich Country–Poor Country’ Debate in the Scottish Enlightenment,” in Hont, Jealousy of Trade, 267–322.

100 For the “great age of comparative study in political economy” as “the archetypal science of reform, premised on the unavoidability of commercial society as an element of human progress, and encompassing in consequence international relations as the correlate of domestic reform,” see Whatmore, “Burke on Political Economy,” 81, 83. Cf. Emma Rothschild, “Global Commerce and the Question of Sovereignty in the Eighteenth-Century Provinces,” Modern Intellectual History 1/1 (2004), 3–25.

101 E.g. Winch, Riches and Poverty, 57–89; Dew, Ben, “Political Economy and the Problem of the Plebs in Eighteenth-Century Britain,” History Compass 5/4 (2007), 1214–35.

102 Oslington, Cf. Paul, “Anglican Social Thought and the Shaping of Political Economy in Britain: Joseph Butler, Josiah Tucker, William Paley and Edmund Burke,” History of Economics Review 67/1 (2017), 2645 . Oslington broadly agrees with this article regarding the relationship between Butler and Tucker's Anglican providentialism and their political economy. He remains unconvinced, however, by the present author's “characterisation of this framework as neo-Stoic, in contrast to the Augustinian–Epicurean framework of Mandeville and Hobbes.” Ibid., 40 n. 4.

103 Nieli, “Commercial Society and Christian Virtue,” esp. 581–4. Christian objections to wealth creation are articulated in such scriptural passages as Matthew 11:26: “Ye cannot serve God and Mammon,” or 1 Timothy 11:10: “For the love of money is the root of all evil.”

104 Quoted in Shelton, Dean Tucker and Eighteenth-Century Economic and Political Thought, 165.

105 Cf. Waterman, Political Economy and Christian Theology, 109–12.

106 Donald Winch, “Adam Smith's ‘Enduring Particular Result’: A Political and Cosmopolitan Perspective,” in Hont and Ignatieff, Wealth and Virtue, 253–70, at 265.

107 See, e.g., in immediate contextual and clerical proximity to Tucker, John “Estimate” Brown, An Estimate of the Manners and Principles of the Times (London, 1757). For wider Continental contexts and surveys see also Istvan Hont, “Free Trade and the Economic Limits to National Politics: Neo-Machiavellian Political Economy Reconsidered,” in Hont, Jealousy of Trade, 185–266; Sonenscher, Michael, Before the Deluge: Public Debt, Inequality, and the Intellectual Origins of the French Revolution (Princeton, 2007), esp. 121, 41–66; McDaniel, Iain, “Jean-Louis Delolme and the Political Science of the English Empire,” Historical Journal 55/1 (2012), 2144 .

108 Butler, A Sermon Preached before the House of Lords . . . June 11, 1747 (London, 1747), 25–6.

109 Tucker, Elements, 81, 88.

110 Pocock, J. G. A., “Josiah Tucker on Burke, Locke and Price: A Study in the Varieties of Eighteenth-Century Conservatism,” in Pocock, Virtue, Commerce, and History, 157–91. For a broad survey see also Haakonssen, Knud, ed., Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century (Cambridge, 1996).

111 Tucker, A Letter to Edmund Burke, Esq., Member of Parliament for Bristol . . . in Answer to his Printed Speech (Gloucester, 1775), 18–20; Tucker, Four Letters on Important National Subjects, Addressed to the Right Honourable the Earl of Shelburne, 2nd edn (London, 1783), 18, 20, 23.

112 Tucker, Four Letters on Important National Subjects, 23. Cf. Whatmore, Richard, “Shelburne and Perpetual Peace: Small States, Commerce, and International Relations within the Bowood Circle,” in Aston, Nigel and Orr, Clarissa Campbell, eds., An Enlightenment Statesman in Whig Britain: Lord Shelburne in Context, 1737–1805 (Woodbridge, 2011), 249–73.

113 See note 85 above.

114 Tucker, Josiah, An Apology for the Present Church of England, As by Law Established (Gloucester, 1772), 14 . This is similar to Hume's analysis, summarized by Haakonssen, Natural Law and Moral Philosophy, 124 (emphases added), “that in a free constitution political differences could not be about the constitution; they had to be within the constitution.”

115 Tucker, Josiah, A Treatise Concerning Civil Government (Gloucester, 1781), 22, 23, 40.

116 Tucker, Letter to Burke, 12.

117 Tucker, Seventeen Sermons, 139–41. At 26 Tucker labels this the “divine Oeconomy.” Elsewhere he likens it to his “Plan of Christian Liberty.” Tucker, An Apology for the Present Church of England, 54.

118 Here Tucker was referring to his and Butler's frequent turns about the gardens of Bristol Cathedral during the 1740s, when, on one occasion, Butler remarked that it must be possible for “whole Communities and public Bodies [to] be seized with Fits of Insanity, as well as Individuals.” See Stephens, Alexander, Public Characters of 1798–9, 2nd edn (London, 1799), 171 .

119 Tucker, Josiah, Cui Bono? Or, an Enquiry, What Benefits can Arise . . . from the Greatest Victories, or Successes, in the Present War? . . . Addressed to Monsieur Necker, 3rd edn (Gloucester, 1781), 32, 80–83, 137.

120 “Tucker to Mrs Jones, 12 Jan 1783,” Gentleman's Magazine 19 (1840), 19–20.

121 Connor, R. D. W., “Josiah Tucker or Cassandra Picks the Pocket of Mars,” World Affairs 103/2 (1940), 7990 .

122 Tucker to William Seward, 29 Oct. 1790, BL Add. MSS. 5419.

123 Tucker, Essay, 66.

* The present author is indebted to Iain McDaniel, Norman Vance, A. M. C. Waterman, Richard Whatmore, the late Donald Winch, Brian W. Young, and the three anonymous referees and editors of Modern Intellectual History, especially Tracie M. Matysik, for reading and providing helpful comments on various—often inchoate—drafts of this paper. Certain of its aspects was delivered at the John W. Kluge Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, June 2013.

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Modern Intellectual History
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