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REWORDING THE PAST: THE POSTWAR PUBLICATION OF A 1938 LECTURE BY MARTIN HEIDEGGER*

  • SIDONIE KELLERER (a1)
Abstract

In 1950 Martin Heidegger published his 1938 lecture “Die Zeit des Weltbildes” in the essay collection Holzwege. He did so in order to document his “inner resistance” after the mid-1930s against the Nazi regime. This text has since been seen as evidence for Heidegger's early rejection of National Socialism and his refusal of a modern ideology that culminated in the totalitarian system. In spite of its influence, the published text has never been compared to the original lecture delivered in 1938. The assessment has now been made, and the differences between the two documents are a striking testimony to the artful falsifications that Heidegger used to re-establish his reputation and philosophical standing after the collapse of the Nazi system.

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This study has been made possible by a 2010 grant by the German Literary Archive in Marbach in order to study some of its Heidegger documents, a grant which resulted in a first report in German: Sidonie Kellerer, “Heideggers Maske: ‘Die Zeit des Weltbildes’, Metamorphose eines Textes,” Zeitschrift für Ideengeschichte, 5/2 (2011), 109–20. I am also much indebted to Till van Rahden for numerous discussions on the topic and for his helpful advice. To Gaëtan Pégny and Cynthia Miller-Idriss I am grateful for their thorough reading of the text and various improvements and for useful suggestions.

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1 Heidegger, Martin, “Die Selbstbehauptung der deutschen Universität,” in Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe (henceforth GA), vol. 16 (Frankfurt am Main, 2000), 107–17. For English versions, see Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (New York, 1990), 5–14; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (Cambridge, MA, 1993), 29–39.

2 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” in Heidegger, Holzwege (1935–1946), GA, vol. 5 (Frankfurt a. M., 1977; first published 1950), 75–113. The text has appeared twice in English. See Heidegger, , “The Age of the World Picture,” in Heidegger, Off the Beaten Track, trans. and ed. Young, Julian and Haynes, Kenneth (Cambridge, 2002) 5786; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” in Heidegger, The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays, trans. William Lovitt (New York 1977), 115–54. Quotations in the subsequent text are based on the 2002 publication.

3 Heidegger, “Die Begründung des neuzeitlichen Weltbildes durch die Metaphysik,” in Deutsches Literaturarchiv, Marbach am Neckar: A Heid: B 83 (hereafter BnWM). For a transcription see access number A Heid: 2 HS.2004.0052. The documents are publicly accessible at the Marbach.

4 Throughout this discussion, the word “science” and variants are meant to be understood in this broader sense of the German word Wissenschaft.

5 I am thankful to Joel Golb for this note.

6 Heidegger to Constantin Dietze, 15 Dec. 1945, in Heidegger, Reden und andere Zeugnisse eines Lebensweges, ed. Hermann Heidegger, GA, vol. 16, 409–15, 412.

7 Ibid., 413.

8 Farías, Víctor, Heidegger and Nazism, ed. Margolis, Joseph and Rockmore, Tom, trans. from the German by Paul Burrell with the advice of Dominic di Bernardi and from the French by Gabriel R. Ricci (Philadelphia, 1989), 249, 248. Farías, Heidegger und der Nationalsozialismus (Frankfurt am Main, 1989), 331. For the letter see Central State Archives, Potsdam, 70 Re 8.

9 Farías, Heidegger und der Nationalsozialismus, 331; Farías, Heidegger and Nazism, 248.

10 Böhm, Franz, Anti-Cartesianismus: Deutsche Philosophie im Widerstand (Leipzig, 1938).

11 Heidegger, Die Grundfrage der Philosophie, GA, vol. 36–7 (Frankfurt am Main, 2001), 3–82, 39: geistige Verlotterung. English translation in Heidegger, “The Fundamental Question of Philosophy,” in Heidegger, Being and Truth, trans. Gregory Fried and Richard Polt (Bloomington 2010), 3–66, 31, translation modified.

12 Pöggeler, Otto, Philosophie und Politik bei Heidegger (Freiburg and Munich, 1974), 32.

13 Polt, Richard, Jenseits von Kampf und Macht: Heideggers heimlicher Widerstand, in Denker, Alfred and Zaborowski, Holger, eds., Heidegger und der Nationalsozialismus, vol. 2, Interpretationen (Heidegger-Jahrbuch, 5) (Munich 2009), 155–86.

14 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 106–11; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 81–4.

15 The German word Volk has a broad semantic range, extending from what in English can be translated simply as “people” or “nation” to the Volk of völkisch ethnic nationalism, which can in turn be imbued with a “blood-and-soil,” biological–racist tenor. In this essay Heidegger's term Volk will be consistently retained, so that readers can exercise their own judgment as to where it falls within that semantic range. (I am thankful to Joel Golb for this note).

16 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 111; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 84. Translation modified.

17 Heidegger, GA, vol. 5, 344; Heidegger, Off the Beaten Track, 87, my italics.

18 See Heidegger, , “‘Nur noch ein Gott kann uns retten’: Der Philosoph Martin Heidegger über sich und sein Denken,” in Spiegel, 23 (1976), 280–7, 284 (the interview took place in 1966). Also published as “Spiegel-Gespräch mit Martin Heidegger (23 September 1966), in GA, vol. 16, 652–83. To be compared to Marten, Rainer, “Ein rassistisches Konzept von Humanität,” Badische Zeitung, 14/293 (Dec. 1987), 1920. With regard to this debate see Wolin, Richard, ed., The Heidegger Controversy: A Critical Reader (Cambridge, MA, 1993), 186–8; Heidegger, Introduction to Metaphysics, trans. Gregory Fried and Richard Polt (New Haven and London 2000).

19 See Ott, Hugo, Martin Heidegger: A Political Life (New York, 1993; first published 1988), 289–92.

20 The Dozentenbund was founded in July 1935 on the initiative of Rudolf Hess. See Nagel, Anne, “‘Er ist der Schrecken überhaupt der Hochschule’: Der Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Dozentenbund in der Wissenschaftspolitik des Dritten Reichs,” in Scholtyseck, Joachim and Studt, Christoph, eds., Universitäten und Studenten im Dritten Reich: Bejahung, Anpassung, Widerstand (Berlin, 2008), 115–32: “It came into being . . . as an independent branch of the party and comprised all professors, instructors, and assistants at the university who were Nazi Party members” (at 119) and stood alongside the SA and SS in the Nazi hierarchy. The Dozentenbund served “the party's goal to develop a teaching staff oriented toward Nazism” after the “revolutionary phase at the universities had been completed and the party was striving for further enlargement of its sphere of influence” (at 131). This was realized concretely through “observation and support of younger academics” and “influence on appointments” (at 120).

21 Heidegger, GA, vol. 5, 381, Von Herrmann's emphasis.

22 Heidegger, Einführung in die Metaphysik (1935), in GA, vol. 40 (Frankfurt am Main, 1983), 233–4. See Heidegger's “preliminary note” (Vorbemerkung) preceding page 1; for an English translation, see Heidegger, Introduction to Metaphysics.

23 Heidegger, Sein und Wahrheit, GA, vol. 36–7, 300.

24 Buchner, Hartmut, “Fragmentarisches,” in Neske, Günther, ed., Erinnerung an Martin Heidegger (Pfullingen, 1977), 4751, 49.

25 Heidegger, GA, vol. 5, 376; Heidegger, Off the Beaten Track, 286.

26 I thank Ulrich von Bülow, director of the manuscript division of the German Literary Archives, for this information.

27 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 96; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 73, translation modified.

28 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 77; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 59, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 75; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 57, translation modified.

29 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 76; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 58.

30 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 87; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 66.

31 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 86; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 65.

32 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 84; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 64.

33 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 94; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 71.

34 Heidegger, “Die Selbstbehauptung der deutschen Universität (27. Mai 1933),” GA, vol. 16, 107–17, 110; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1993), 32; Heidegger, , The Self-Assertion of the German University (New York, 1990), 7, translation modified.

35 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 89; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 73.

36 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 75, 96; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 57, 73.

37 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 96; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 73, translation modified.

38 Heidegger, “Die Selbstbehauptung der deutschen Universität (27. Mai 1933),” 100; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1993), 32, translation modified.

39 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 85; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 64.

40 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 88; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 66, translation modified.

41 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 88; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 67: Auffassung des Seienden.

42 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 88; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 67.

43 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 85, Beherrschung at 86, Verfügbarkeit at 89, Gerüstetsein at 94, Herrschaft at 101; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 64, 65, 67, 71, 76.

44 Vietta, Silvio, Heideggers Kritik am Nationalsozialismus (Tübingen, 1989), 32.

45 Heidegger, “Besinnung auf die Wissenschaft (9. Juni 1938),” in Heidegger, Reden und andere Zeugnisse eines Lebensweges, GA, vol. 16, 349. See the appendix to this essay.

46 Heidegger, “Besinnung auf die Wissenschaft (9. Juni 1938).”

47 S. Vietta, Heideggers Kritik am Nationalsozialismus, 32.

48 Heidegger, “Besinnung auf die Wissenschaft (9. Juni 1938),” added emphases. Vietta, Heideggers Kritik am Nationalsozialismus, 32.

49 Heidegger, “Besinnung auf die Wissenschaft (9. Juni 1938).”

50 Ibid.; and Heidegger, “Die Begründung des neuzeitlichen Weltbildes durch die Metaphysik,” 10.

51 Heidegger, “Besinnung auf die Wissenschaft (9. Juni 1938)”; and Heidegger, “Die Begründung des neuzeitlichen Weltbildes durch die Metaphysik,” 10.

52 Heidegger, Reden und andere Zeugnisse eines Lebensweges; and Heidegger, Die Begründung des neuzeitlichen Weltbildes durch die Metaphysik, 10.

53 Heidegger, “Die Selbstbehauptung der deutschen Universität (27. Mai 1933),” 115; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1993), 37; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1990), 12, translation modified.

54 Heidegger, “Die Selbstbehauptung der deutschen Universität (27. Mai 1933),” 115, Heidegger's emphasis; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1993), 37; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1990), 12.

55 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 85; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 64.

56 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 85; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 64, translation modified.

57 BnWM, 15, left side; the underline is Heidegger's. The manuscript pages are large and folded in the middle with left and right sides used as separate pages.

58 GA, vol. 5, 85; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 64, translation modified.

59 Vietta, Heideggers Kritik am Nationalsozialismus, 36.

60 Heidegger, “Die Selbstbehauptung der deutschen Universität (27. Mai 1933),” 116, Heidegger's emphasis; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1993), 37; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1990), 12.

61 Heidegger, “Die Selbstbehauptung der deutschen Universität (27. Mai 1933),” 115; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1993), 37; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1990), 12, translation modified.

62 See Faye, Emmanuel, Heidegger: The Introduction of Nazism into Philosophy in Light of the Unpublished Seminars of 1933–1935, trans. Smith, M. B. (New Haven and London, 2009; first published 2005), 270.

63 Heidegger, “Die Selbstbehauptung der deutschen Universität (27. Mai 1933),” 115; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1993), 37; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1990), 12, translation modified.

64 Heidegger, “Die Selbstbehauptung der deutschen Universität (27. Mai 1933),” 114; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1993), 36; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1990), 11, translation modified.

65 Heidegger, “Die Selbstbehauptung der deutschen Universität (27. Mai 1933),” 113; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1993), 35; Heidegger, The Self-Assertion of the German University (1990), 10, translation modified.

66 Heidegger, Nietzsche: Der Europäische Nihilismus, GA, vol. 48, ed. Petra Jaeger (Frankfurt am Main, 1986; lecture dating from 1940), 333. See Faye, Heidegger: The Introduction of Nazism into Philosophy, 271.

67 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 87; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 66, translation modified.

68 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 87; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 66, translation modified.

69 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 94; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 69.

70 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 89; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 67.

71 Heideger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 101; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 76, translation modified.

72 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 101; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 76.

73 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 97; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 73, 74, translation modified.

74 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 97; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 74.

75 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 88–9; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 67.

76 Heidegger, “Die Begründung des neuzeitlichen Weltbildes durch die Metaphysik,” 15, left, underlining Heidegger's.

77 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 88–9; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 67, translation modified.

78 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 92; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 69, translation modified.

79 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 101; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 76, translation modified.

80 Schmitz-Berning, Cornelia, Vokabular des Nationalsozialismus (Berlin and New York, 2007), 181.

81 See Minder, Robert, “Heidegger und Hebel oder die Sprache von Meßkirch,” in Minder, Dichter in der Gesellschaft: Erfahrungen mit deutscher und französischer Literatur (Frankfurt am Main, 1983; first published 1968), 234–94, 234.

82 Heidegger, GA, vol. 40, 51.

83 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 92; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 69–70.

84 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 92; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 69–70, translation modified, italics are Heidegger's, later modification in bold.

85 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 95; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 72.

86 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes”, 112; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 85, translation modified.

87 Heidegger, “Die Begründung des neuzeitlichen Weltbildes durch die Metaphysik,” 26, left. Here and below the underlining is Heidegger's.

88 Ibid., 26, left.

89 Ibid., 38, right. Note: here the word Unwesen's less literal, more commonplace, meaning as “mischief” would have the advantage of placing the accent on what, for Heidegger, is the menace of a modernity not founded in the Volksgemeinschaft.

90 Ebeling, Hans, Die Maske des Cartesius (Würzburg, 2002), 37.

91 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 112; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 85, translation modified.

92 Heidegger, , Nietzsches metaphysische Grundstellung im abendländischen Denken: Die ewige Wiederkehr des Gleichen, GA, vol. 44, ed. Heinz, Marion (Frankfurt am Main, 1986 (lecture dating from 1937)).

93 Heidegger, GA, vol. 44, 225.

94 Heidegger, GA, vol. 40, 41–2, Heidegger's emphasis; Heidegger, Introduction to Metaphysics, 41, translation modified.

95 Heidegger, GA, vol. 40, 49, 50; Heidegger, Introduction to Metaphysics, 48, 49.

96 Heidegger, “Die Zeit des Weltbildes,” 99; Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” 75, translation modified. Heidegger, GA, vol. 40, 42; Introduction to Metaphysics, 41, translation modified.

97 English translations: Heidegger, Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning), trans. Parvis Emad and Kenneth Maly (Bloomington, 1999); Heidegger, Mindfulness, trans. Parvis Emad and Thomas Kalary (London and New York, 2006). Zaborowski, Holger, “Eine Frage von Irre und Schuld?” Martin Heidegger und der Nationalsozialismus (Frankfurt am Main, 2010), 545.

98 Heidegger, “Brief an Richardson,” in Richardson, William J., Through Phenomenology to Thought (The Hague, 1974; first published 1963), XVIII–XXIII. Heidegger's letter is dated to April 1962.

99 Arendt, Hannah, Vom Leben des Geistes, vol. 2 (Munich and Zürich, 1979), 164–5.

100 Heidegger, “Erläuterungen und Grundsätzliches” (letter from 15 Dec. 1945 to Constantin von Dietze), in GA, vol. 16, 409–15, 412.

101 Menke, Christoph, “Subjekt: Zwischen Weltbemächtigung und Welterhaltung,” in Thomä, Dieter, ed., Heidegger-Handbuch: Leben-Werk-Wirkung (Stuttgart, 2013), 320–28, 324.

102 See Heidegger, Nietzsche, vol. 1 (Pfullingen, 1961), 10; and Heidegger, “Nur noch ein Gott kann uns retten,” 282: “Alle die hören konnte, hörten, dass dies [i.e. the lectures on Nietzsche] eine Auseinandersetzung mit dem Nationalsozialismus war.”

103 Lacoue-Labarthe, Philippe, Heidegger, Art and Politics: The Fiction of the Political, trans. Turner, Chris, Oxford, 1990; first published 1987), 110. Agamben and Vattimo would agree with this: see Vattimo, Gianni, The End of Modernity: Nihilism and Hermeneutics in Post-modern Culture, trans. Snyder, Jon R. (Baltimore, 1991; first published 1985); Agamben, Giorgio, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, trans. Heller-Roazen, Daniel (Stanford, 1998; first published 1995). See also Lyotard, Jean-François, Heidegger and “The Jews” (Minneapolis, 1990; first published 1988). On Heidegger's significance for postmodernism see, e.g., Smith, Gregory Bruce, Nietzsche, Heidegger and the Transition to Postmodernity (Chicago 1995).

104 Lacoue-Labarthe, Heidegger, Art and Politics, 107. As a recent example of this approach see the interview with Gianni Vattimo, 9 May 2012: “Heidegger, maestro nazista” published online in Lettera 43, at www.lettera43.it/cultura/heidegger-maestro-nazista_4367549661.htm.

105 When Karl Jaspers republished—ten years after the original publication and without added comment—his fiercely anti-Cartesian essay from 1937 he did not say a word about the anti-Cartesianism that characterized the Nazi ideology. See Jaspers, Karl, Descartes und die Philosophie (Berlin, 1948). This essay was first published in France at the occasion of the three-hundredth anniversary of the Discours de la méthode: Jaspers, “La pensée de Descartes et la philosophie,” Revue philosophique, 124/1 (1937), 39–148.

106 Arendt, Hannah and Heidegger, Martin, Briefe 1925–1975 und andere Zeugnisse, ed. Ludz, Ursula (Frankfurt am Main, 1999), 95.

107 Schmitt, Carl, Glossarium: Aufzeichungen der Jahre 1947–1951, ed. von Medem, Eberhard Freiherr (Berlin, 1991), 297.

108 This is the position taken by Morat, Daniel, “No inner remigration: Martin Heidegger, Ernst Jünger, and the early Federal Republic of Germany, Modern Intellectual History, 9/3 (2012), 661–79, 671: Heidegger and Jünger “felt that they were once again being persecuted in a public sphere subject to ‘coordination’ [sic] (Gleichschaltung), this time, as it were, from the left. . . .Their responses to this perceived persecution included withdrawing from the public sphere and cultivating nonpublic forms of communication.” It should be noted that Morat represents an exception in confronting Heidegger's political stance in the West German state's early period.

109 See the so-called “Spiegel Interview”; see note 18 above.

110 See Heidegger's use of Jean Beaufret and François Fédier to secure his reputation in France: Rockmore, Tom, Heidegger and French Philosophy: Humanism, Antihumanism and Being (London, 1995), 81107.

111 Vietta, Egon, “Freund der Weisheit: Zu Martin Heideggers 60. Geburtstag am 26. September,” in Die Welt, 151 (2 September 1949), 3.

112 Ibid.

113 Heidegger, Vorträge und Aufsätze (Stuttgart, 1997; first published 1954), 275. “Die Überwindung der Metaphysik” is around thirty pages long. Reprinted in the GA, vol. 7 (Frankfurt am Main, 2000), 2000.

114 Heidegger, , “Anmerkungen über die Metaphysik (Aus den Jahren 1936–1946),” in Hollwich, Fritz, ed., Im Umkreis der Kunst: Eine Festschrift für Emil Preetorius (Stuttgart, 1953), 117–36, 120, 121, 123, 136.

115 Rockmore, Heidegger and French Philosophy, 88. Heidegger, Essais et conférences, ed. with foreword by Beaufret, Jean (Paris 1958).

116 Heidegger, Nietzsche, vol. 1, 10 (foreword by Heidegger). For a demonstration of the manipulation of the Nietzsche texts by Heidegger see Fried, Michael, Heidegger's Polemos. From Being to Politics (New Haven and London, 2000), 257–61; and Faye, Heidegger: The Introduction of Nazism into Philosophy, chap. 9: “The Rewriting of the Courses on Nietzsche and the Appreciation of Baeumler,” 251–58 and 271.

117 Vattimo, Gianni, “Heideggers Verwindung der Moderne,” in Veauthier, F. W., ed., Martin Heidegger: Denker der Post-Metaphysik (Heidelberg, 1992), 4966, 65.

118 Hans-Ulrich Gumbrecht, “Ist Heidegger unvermeidlich?,” Blog “Digital/Pausen,” at http://faz-community.faz.net/blogs/digital/archive/2012/03/30/ist-heidegger-unvermeidlich.aspx, accessed 17 Jan. 2014.

119 Lacoue-Labarthe, Heidegger, Art and Politics, 110, translation modified.

120 Strauss, Leo, Persecution and the Art of Writing (Westport, 1973; first published 1941), 25.

121 Heidegger, Martin and Blochmann, Elisabeth, Briefwechsel 1918–1969, ed. Storck, Joachim W. (Marbach am Neckar 1989), 46.

122 Kisiel, Theodore, “Heidegger's Gesamtausgabe: An International Scandal of Scholarship,” Philosophy Today, 39/1 (Spring 1995), 315. See also Kisiel, “In response to my overwrought critics, Studia phaenomenologica, 7 (2007), 545–52.

123 Kisiel, “Heidegger's Gesamtausgabe,” 4, 3.

124 See Wolin, The Heidegger Controversy, 86–97.

125 Kisiel, Theodore, “Edition und Übersetzung: Unterwegs von Tatsachen zu Gedanken, von Werken zu Wegen,” in Pappenfuss, D. and Pöggeler, O., eds., Zur philosophischen Aktualität Heideggers, vol. 3: Im Spiegel der Welt: Sprache, Übersetzung, Auseinandersetzung (Frankfurt am Main, 1992), 89107, 99.

126 Heidegger, GA, vol. 5, 381.

127 Mehring, Reinhard, Heideggers Überlieferungsgeschick: Eine dionysische Selbstinszenierung (Würzburg 1992), 152.

128 Blasche, Siegfried, “Das philosophische Programm,” in Klostermann, E. V., ed., Vittorio Klostermann: Frankfurt am Main 1930–2000 (Frankfurt am Main 2000), 1943, 28.

129 Mehring, Heideggers Überlieferungsgeschick, 12.

130 The last two sentences are absent in the 1938 manuscript.

* This study has been made possible by a 2010 grant by the German Literary Archive in Marbach in order to study some of its Heidegger documents, a grant which resulted in a first report in German: Sidonie Kellerer, “Heideggers Maske: ‘Die Zeit des Weltbildes’, Metamorphose eines Textes,” Zeitschrift für Ideengeschichte, 5/2 (2011), 109–20. I am also much indebted to Till van Rahden for numerous discussions on the topic and for his helpful advice. To Gaëtan Pégny and Cynthia Miller-Idriss I am grateful for their thorough reading of the text and various improvements and for useful suggestions.

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