Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Aluminum oxide free-standing thin films to enable nitrogen edge soft x-ray scattering

  • Dan Ye (a1), Sintu Rongpipi (a1), Joshua H. Litofsky (a1), Youngmin Lee (a1), Tyler E. Culp (a1), Sang Ha Yoo (a1), Thomas N. Jackson (a2), Cheng Wang (a3), Esther W. Gomez (a1) (a4) and Enrique D. Gomez (a1) (a5)...
Abstract

Resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) leverages chemical specificity to characterize thin films but is limited near the nitrogen edge. The challenge is that commercially available x-ray transparent substrates are composed of Si3N4 and thereby absorb incident x-rays and generate incoherent fluorescence. To overcome this challenge, we designed and fabricated Al2O3 free-standing films for use as RSoXS windows. Al2O3 films offer higher x-ray transmittance and minimal fluorescence near the nitrogen edge. As an example, Al2O3 windows allow for nitrogen RSoXS of conjugated block copolymer thin films that reveal domain spacings, which are not apparent with commercially available Si3N4 substrates.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address all correspondence to Esther W. Gomez, Enrique D. Gomez at ewg10@psu.edu, edg12@psu.edu
References
Hide All
1.Virgili, J.M., Tao, Y.F., Kortright, J.B., Balsara, N.P., and Segalman, R.A.: Analysis of order formation in block copolymer thin films using resonant soft x-ray scattering. Macromolecules 40, 2092 (2007).
2.Tumbleston, J.R., Collins, B.A., Yang, L., Stuart, A.C., Gann, E., Ma, W., You, W., and Ade, H.: The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. Nat. Photonics 8, 385 (2014).
3.Collins, B.A., Li, Z., Tumbleston, J.R., Gann, E., McNeill, C.R., and Ade, H.: Absolute measurement of domain composition and nanoscale size distribution explains performance in PTB7:PC71BM solar cells. Adv. Energy. Mater. 3, 65 (2013).
4.Liu, F., Brady, M.A., and Wang, C.: Resonant soft x-ray scattering for polymer materials. Eur. Polym. J. 81, 555 (2016).
5.Swaraj, S., Wang, C., Yan, H.P., Watts, B., Jan, L.N., McNeill, C.R., and Ade, H.: Nanomorphology of bulk heterojunction photovoltaic thin films probed with resonant soft x-ray scattering. Nano Lett. 10, 2863 (2010).
6.Guo, C., Lin, Y.-H., Witman, M.D., Smith, K.A., Wang, C., Hexemer, A., Strzalka, J., Gomez, E.D., and Verduzco, R.: Conjugated block copolymer photovoltaics with near 3% efficiency through microphase separation. Nano Lett. 13, 2957 (2013).
7.Ingham, B., Erlangga, G.D., Smialowska, A., Kirby, N.M., Wang, C., Matia-Merino, L., Haverkamp, R.G., and Carr, A.J.: Solving the mystery of the internal structure of casein micelles. Soft Matter 11, 2723 (2015).
8.Ingham, B., Smialowska, A., Erlangga, G.D., Matia-Merino, L., Kirby, N.M., Wang, C., Haverkamp, R.G., and Carr, A.J.: Revisiting the interpretation of casein micelle SAXS data. Soft Matter 12, 6937 (2016).
9.Ye, D., Le, T.P., Kuei, B., Zhu, C., Zwart, P.H., Wang, C., Gomez, E.D., and Gomez, E.W.: Resonant soft x-ray scattering provides protein structure with chemical specificity. Structure (2018) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2018.07.018.
10.Gann, E., Young, A.T., Collins, B.A., Yan, H., Nasiatka, J., Padmore, H.A., Ade, H., Hexemer, A., and Wang, C.: Soft x-ray scattering facility at the advanced light source with real-time data processing and analysis. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 045110 (2012).
11.Guo, C., Kozub, D.R., Kesava, S.V., Wang, C., Hexemer, A., and Gomez, E.D.: Signatures of multiphase formation in the active layer of organic solar cells from resonant soft x-ray scattering. ACS Macro Lett. 2, 185 (2013).
12.Kortright, J.B., Sun, J., Spencer, R.K., Jiang, X., and Zuckermann, R.N.: Oxygen K edge scattering from bulk comb diblock copolymer reveals extended, ordered backbones above lamellar order–disorder transition. J. Phys. Chem. B 121, 298 (2016).
13.Ye, D., Kiemle, S.N., Rongpipi, S., Wang, X., Wang, C., Cosgrove, D.J., Gomez, E.W., and Gomez, E.D.: Resonant soft x-ray scattering reveals cellulose microfibril spacing in plant primary cell walls. Sci. Rep. 8, 12449 (2018).
14.Brady, M.A., Ku, S.-Y., Perez, L.A., Cochran, J.E., Schmidt, K., Weiss, T.M., Toney, M.F., Ade, H., Hexemer, A., Wang, C., Hawker, C.J., Kramer, E.J., and Chabinyc, M.L.: Role of solution structure in self-assembly of conjugated block copolymer thin films. Macromolecules 49, 8187 (2016).
15.Khan, A., Philip, J., and Hess, P.: Young's modulus of silicon nitride used in scanning force microscope cantilevers. J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1667 (2004).
16.Merle, B., and Göken, M.: Fracture toughness of silicon nitride thin films of different thicknesses as measured by bulge tests. Acta Mater. 59, 1772 (2011).
17.Tripp, M.K., Stampfer, C., Miller, D.C., Helbling, T., Herrmann, C.F., Hierold, C., Gall, K., George, S.M., and Bright, V.M.: The mechanical properties of atomic layer deposited alumina for use in micro- and nano-electromechanical systems. Sens. Actuator A-Phys. 130–131, 419 (2006).
18.Miller, D.C., Foster, R.R., Zhang, Y., Jen, S.-H., Bertrand, J.A., Lu, Z., Seghete, D., O'Patchen, J.L., Yang, R., Lee, Y.-C., George, S.M., and Dunn, M.L.: The mechanical robustness of atomic-layer- and molecular-layer-deposited coatings on polymer substrates. J. Appl. Phys. 105, 093527 (2009).
19.Guo, C., Lee, Y., Lin, Y.-H., Strzalka, J., Wang, C., Hexemer, A., Jaye, C., Fischer, D.A., Verduzco, R., Wang, Q., and Gomez, E.D.: Photovoltaic performance of block copolymer devices is independent of the crystalline texture in the active layer. Macromolecules 49, 4599 (2016).
20.Grieco, C., Aplan, M.P., Rimshaw, A., Lee, Y., Le, T.P., Zhang, W., Wang, Q., Milner, S.T., Gomez, E.D., and Asbury, J.B.: Molecular rectification in conjugated block copolymer photovoltaics. J. Phys. Chem. C 120, 6978 (2016).
21.Lee, Y., Aplan, M.P., Seibers, Z.D., Kilbey, S.M., Wang, Q., and Gomez, E.D.: Tuning the synthesis of fully conjugated block copolymers to minimize architectural heterogeneity. J. Mater. Chem. A 5, 20412 (2017).
22.Vakhshouri, K., Smith, B.H., Chan, E.P., Wang, C.C., Salleo, A., Wang, C., Hexemer, A., and Gomez, E.D.: Signatures of intracrystallite and intercrystallite limitations of charge transport in polythiophenes. Macromolecules 49, 7359 (2016).
23.Collins, B.A., Cochran, J.E., Yan, H., Gann, E., Hub, C., Fink, R., Wang, C., Schuettfort, T., McNeill, C.R., Chabinyc, M.L., and Ade, H.: Polarized x-ray scattering reveals non-crystalline orientational ordering in organic films. Nat. Mater. 11, 536 (2012).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Communications
  • ISSN: 2159-6859
  • EISSN: 2159-6867
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-communications
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Ye et al. supplementary material
Ye et al. supplementary material 1

 PDF (775 KB)
775 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed