Skip to main content

Tuning kinetic competitions to traverse the rich structural space of organic semiconductor thin films

  • Anna M. Hiszpanski (a1), Petr P. Khlyabich (a1) and Yueh-Lin Loo (a1)

The chemical diversity of organic semiconductors coupled with the kinetic nature of film formation make it challenging to tune the structure of active-layer thin films in organic electronics across multiple length scales. We review techniques to tune aspects of film structure within a framework that accounts for the competition between the time available for structural development and the time required by the organic semiconductors to order, defined by a dimensionless time, τ, that describes the ratio of these two quantities. By considering these two competing time scales, we propose general guidelines to tune the film structure accordingly.

Corresponding author
Address all correspondence to Anna M. Hiszpanski and Yueh-Lin Loo
Hide All
1.Hiszpanski, A.M. and Loo, Y.-L.: Directing the film structure of organic semiconductors via post-deposition processing for transistor and solar cell applications. Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 592 (2014).
2.Pfattner, R., Mas-Torrent, M., Bilotti, I., Brillante, A., Milita, S., Liscio, F., Biscarini, F., Marszalek, T., Ulanski, J., Nosal, A., Gazicki-Lipman, M., Leufgen, M., Schmidt, G., Molenkamp, L.W., Laukhin, V., Veciana, J., and Rovira, C.: High-performance single crystal organic field-effect transistors based on two Dithiophene-tetrathiafulvalene (DT-TTF) polymorphs. Adv. Mater. 22, 4198 (2010).
3.Jiang, H., Yang, X., Cui, Z., Liu, Y., Li, H., Hu, W., Liu, Y., and Zhu, D.: Phase dependence of single crystalline transistors of tetrathiafulvalene. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123505 (2007).
4.Matsukawa, T., Yoshimura, M., Sasai, K., Uchiyama, M., Yamagishi, M., Tominari, Y., Takahashi, Y., Takeya, J., Kitaoka, Y., Mori, Y., and Sasaki, T.: Growth of thin rubrene single crystals from 1-propanol solvent. J. Cryst. Growth 312, 310 (2010).
5.Hiszpanski, A.M., Baur, R.M., Kim, B., Tremblay, N.J., Nuckolls, C., Woll, A.R., and Loo, Y.-L.: Tuning polymorphism and orientation in organic semiconductor thin films via post-deposition processing. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 15749 (2014).
6.Stevens, L.A., Goetz, K.P., Fonari, A., Shu, Y., Williamson, R.M., Bredas, J.-L., Coropceanu, V., Jurchescu, O.D., and Collis, G.E.: Temperature-mediated polymorphism in molecular crystals: the impact on crystal packing and charge transport. Chem. Mater. 27, 112 (2015).
7.Park, J., Keum, C.-M., Kim, J.-H., Lee, S.-D., Payne, M., Petty, M., Anthony, J.E., and Bae, J.-H.: Photo-assisted molecular engineering in solution-processed organic thin-film transistors with a blended semiconductor for high mobility anisotropy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013306 (2013).
8.Fischer, F.S.U., Tremel, K., Sommer, M., Crossland, E.J.C., and Ludwigs, S.: Directed crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) in micrometre channels under confinement and in electric fields. Nanoscale 4, 2138 (2012).
9.Hiszpanski, A.M., Lee, S.S., Wang, H., Woll, A.R., Nuckolls, C., and Loo, Y.-L.: Post-deposition processing methods to induce preferential orientation in contorted hexabenzocoronene thin films. ACS Nano 7, 294 (2013).
10.Hosokawa, Y., Misaki, M., Yamamoto, S., Torii, M., Ishida, K., and Ueda, Y.: Molecular orientation and anisotropic carrier mobility in poorly soluble polythiophene thin films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 203305 (2012).
11.Biniek, L., Leclerc, N., Heiser, T., Bechara, R., and Brinkmann, M.: large scale alignment and charge transport anisotropy of pBTTT films oriented by high temperature rubbing. Macromolecules 46, 4014 (2013).
12.Tremel, K., Fischer, F.S.U., Kayunkid, N., Di Pietro, R., Tkachov, R., Kiriy, A., Neher, D., Ludwigs, S., and Brinkmann, M.: Charge transport anisotropy in highly oriented thin films of the acceptor polymer P(NDI2OD-T2). Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1301659 (2014).
13.Lee, S.S., Kim, C.S., Gomez, E.D., Purushothaman, B., Toney, M.F., Wang, C., Hexemer, A., Anthony, J.E., and Loo, Y.-L.: Controlling nucleation and crystallization in solution-processed organic semiconductors for thin-film transistors. Adv. Mater. 21, 3605 (2009).
14.Wei Chou, K., Ullah Khan, H., Niazi, M.R., Yan, B., Li, R., Payne, M.M., Anthony, J.E., Smilgies, D.-M., and Amassian, A.: Late stage crystallization and healing during spin-coating enhance carrier transport in small-molecule organic semiconductors. J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 5681 (2014).
15.Mukherjee, S., Proctor, C.M., Tumbleston, J.R., Bazan, G.C., Nguyen, T.-Q., and Ade, H.: Importance of domain purity and molecular packing in efficient solution-processed small-molecule solar cells. Adv. Mater. 27, 1105 (2015).
16.Zhang, L., Liu, F., Diao, Y., Marsh, H.S., Colella, N.S., Jayaraman, A., Russell, T.P., Mannsfeld, S.C.B., and Briseno, A.L.: The good host: formation of discrete one-dimensional fullerene “channels” in well-ordered Poly(2,5-bis(3-alkylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) oligomers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 18120 (2014).
17.Park, S.K., Jackson, T.N., Anthony, J.E., and Mourey, D.A.: High mobility solution processed 6,13-bis(triisopropyl-silylethynyl) pentacene organic thin film transistors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063514 (2007).
18.Virkar, A.A., Mannsfeld, S., Bao, Z., and Stingelin, N.: Organic semiconductor growth and morphology considerations for organic thin-film transistors. Adv. Mater. 22, 3857 (2010).
19.Ling, M.M. and Bao, Z.: Thin film deposition, patterning, and printing in organic thin film transistors. Chem. Mater. 16, 4824 (2004).
20.Forrest, S.R.: The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic. Nature 428, 911 (2004).
21.Rand, B.P. and Richter, H.: Organic Solar Cells: Fundamentals, Devices, and Upscaling, 1st ed. (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, 2014).
22.Yuan, Y., Giri, G., Ayzner, A.L., Zoombelt, A.P., Mannsfeld, S.C.B., Chen, J., Nordlund, D., Toney, M.F., Huang, J., and Bao, Z.: Ultra-high mobility transparent organic thin film transistors grown by an off-centre spin-coating method. Nat. Commun. 5, 3005 (2014).
23.Giri, G., Verploegen, E., Mannsfeld, S.C.B., Atahan-Evrenk, S., Kim, D.H., Lee, S.Y., Becerril, H.A., Aspuru-Guzik, A., Toney, M.F., and Bao, Z.: Tuning charge transport in solution-sheared organic semiconductors using lattice strain. Nature 480, 504 (2011).
24.Kim, J.B., Allen, K., Oh, S.J., Lee, S., Toney, M.F., Kim, Y.S., Kagan, C.R., Nuckolls, C., and Loo, Y.-L.: Small-molecule thiophene-C60 dyads as compatibilizers in inverted polymer solar cells. Chem. Mater. 22, 5762 (2010).
25.Diao, Y., Shaw, L., Bao, Z., and Mannsfeld, S.C.B.: Morphology control strategies for solution-processed organic semiconductor thin films. Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 2145 (2014).
26.He, T., Stolte, M., Burschka, C., Hansen, N.H., Musiol, T., Kälblein, D., Pflaum, J., Tao, X., Brill, J., and Würthner, F.: Single-crystal field-effect transistors of new Cl2-NDI polymorph processed by sublimation in air. Nat. Commun. 6, 5954 (2015).
27.Schneider, J.A., Black, H., Lin, H.-P., and Perepichka, D.F.: Polymorphism in new thienothiophene–thiazolothiazole organic semiconductors. Chem Phys Chem 16, 1102 (2015).
28.Lee, J.Y., Roth, S., and Park, Y.W.: Anisotropic field effect mobility in single crystal pentacene. Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 252106 (2006).
29.Sundar, V.C., Zaumseil, J., Podzorov, V., Menard, E., Willett, R.L., Someya, T., Gershenson, M.E., and Rogers, J.A.: Elastomeric transistor stamps: reversible probing of charge transport in organic crystals. Science 303, 1644 (2004).
30.Mattheus, C.C., Dros, A.B., Baas, J., Oostergetel, G.T., Meetsma, A., de Boer, J.L., and Palstra, T.T.M.: Identification of polymorphs of pentacene. Synth. Met. 138, 475 (2003).
31.Schweicher, G., Paquay, N., Amato, C., Resel, R., Koini, M., Talvy, S., Lemaur, V., Cornil, J., Geerts, Y., and Gbabode, G.: Toward single crystal thin films of terthiophene by directional crystallization using a thermal gradient. Cryst. Growth Des. 11, 3663 (2011).
32.Schiefer, S., Huth, M., Dobrinevski, A., and Nickel, B.: Determination of the crystal structure of substrate-induced pentacene polymorphs in fiber structured thin films. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 10316 (2007).
33.Giri, G., Li, R., Smilgies, D.-M., Li, E.Q., Diao, Y., Lenn, K.M., Chiu, M., Lin, D.W., Allen, R., Reinspach, J., Mannsfeld, S.C.B., Thoroddsen, S.T., Clancy, P., Bao, Z., and Amassian, A.: One-dimensional self-confinement promotes polymorph selection in large-area organic semiconductor thin films. Nat. Commun. 5, 3573 (2014).
34.Hamilton, B.D., Ha, J.-M., Hillmyer, M.A., and Ward, M.D.: Manipulating crystal growth and polymorphism by confinement in nanoscale crystallization chambers. Acc. Chem. Res. 45, 414 (2011).
35.Beiner, M., Rengarajan, G.T., Pankaj, S., Enke, D., and Steinhart, M.: Manipulating the crystalline state of pharmaceuticals by nanoconfinement. Nano Lett. 7, 1381 (2007).
36.Diao, Y., Lenn, K.M., Lee, W.Y., Blood-Forsythe, M.A., Xu, J., Mao, Y.S., Kim, Y., Reinspach, J.A., Park, S., Aspuru-Guzik, A., Xue, G., Clancy, P., Bao, Z.N., and Mannsfeld, S.C.B.: Understanding polymorphism in organic semiconductor thin films through nanoconfinement. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 17046 (2014).
37.Diao, Y., Whaley, K.E., Helgeson, M.E., Woldeyes, M.A., Doyle, P.S., Myerson, A.S., Hatton, T.A., and Trout, B.L.: Gel-induced selective crystallization of polymorphs. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 673 (2012).
38.Giri, G., Park, S., Vosgueritchian, M., Shulaker, M.M., and Bao, Z.: High-mobility, aligned crystalline domains of TIPS-pentacene with metastable polymorphs through lateral confinement of crystal growth. Adv. Mater. 26, 487 (2014).
39.Bouchoms, I.P.M., Schoonveld, W.A., Vrijmoeth, J., and Klapwijk, T.M.: Morphology identification of the thin film phases of vacuum evaporated pentacene on SIO2 substrates. Synth. Met. 104, 175 (1999).
40.Fritz, S.E., Martin, S.M., Frisbie, C.D., Ward, M.D., and Toney, M.F.: Structural characterization of a pentacene monolayer on an amorphous SiO2 substrate with grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 4084 (2004).
41.Mannsfeld, S.C.B., Virkar, A., Reese, C., Toney, M.F., and Bao, Z.: Precise structure of pentacene monolayers on amorphous silicon oxide and relation to charge transport. Adv. Mater. 21, 2294 (2009).
42.Yuan, Q., Mannsfeld, S.C.B., Tang, M.L., Toney, M.F., Luening, J., and Bao, Z.: Thin film structure of tetraceno 2,3-b thiophene characterized by grazing incidence x-ray scattering and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 3502 (2008).
43.Krauss, T.N., Barrena, E., Zhang, X.N., de Oteyza, D.G., Major, J., Dehm, V., Wuerthner, F., Cavalcanti, L.P., and Dosch, H.: Three-dimensional molecular packing of thin organic films of PTCDI-C-8 determined by surface x-ray diffraction. Langmuir 24, 12742 (2008).
44.Gbabode, G., Dumont, N., Quist, F., Schweicher, G., Moser, A., Viville, P., Lazzaroni, R., and Geerts, Y.H.: Substrate-induced crystal plastic phase of a discotic liquid crystal. Adv. Mater. 24, 658 (2012).
45.Werzer, O., Boucher, N., de Silva, J.P., Gbabode, G., Geerts, Y.H., Konovalov, O., Moser, A., Novak, J., Resel, R., and Sferrazza, M.: Interface induced crystal structures of dioctyl-terthiophene thin films. Langmuir 28, 8530 (2012).
46.Lercher, C., Resel, R., Balandier, J.-Y., Niebel, C., Geerts, Y.H., Sferrazza, M., and Gbabode, G.: Effects of temperature on the polymorphism of α,ω-dioctylterthiophene in thin films. J. Cryst. Growth 386, 128 (2014).
47.Hiszpanski, A.M., Saathoff, J.D., Shaw, L., Wang, H., Kraya, L., Lüttich, F., Brady, M.A., Chabinyc, M.L., Kahn, A., Clancy, P., and Loo, Y.-L.: Halogenation of a nonplanar molecular semiconductor to tune energy levels and bandgaps for electron transport. Chem. Mater. 27, 1892 (2015).
48.Stingelin-Stutzmann, N., Smits, E., Wondergem, H., Tanase, C., Blom, P., Smith, P., and de Leeuw, D.: Organic thin-film electronics from vitreous solution-processed rubrene hypereutectics. Nat. Mater. 4, 601 (2005).
49.Chen, W., Qi, D.C., Huang, Y.L., Huang, H., Wang, Y.Z., Chen, S., Gao, X.Y., and Wee, A.T.S.: Molecular orientation dependent energy level alignment at organic−organic heterojunction interfaces. J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 12832 (2009).
50.Heimel, G., Salzmann, I., Duhm, S., Rabe, J.P., and Koch, N.: Intrinsic surface dipoles control the energy levels of conjugated polymers. Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3874 (2009).
51.Li, L.-H., Kontsevoi, O.Y., and Freeman, A.J.: Orientation-dependent electronic structures and optical properties of the P3HT:PCBM interface: a first-principles GW-BSE study. J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 10263 (2014).
52.Kitchen, B., Awartani, O., Kline, R.J., McAfee, T., Ade, H., and O'Connor, B.T.: Tuning open-circuit voltage in organic solar cells with molecular orientation. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 13208 (2015).
53.Kim, D.H., Park, Y.D., Jang, Y., Yang, H., Kim, Y.H., Han, J.I., Moon, D.G., Park, S., Chang, T., Chang, C., Joo, M., Ryu, C.Y., and Cho, K.: Enhancement of field-effect mobility due to surface-mediated molecular ordering in regioregular polythiophene thin film transistors. Adv. Func. Mater. 15, 77 (2005).
54.Lee, K.S., Smith, T.J., Dickey, K.C., Yoo, J.E., Stevenson, K.J., and Loo, Y.L.: High-resolution characterization of pentacene/polyaniline interfaces in thin-film transistors. Adv. Func. Mater. 16, 2409 (2006).
55.Yang, H., LeFevre, S.W., Ryu, C.Y., and Bao, Z.: Solubility-driven thin film structures of regioregular poly(3-hexyl thiophene) using volatile solvents. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 172116 (2007).
56.Sirringhaus, H., Brown, P.J., Friend, R.H., Nielsen, M.M., Bechgaard, K., Langeveld-Voss, B.M.W., Spiering, A.J.H., Janssen, R.A.J., Meijer, E.W., Herwig, P., and de Leeuw, D.M.: Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers. Nature 401, 685 (1999).
57.Bao, Z., Dodabalapur, A., and Lovinger, A.J.: Soluble and processable regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) for thin film field-effect transistor applications with high mobility. Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4108 (1996).
58.Chang, J.F., Sun, B.Q., Breiby, D.W., Nielsen, M.M., Solling, T.I., Giles, M., McCulloch, I., and Sirringhaus, H.: Enhanced mobility of poly(3-hexylthiophene) transistors by spin-coating from high-boiling-point solvents. Chem. Mater. 16, 4772 (2004).
59.DeLongchamp, D.M., Vogel, B.M., Jung, Y., Gurau, M.C., Richter, C.A., Kirillov, O.A., Obrzut, J., Fischer, D.A., Sambasivan, S., Richter, L.J., and Lin, E.K.: Variations in semiconducting polymer microstructure and hole mobility with spin-coating speed. Chem. Mater. 17, 5610 (2005).
60.Dickey, K.C., Anthony, J.E., and Loo, Y.L.: Improving organic thin-film transistor performance through solvent-vapor annealing of solution-processable triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene. Adv. Mater. 18, 1721 (2006).
61.Lee, S.S., Tang, S.B., Smilgies, D.-M., Woll, A.R., Loth, M.A., Mativetsky, J.M., Anthony, J.E., and Loo, Y.-L.: Guiding crystallization around bends and sharp corners. Adv. Mater. 24, 2692 (2012).
62.Lee, S.S., Muralidharan, S., Woll, A.R., Loth, M.A., Li, Z., Anthony, J.E., Haataja, M., and Loo, Y.-L.: Understanding heterogeneous nucleation in binary, solution-processed, organic semiconductor thin films. Chem. Mater. 24, 2920 (2012).
63.Lindqvist, C., Bergqvist, J., Feng, C.-C., Gustafsson, S., Bäcke, O., Treat, N.D., Bounioux, C., Henriksson, P., Kroon, R., Wang, E., Sanz-Velasco, A., Kristiansen, P.M., Stingelin, N., Olsson, E., Inganäs, O., Andersson, M.R., and Müller, C.: Fullerene nucleating agents: a route towards thermally stable photovoltaic blends. Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1301437 (2014).
64.Agostinelli, T., Lilliu, S., Labram, J.G., Campoy-Quiles, M., Hampton, M., Pires, E., Rawle, J., Bikondoa, O., Bradley, D.D.C., Anthopoulos, T.D., Nelson, J., and Macdonald, J.E.: Real-time investigation of crystallization and phase-segregation dynamics in P3HT:PCBM solar cells during thermal annealing. Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 1701 (2011).
65.Sreenivas, K., Pol, H.V., and Kumaraswamy, G.: The influence of DMDBS on the morphology and mechanical properties of polypropylene cast films. Polym. Eng. Sci. 51, 2013 (2011).
66.Treat, N.D., Nekuda Malik, J.A., Reid, O., Yu, L., Shuttle, C.G., Rumbles, G., Hawker, C.J., Chabinyc, M.L., Smith, P., and Stingelin, N.: Microstructure formation in molecular and polymer semiconductors assisted by nucleation agents. Nat. Mater. 12, 628 (2013).
67.Collins, B.A., Tumbleston, J.R., and Ade, H.: Miscibility, crystallinity, and phase development in P3HT/PCBM solar cells: toward an enlightened understanding of device morphology and stability. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 3135 (2011).
68.Mikhnenko, O.V., Azimi, H., Scharber, M., Morana, M., Blom, P.W.M., and Loi, M.A.: Exciton diffusion length in narrow bandgap polymers. Energy Environ. Sci. 5, 6960 (2012).
69.Shaw, P.E., Ruseckas, A., and Samuel, I.D.W.: Exciton diffusion measurements in poly(3-hexylthiophene). Adv. Mater. 20, 3516 (2008).
70.Clarke, T.M. and Durrant, J.R.: Charge photogeneration in organic solar cells. Chem. Rev. 110, 6736 (2010).
71.Dang, M.T., Hirsch, L., Wantz, G., and Wuest, J.D.: Controlling the morphology and performance of bulk heterojunctions in solar cells. lessons learned from the benchmark poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester system. Chem. Rev. 113, 3734 (2013).
72.Li, G., Shrotriya, V., Huang, J., Yao, Y., Moriarty, T., Emery, K., and Yang, Y.: High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends. Nat. Mater. 4, 864 (2005).
73.van Bavel, S., Veenstra, S., and Loos, J.: On the importance of morphology control in polymer solar cells. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 31, 1835 (2010).
74.Vongsaysy, U., Pavageau, B., Wantz, G., Bassani, D.M., Servant, L., and Aziz, H.: Guiding the selection of processing additives for increasing the efficiency of bulk heterojunction polymeric solar cells. Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1300752 (2014).
75.Su, Y.-W., Liu, C.-M., Jiang, J.-M., Tsao, C.-S., Cha, H.-C., Jeng, U.S., Chen, H.-L., and Wei, K.-H.: structural evolution of crystalline conjugated polymer/fullerene domains from solution to the solid state in the presence and absence of an additive. J. Phys. Chem. C 119, 3408 (2015).
76.Etzold, F., Howard, I.A., Forler, N., Cho, D.M., Meister, M., Mangold, H., Shu, J., Hansen, M.R., Müllen, K., and Laquai, F.: The effect of solvent additives on morphology and excited-state dynamics in PCPDTBT:PCBM photovoltaic blends. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 10569 (2012).
77.Liao, H.-C., Ho, C.-C., Chang, C.-Y., Jao, M.-H., Darling, S.B., and Su, W.-F.: Additives for morphology control in high-efficiency organic solar cells. Mater. Today 16, 326 (2013).
78.van der Poll, T.S., Love, J.A., Nguyen, T.-Q., and Bazan, G.C.: Non-basic high-performance molecules for solution-processed organic solar cells. Adv. Mater. 24, 3646 (2012).
79.Perez, L.A., Chou, K.W., Love, J.A., van der Poll, T.S., Smilgies, D.-M., Nguyen, T.-Q., Kramer, E.J., Amassian, A., and Bazan, G.C.: Solvent additive effects on small molecule crystallization in bulk heterojunction solar cells probed during spin casting. Adv. Mater. 25, 6380 (2013).
80.Graham, K.R., Wieruszewski, P.M., Stalder, R., Hartel, M.J., Mei, J., So, F., and Reynolds, J.R.: Improved performance of molecular bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells through predictable selection of solvent additives. Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 4801 (2012).
81.Gu, Y., Wang, C., and Russell, T.P.: Multi-length-scale morphologies in PCPDTBT/PCBM bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Adv. Energy Mater. 2, 683 (2012).
82.Lee, J.K., Ma, W.L., Brabec, C.J., Yuen, J., Moon, J.S., Kim, J.Y., Lee, K., Bazan, G.C., and Heeger, A.J.: Processing additives for improved efficiency from bulk heterojunction solar cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 3619 (2008).
83.Rogers, J.T., Schmidt, K., Toney, M.F., Bazan, G.C., and Kramer, E.J.: Time-resolved structural evolution of additive-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 2884 (2012).
84.Rogers, J.T., Schmidt, K., Toney, M.F., Kramer, E.J., and Bazan, G.C.: Structural order in bulk heterojunction films prepared with solvent additives. Adv. Mater. 23, 2284 (2011).
85.Peet, J., Kim, J.Y., Coates, N.E., Ma, W.L., Moses, D., Heeger, A.J., and Bazan, G.C.: Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols. Nat. Mater. 6, 497 (2007).
86.Richter, L.J., DeLongchamp, D.M., Bokel, F.A., Engmann, S., Chou, K.W., Amassian, A., Schaible, E., and Hexemer, A.: In situ morphology studies of the mechanism for solution additive effects on the formation of bulk heterojunction films. Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1400975 (2015).
87.Treat, N.D., Varotto, A., Takacs, C.J., Batara, N., Al-Hashimi, M., Heeney, M.J., Heeger, A.J., Wudl, F., Hawker, C.J., and Chabinyc, M.L.: Polymer-fullerene miscibility: a metric for screening new materials for high-performance organic solar cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 15869 (2012).
88.Pavlopoulou, E., Kim, C.S., Lee, S.S., Chen, Z., Facchetti, A., Toney, M.F., and Loo, Y.-L.: Tuning the morphology of all-polymer OPVs through altering polymer–solvent interactions. Chem. Mater. 26, 5020 (2014).
89.Khlyabich, P.P., Rudenko, A.E., Burkhart, B., and Thompson, B.C.: Contrasting performance of donor–acceptor copolymer pairs in ternary blend solar cells and two-acceptor copolymers in binary blend solar cells. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 2322 (2015).
90.Street, R.A., Khlyabich, P.P., Rudenko, A.E., and Thompson, B.C.: Electronic states in dilute ternary blend organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 26569 (2014).
91.Khlyabich, P.P., Rudenko, A.E., Street, R.A., and Thompson, B.C.: Influence of polymer compatibility on the open-circuit voltage in ternary blend bulk heterojunction solar cells. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 9913 (2014).
92.Street, R.A., Davies, D., Khlyabich, P.P., Burkhart, B., and Thompson, B.C.: Origin of the tunable open-circuit voltage in ternary blend bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 986 (2013).
93.Khlyabich, P.P., Burkhart, B., and Thompson, B.C.: Compositional dependence of the open-circuit voltage in ternary blend bulk heterojunction solar cells based on two donor polymers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 9074 (2012).
94.Khlyabich, P.P., Burkhart, B., and Thompson, B.C.: Efficient ternary blend bulk heterojunction solar cells with tunable open-circuit voltage. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 14534 (2011).
95.Khlyabich, P.P., Burkhart, B., Rudenko, A.E., and Thompson, B.C.: Optimization and simplification of polymer–fullerene solar cells through polymer and active layer design. Polymer 54, 5267 (2013).
96.Ameri, T., Khoram, P., Min, J., and Brabec, C.J.: Organic ternary solar cells: a review. Adv. Mater. 25, 4245 (2013).
97.Ameri, T., Khoram, P., Heumuller, T., Baran, D., Machui, F., Troeger, A., Sgobba, V., Guldi, D.M., Halik, M., Rathgeber, S., Scherf, U., and Brabec, C.J.: Morphology analysis of near IR sensitized polymer/fullerene organic solar cells by implementing low bandgap heteroanalogue C-/Si-PCPDTBT. J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 19461 (2014).
98.Gu, Y., Wang, C., Liu, F., Chen, J., Dyck, O.E., Duscher, G., and Russell, T.P.: Guided crystallization of P3HT in ternary blend solar cell based on P3HT:PCPDTBT:PCBM. Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 3782 (2014).
99.Agostinelli, T., Lilliu, S., Labram, J.G., Campoy-Quiles, M., Hampton, M., Pires, E., Rawle, J., Bikondoa, O., Bradley, D.D.C., Anthopoulos, T.D., Nelson, J., and Macdonald, J.E.: Real-time investigation of crystallization and phase-segregation dynamics in P3HT:PCBM solar cells during thermal annealing. Adv. Func. Mater. 21, 1701 (2011).
100.Smilgies, D.-M., Li, R., Giri, G., Chou, K.W., Diao, Y., Bao, Z., and Amassian, A.: Look fast: Crystallization of conjugated molecules during solution shearing probed in-situ and in real time by x-ray scattering. Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 7, 177 (2013).
101.Chou, K.W., Yan, B., Li, R., Li, E.Q., Zhao, K., Anjum, D.H., Alvarez, S., Gassaway, R., Biocca, A., Thoroddsen, S.T., Hexemer, A., and Amassian, A.: Spin-cast bulk heterojunction solar cells: a dynamical investigation. Adv. Mater. 25, 1923 (2013).
102.Chou, K.W., Yan, B., Li, R., Li, E.Q., Zhao, K., Anjum, D.H., Alvarez, S., Gassaway, R., Biocca, A., Thoroddsen, S.T., Hexemer, A., and Amassian, A.: Spin-cast bulk heterojunction solar cells: a dynamical investigation. Adv. Mater. 25, 1923 (2013).
103.Liu, F., Ferdous, S., Schaible, E., Hexemer, A., Church, M., Ding, X., Wang, C., and Russell, T.P.: Fast printing and in situ morphology observation of organic photovoltaics using slot-die coating. Adv. Mater. 27, 886 (2015).
104.Palumbiny, C.M., Liu, F., Russell, T.P., Hexemer, A., Wang, C., and Müller-Buschbaum, P.: The crystallization of PEDOT:PSS polymeric electrodes probed in situ during printing. Adv. Mater. 27, 3391 (2015).
105.Amassian, A., Pozdin, V.A., Li, R., Smilgies, D.-M., and Malliaras, G.G.: Solvent vapor annealing of an insoluble molecular semiconductor. J. Mater. Chem. 20, 2623 (2010).
106.Gu, X., Gunkel, I., Hexemer, A., Gu, W., and Russell, T.P.: An in situ grazing incidence x-ray scattering study of block copolymer thin films during solvent vapor annealing. Adv. Mater. 26, 273 (2014).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Communications
  • ISSN: 2159-6859
  • EISSN: 2159-6867
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-communications
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 33
Total number of PDF views: 76 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 370 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th June 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.