Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Water photonics, non-linearity, and anomalously large electro-optic coefficients in poled silica fibers

  • John Canning (a1)
Abstract

A review of the literature offers an explanation for the large anomalous electro-optic (e.o.) effect reported by Fujiwara et al. in 1994. It is based on the large e.o. coefficient of ordered water at an interface measured in recent years >1000 pm/V. More broadly, the concept of water-based photonics, where water could be a new platform material for devices and systems, is introduced, suggesting that liquid states of matter can allow ready shaping and exploitation of many processes in ways not previously considered. This paper is a commentary on the significance of this new understanding and the broader interest of water in photonics, particularly its consideration as a new platform material.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address all correspondence to John Canning at John.canning@uts.edu.au
References
Hide All
1. Fujiwara, T., Wong, D., Zhao, Y., Fleming, S., Poole, S., and Sceats, M.: Electro-optic modulation in germanosilicate fibre with UV-excited poling. Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1994).
2. Myers, R.A., Long, X.-C., and Brueck, S.R.J.: Recent advances in the second-order nonlinear optical properties of amorphous silica materials. Doped Fiber Devices and Systems, Proc. SPIE 2289, (1994).
3. Kazansky, P., Russell, P. St. J., and Takebe, H.: Glass fiber poling and applications. J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 14841493 (1997).
4. Ikushima, A.J., Fujiwara, T., and Saito, K.: Silica glass: a material for photonics. J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1201 (2000).
5. Fleming, S.C. and An, H.: Poled glasses and poled fibre devices. J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn 116, 1007 (2008).
6. Dussauze, M., Cremoux, T., Adamietz, F., Rodriguez, V., Fargin, E., Yang, G., and Cardinal, T.: Thermal poling of optical glasses: mechanisms and second order optical properties. Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 309320 (2012).
7. Dontsova, E.I., Kablukov, S.I., Lobach, I.A., Dostovalov, A.V., Babin, S.A., Gladyshev, A.V., Dianov, E.M., Corbary, C., Ibsen, M., and Kazansky, P.G.: Extracavity and external cavity second-harmonic generation in a periodically poled silica fibre. Quant. Electron. 46, 989 (2016).
8. Jacobsen, R.S., Andersen, K.N., Borel, P.I., Fage-Pedersen, J., Frandsen, L.H., Hansen, O., Kristensen, M., Lavrinenko, A.V., Moulin, G., Ou, H., Peucheret, C., Zsigri, B., and Bjarklev, A.: Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material. Nature 441, 199 (2006).
9. Khurgin, J.B., Stievater, T.H., Pruessner, M.W., and Rabinovich, W.S.: On the origin of the second-order nonlinearity in strained Si–SiN structures. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 24942499 (2015).
10. Singer, K.D., Kuzyk, M.G., Holland, W.R., Sohn, J.E., Lalama, S.J., Comizzoli, R.B., Katz, H.E., and Schilling, M.L.: Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800 (1988).
11. Ma, W. and Cross, L.E.: Strain-gradient-induced electric polarization in lead zirconate titanate ceramics. Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 32933295 (2003).
12. Yamaoka, K., Takahashi, Y., Yamazaki, Y., Terakado, N., Miyazaki, T., and Fujiwara, T.: Pockels effect of silicate glass-ceramics: observation of optical modulation in Mach–Zehnder system. Sci. Rep. 5, 12176 (2015).
13. Godbout, N., Lacroix, S., Quiquempois, Y., Martinelli, G., and Bernage, P.: Measurement and calculation of electrostrictive effects in a twin-hole silica glass fiber. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17, 1 (2000).
14. Kazansky, P.G., Dong, L., and Russell, P. St. J.: High second-order nonlinearities in poled silicate fibers. Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994).
15. Canning, J., Sceats, M.G., Inglis, H.G., and Hill, P.: Transient and permanent gratings in phosphosilicate optical fibres produced by the flash condensation technique. Opt. Lett. 20, 2189 (1995).
16. Zhu, E.Y., Tang, Z., Qian, L., Helt, L.G., Liscidini, M., Sipe, J.E., Corbari, C., Canagasabey, A., Ibsen, M., and Kazansky, P.G.: Direct generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs in a poled fiber. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213902 (2012).
17.The author was present in the group at the time these devices were fabricated. He with P. Hill developed the 193 nm grating writing facility that was used to fabricate the gratings in the work of Fujiwara et al. [1]. The observation of water contamination being a problem, something identified by the author in separate fibre work, was recently confirmed (2017) in a private discussion with one of the listed authors, S. C. Fleming, who agreed that water contamination was present. Fujiwara and colleagues were never able to repeat the work on the new enclosed dry draw tower they moved to afterwards.
18. Takagi, K.: Capillary electrophoresis in Electrical phenomena at interfaces: fundamentals, measurements and applications. In Surfactant Science Series, Marcel Dekker, 1998, ed. Ohshima, H., Furusawa, K. Vol 76, Chapt 12, p. 265.
19. Yung, J., Lu, F., Kostiuk, L.W., and Kwok, D.Y.: Electrokinetic microchannel battery by means of electrokinetic and microfluidic phenomena. J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 963 (2003).
20. Canning, J., Buckley, E., and Lyytikainen, K.: Electrokinetic air-silica structured micro-channel capillary batteries. Electron. Lett. 40, 298 (2004).
21. Canning, J., Buckley, E., Huntington, S., and Lyytikäinen, K.: Using multi-microchannel capillaries for determination of the zeta potential of a microfluidic channel. Electrochim. Acta 49, 35813586 (2004).
22. Forster, M., Ravel, R., Hodgson, A., Carrasco, J., and Michaelides, A.: c(2 × 2) Water-hydroxyl layer on Cu(110): a wetting layer stabilized by Bjerrum defects. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 046103 (2011).
23. Canning, J., Padden, W., Boskovic, D., Naqshbandi, M., de Bruyn, H., and Crossley, M.J.: Manipulating and controlling the evanescent field within optical waveguides using high index nanolayers. Opt. Mat. Express 1, 192 (2011).
24. Canning, J.: Structured Optical Fibres and the Application of their Linear and Non-Linear Properties. In Selected Topics in Metamaterials and Photonic Crystals, ed. Andreone, A., Cusano, A., Cutolo, A., Galdi, V. (World Scientific, Italy, 2011), pp. 389452.
25. Nosaka, Y., Hirabayashi, M., Kobayashi, T., and Tokunaga, E.: Gigantic optical Pockels effect in water within the electric double layer at the electrode-solution interface. Phys. Rev. B 77, 241401 (2008).
26. Kanemaru, H., Nosaka, Y., Hirako, A., Ohkawa, K., Kobayashi, T., and Tokunaga, E.: Electrooptic effect of water in electric double layer at interface of GaN electrode. Opt. Rev. 17, 352 (2010).
27. Tokunaga, E., Nosaka, Y., Hirabayashi, M., and Kobayashi, T.: Pockels effect of water in the electric double layer at the interface between water and transparent electrode. Surf. Sci. 601, 735741 (2007).
28. Kanemaru, H., Nosaka, Y., Hirako, A., Ohkawa, K., Kobayashi, T., and Tokunaga, E.: Electrooptic Effect of Water in Electric Double Layer at Interface of GaN Electrode. Opt. Rev. 17, 352356 (2010).
29. Suzuki, Y., Osawa, K., Yukita, S., Kobayashi, T., and Tokunaga, E.: Anomalously large electro-optic Pockels effect at the air-water interface with an electric field applied parallel to the interface. Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 191103 (2016).
30. Pezzotti, S., Galimberti, D.R., and Gaigeot, M.-P.: 2D H-Bond network as the topmost skin to the air–water interface. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8, 31333141 (2017).
31. Janos, M., Canning, J., and Sceats, M.G.: Incoherent scattering in optical fibre Bragg gratings. Opt. Lett. 21, 1827 (1996).
32. Canning, J., Weil, H., Naqshbandi, M., Cook, K., and Lancry, M.: Laser tailoring surface interactions, contact angles, drop topologies and the self-assembly of optical microwires. Opt. Mat. Express 3, 284 (2013).
33. Canning, J., Tzoumis, N., and Beattie, J.: Water on Au sputtered films. Chem. Commun. 50, 9172 (2014).
34. Ho, P.P. and Alfano, R.R.: Optical Kerr effect in liquids. Phys. Rev. A 20, 2170 (1979).
35. Kongsted, J., Osted, A., Mikkelsen, K.V., and Christiansen, O.: Nonlinear optical response properties of molecules in condensed phases using the coupled cluster-dielectric continuum or molecular mechanics methods. J. Chem. Phys. 119, 10519 (2003).
36. Martelli, C., Canning, J., and Lyytikainen, K.: Water core Fresnel fibre. Opt. Express 13, 3890 (2005).
37. Canning, J.: New Trends in Structured Optical Fibres for Telecommunications and Sensing. (Inv) 5th Int. Conf. on Optical Communications & Networks and 2nd Int. Symp. on Advances & Trends in Fiber Optics & Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), Chengdu, China, (2006).
38. Canning, J.: Properties of specialist fibres & Bragg gratings for optical fiber sensors. Rev. J. Sens. V2009, Article ID 871580, 2009, 17p.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Communications
  • ISSN: 2159-6859
  • EISSN: 2159-6867
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-communications
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed