Skip to main content Accessibility help

A pathway to compound semiconductor additive manufacturing

  • Jarod C. Gagnon (a1), Michael Presley (a1), Nam Q. Le (a1), Timothy J. Montalbano (a1) and Steven Storck (a1)...


The rise of additive manufacturing (AM) has enabled the rapid production of complex part geometries across multiple material domains. To date, however, AM of inorganic semiconductor materials has not been fully realized due to the difficulty of forming single-crystal materials with traditional AM processes. Here, we demonstrate a novel semiconductor synthesis method using a combination of liquid and gas precursors to additively print gallium nitride. Growth rates of 1–2 µm/min are demonstrated in printed regions while maintaining epitaxial alignment with the substrate. We also outline critical variables for the future development, improvement, and implementation of the proposed process.


Corresponding author

Address all correspondence to Jarod C. Gagnon at


Hide All
1.Bourell, D.L., Rosen, D.W., and Leu, M.C.: The roadmap for additive manufacturing and its impact. 3D Print. Addit. Manuf. 1, 69 (2014).10.1089/3dp.2013.0002
2.Huang, S.H., Liu, P., Mokasdar, A., and Hou, L.: Additive manufacturing and its societal impact: a literature review. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 67, 11911203 (2013).10.1007/s00170-012-4558-5
3.Ngo, T.D., Kashani, A., Imbalzano, G., Nguyen, K.T.Q., and Hui, D.: Additive manufacturing (3D printing): a review of materials, methods, applications and challenges. Compos. Part B Eng. 143, 172196 (2018).10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.02.012
4.Fortunato, E., Barquinha, P., and Martins, R.: Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors: a review of recent advances. Adv. Mater. 24, 29452986 (2012).10.1002/adma.201103228
5.Morkoç, H., Strite, S., Gao, G.B., Lin, M.E., Sverdlov, B., and Burns, M.: Large-band-gap SiC, III-V nitride, and II-VI ZnSe-based semiconductor device technologies. J. Appl. Phys. 76, 13631398 (1994).
6.Chow, T.P. and Tyagi, R.: Wide bandgap compound semiconductors for superior high-voltage unipolar power devices. IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 41, 14811483 (1994).10.1109/16.297751
7.Kizilyalli, I.C., Edwards, A.P., Aktas, O., Prunty, T., and Bour, D.: Vertical power p-n diodes based on bulk GaN. IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 62, 414422 (2015).10.1109/TED.2014.2360861
8.Saengchairat, N., Tuan, T., and Chee-Kai, C.: A review: additive manufacturing for active electronic components. Virtual Phys. Prototyping 12, 3146 (2017).
9.Wei, H.L., Mazumder, J., and DebRoy, T.: Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing. Sci. Rep. 5, 16446 (2015).10.1038/srep16446
10.Rödel, J., Kounga, A.B.N, Weissenberger-Eibl, M., Koch, D., Bierwisch, A., Rossner, W., Hoffmann, M.J., Danzer, R., and Schneider, G.: Development of a roadmap for advanced ceramics: 2010–2025. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 29, 15491560 (2009).10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2008.10.015
11.Klemenz, C. and Scheel, H.J.: Crystal growth and liquid-phase epitaxy of gallium nitride. J. Cryst. Growth 211 6267 (2000).10.1016/S0022-0248(99)00831-3
12.Azizi, M., Meissner, E., Friedrich, J., and Muller, G.: Liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of GaN on c- and r-faces of AlN substrates. J. Cryst. Growth 322, 7477 (2011).10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2011.03.014
13.Dickey, M.D.: Emerging applications of liquid metals featuring surface oxides. ACS Appl. Mater. Interface 6, 1836918379 (2014).
14.Ladd, C., So, J.H., Muth, J., and Dickey, M.D.: 3D printing of free standing liquid metal microstructures. Adv. Mater. 25, 50815085 (2013).10.1002/adma.201301400
15.Logan, R.A. and Thurmond, C.D.: Heteroepitaxial thermal gradient solution growth of GaN. J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid-State Sci. Technol. 119, 17271735 (1972).
16.Klinedinst, K.A. and Stevenson, D.A.: Oxygen diffusion in liquid gallium and indium. J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 304308 (1973).
17.Liu, Y., Long, Z., Wang, H., Du, Y., and Huang, B.: A predictive equation for solute diffusivity in liquid metals. Scr. Mater. 55, 367370 (2006).10.1016/j.scriptamat.2006.04.019
18.Unland, J., Onderka, B., Davydov, A., and Schmid-Fetzer, R.: Thermodynamics and phase stability in the Ga-N system. J. Cryst. Growth 256, 3351 (2003).
19.Garcia, R., Ren, B., Thomas, A.C., and Ponce, F.A.: Measurement of the solubility of ammonia and nitrogen in gallium at atmospheric pressure. J. Alloys Comp. 467, 611613 (2009).10.1016/j.jallcom.2008.03.075
20.Ambacher, O.: Growth and applications of group III-nitrides. J. Appl. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 31, 26532710 (1998).10.1088/0022-3727/31/20/001
21.Tanaka, A., Funayama, Y., Murakami, T., and Katsuno, H.: GaN crystal growth on an SiC substrate from Ga wetting solution reacting with NH3. J. Cryst. Growth 249, 5964 (2003).10.1016/S0022-0248(02)02097-3

A pathway to compound semiconductor additive manufacturing

  • Jarod C. Gagnon (a1), Michael Presley (a1), Nam Q. Le (a1), Timothy J. Montalbano (a1) and Steven Storck (a1)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed