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3D printing of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene): a poling-free technique to manufacture flexible and transparent piezoelectric generators

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 February 2019

Nick A. Shepelin
Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
Vanessa C. Lussini
Note Issue Department, Reserve Bank of Australia, Craigieburn, Victoria 3064, Australia
Phillip J. Fox
Note Issue Department, Reserve Bank of Australia, Craigieburn, Victoria 3064, Australia
Greg W. Dicinoski
Note Issue Department, Reserve Bank of Australia, Craigieburn, Victoria 3064, Australia
Alexey M. Glushenkov
Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia Research School of Electrical, Energy and Materials Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
Joseph G. Shapter
Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
Amanda V. Ellis*
Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
Address all correspondence to Amanda V. Ellis at
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Flexible piezoelectric generators (PEGs) present a unique opportunity for renewable and sustainable energy harvesting. Here, we present a low-temperature and low-energy deposition method using solvent evaporation-assisted three-dimensional printing to deposit electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-trifluoroethylene (TrFE) up to 19 structured layers. Visible-wavelength transmittance was above 92%, while ATR-FTIR spectroscopy showed little change in the electroactive phase fraction between layer depositions. Electroactivity from the fabricated PVDF-TrFE PEGs showed that a single structured layer gave the greatest output at 289.3 mV peak-to-peak voltage. This was proposed to be due to shear-induced polarization affording the alignment of the fluoropolymer dipoles without an electric field or high temperature.

Research Letters
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2019 

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