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Resurrection in Paganism and the Question of an Empty Tomb in 1 Corinthians 15*

  • John Granger Cook (a1)

On the basis of the semantics of ἀνίστημι and ἐγείρω and the nature of resurrected bodies in ancient Judaism and ancient paganism, one can conclude that Paul could not have conceived of a resurrection of Jesus unless he believed the tomb was empty.

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I am grateful for comments on the article made by the NTS reviewer, by historians of religion Jan Bremmer and Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley, and by philosopher Ian Morton. At the 2015 SBL meeting in Atlanta, I read an earlier version in the Corpus Hellenisticum Novi Testamenti section. Abbreviations for Latin texts below are from the OLD and A. Blaise's Dictionnaire latin-français des auteurs chrétiens. Abbreviations for Greek patristic texts are from LPGL.

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1 Bousset, W., ‘Der erste Brief an die Korinther’, Die Schriften des Neuen Testaments neu übersetzt und für die Gegenwart erklärt: Zweiter Band. Die Briefe. Die johanneischen Schriften (ed. Weiss, J.; Göttingen, 1908) 72161 , esp. 146.

2 See Ware, J., ‘The Resurrection of Jesus in the Pre-Pauline Formula of 1 Cor 15.3–5’, NTS 60 (2014) 475–98, esp. 477–9, for a survey of similar views.

3 Hume, D., ‘Of Miracle’, Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding (London: Millar, 1748) 173203 .

4 Smith, J. Z., Drudgery Divine: On the Comparison of Early Christianities and the Religions of Late Antiquity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990) 4751 , 114, 118.  On genealogy cf. also Bremmer, J., ‘The Resurrection between Zarathustra and Jonathan Z. Smith’, NedThT 50 (1996) 89107 (slightly expanded in idem, The Rise and Fall of the Afterlife (London/New York: Routledge, 2002) 4155 ).

5 Cf. Smith, J. Z., ‘Dying and Rising Gods’, ER 4 (2005) 2535–40 and idem, Drudgery Divine, 90–3.

6 Ware, ‘Resurrection’, 492–5. A. Oepke, ‘ἐγείρω κτλ.’, TDNT ii.333–9 and idem, ‘ἀνίστημι κτλ.’, TDNT i.368–72 devotes minimal attention to resurrection in paganism (the same is true of Oepke's ‘Auferstehung ii (des Menschen)’, RAC i (1950) 930–8). Bertram, G., ‘Auferstehung i (des Kultgottes)’, RAC i (1950) 919–30 uses the concept (now mostly abandoned) of the resurrection of a vegetation god. The finest linguistic survey of resurrection in paganism is still Fascher, E., ‘Anastasis-Resurrectio-Auferstehung: Eine programmatische Studie zum Thema “Sprache und Offenbarung”’, ZNW 40 (1941) 166229 . Wedderburn, A. J. M. (Baptism and Resurrection: Studies in Pauline Theology against its Graeco-Roman Background (WUNT 44; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1987) surveyed the resurrections of certain gods, but was not concerned with linguistic analysis. Endsjø, D. Ø., Greek Resurrection Beliefs and the Success of Christianity (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009) has a large collection of references, but did few linguistic investigations and conflated resurrection with translation (individuals who have not died, or who are on funeral pyres, whose bodies are taken up to heaven or immortalized). Miller, R. C., Resurrection and Reception in Early Christianity (New York/London: Routledge, 2015) focuses on ‘translation fables’ and passes over resurrection traditions in antiquity.

7 Ware, ‘Resurrection’, 494.

8 [Ammonius], De adfinium vocabulorum differentia §216 (BT 56.15–16 Nickau). Cf. Nickau, K., ed., Ammonii qui dicitur De adfinium vocabulorum differentia (BT; Leipzig: Teubner, 1966) lxvi–lxvii on the date of the text (attributed to three different authors: Ammonius, Herrenius Philo, and Ptolemaeus). See also Lacore, M., ‘Du “sommeil sans réveil” à la résurrection comme réveil’, Gaia: revue interdisciplinaire sur la Grèce Archaïque 13 (2010) 205–27.

9 [Ammonius], De adfin. voc. dif. §50 (14.3–4 Nickau).

10 [Ammonius], De impr. §48 (153.5–6 Nickau).

11 [Plato], Axiochus 10.367c.

12 Eupolis, fr. 328 Kassel–Austin = 305 Kock. Cf. Ps.-Zonaras, Lexicon Ε §606.

13 Sophocles, El. 137–9.

14 Homer, Il. 21.55–7; Aeschylus, Eum. 647–8 (ἀνάστασις), Ag. 1360–1; Sophocles, fr. 557 Radt; Euripides, Herc. fur. 718–19; etc.

15 Aeschylus, Cho. 495–6; the translation of Electra's question is from Sommerstein, A. H., ed. and trans., Aeschylus (LCL; 3 vols.; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008) ii.277 (he translates ἐξεγείρηι with ‘awakened’).

16 Apollodorus, Bibl. 2.5.12. For further resurrections of Heracles, see §4.1 below.

17 Theodoret, Affect. 8.20 = Apollodorus, Περὶ θεῶν in FGrH 244 F 138.

18 These will be discussed below in §§4.3.2 and 4.3.4.

19 See Ware's critique (‘Resurrection’, 493–4) of conflating ἐγείρω with ‘rising into the air’ or ascension.

20 Collins, J. J., ‘The Afterlife in Apocalyptic Literature’, Judaism in Late Antiquity: Part Four. Death, Life-After-Death, Resurrection and The World-to-Come in the Judaisms of Antiquity (ed. Avery-Peck, A. J. and Neusner, J.; Leiden: Brill, 2000) 119–40; Setzer, C., Resurrection of the Body in Early Judaism and Early Christianity: Doctrine, Community, and Self-definition (Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2004) 2152 ; Levenson, J. D., Resurrection and the Restoration of Israel: The Ultimate Victory of the God of Life (New Haven: Yale University, 2006); and Nickelsburg, G., Resurrection, Immortality and Eternal Life in Intertestamental Judaism and Early Christianity (HTS 56; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 2007 2).

21 1 Enoch 51.5 ‘my Chosen one will arise’ (tanšeʾa) … and the righteous will dwell (yaḫadderu) on it (the earth)’; trans. Nickelsburg, G. W. E. and VanderKam, J. C., 1 Enoch 2: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch Chapters 37–82 (Hermeneia; Minneapolis: Fortress, 2012) 180 .

22 2 Macc 7.9, 14; 12.43–4.

23 4Q521 fr. 2 col. ii + 4 l. 12 (ומיתים יחיה). Cf. Hogeterp, A. L. A., ‘Belief in Resurrection and its Religious Settings in Qumran and the New Testament’, Echoes from the Caves: Qumran and the New Testament (StTDJ 85; ed. Martínez, F. García; Leiden: Brill 2007) 299320 , esp. 309–11.

24 Sib. Or. 4.181–3, 187–93.

25 In 1 Enoch 91.10, ‘the righteous will arise (yetnaššāʾ) from his sleep’ (not their spirits); trans. Nickelsburg, G. W. E., 1 Enoch 1: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 1–36; 83–108 (Hermeneia; Minneapolis: Fortress, 2001) 210 (the verse may be an addition; however, 4QEng ar = 4Q212 fr. 1 col. ii l. 13 apparently has the text). Cf. M. Black in consultation with VanderKam, J., The Book of Enoch or i Enoch: A New English Edition with Commentary and Textual Notes (SVTP 7; Leiden: Brill, 1985) 84 , 282 (‘i.e., in the resurrection’). In 103.3–4, however, spirits ‘will live’ (yaḥayyewu); Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, 523 calls this ‘revivification’.

26 Possibly 1QHa col. 14 l. 37, col. 19 l. 15. Stemberger, G., Der Leib der Auferstehung: Studien zur Anthropologie und Eschatologie des palästinensischen Judentums im neutestamentlichen Zeitalter (AnBib 56; Rome: Biblical Institute, 1972) 3 believes resurrection is probably present in the Hodayoth.

27 4 Ezra 7.31–2 (bodies and souls; et promptuaria reddent quae eis commendatae sunt animae).

28 2 Bar. 30.1–2 (), 49.2; 50.2–3 ( clearly a bodily resurrection); 51.1.

29 Ps.-Phocylides 103–15.

30 Test. Jud. 25:1 Καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ἀναστήσεται Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Ἰακὼβ εἰς ζωήν (the verb's use indicates bodily resurrection).

31 See Pss. Sol. 2.31 ὁ ἀνιστῶν ἐμὲ εἰς δόξαν and 3.11–12 οἱ δὲ φοβούμενοι τὸν κύριον ἀναστήσονται εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον. Stemberger, Leib, 56–61 denies that Pss. Sol. 3.11–12 refers to resurrection. But see Sprinkle, P. M., Law and Life: The Interpretation of Leviticus 18:5 in Early Judaism and Paul (WUNT ii/241; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008) 8990 . The verb's Greek usage (ἀναστήσονται) is enough to show that it refers to physical resurrection.

32 Setzer, Resurrection, 18. She admits (ibid., 14) that CD 2.7–13 is thoroughly ambiguous.

33 Cf. the translation and comment in Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, 511, 520.

34 A convincing defence of bodily resurrection may be found in Chester, A., Future Hope and Present Reality, vol. i: Eschatology and Transformation in the Hebrew Bible (WUNT 293; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2012) 291–5. The Hebrew verb in Dan 12.2 (יקיצו) should be compared with the verb used for Gehazi's failure to raise the dead boy in 2 Kings 4.31, who showed no signs of waking/rising (לא הקיץ), translated in 4 Reg 4.31 with the very material οὐκ ἠγέρθη. Cf. Levenson, Resurrection, 186.

35 Collins, ‘Afterlife’, 124.

36 Cf. Dillman, C. F. A., Lexicon linguae Aethiopicae (Leipzig: Weigel 1865) 637 s.v. tanšeʾa (where it is clear that the verb has many other meanings besides references to resurrection).

37 Trans. Hanneken, T. R., The Subversion of the Apocalypses in the Book of Jubilees (Atlanta: SBL, 2012) 160 (his comment). Hanneken notes that the dead are ‘aware of the restoration’ but do not participate in it in 23.31. Cf. Volz, P., Die Eschatologie der jüdischen Gemeinde im neutestamentlichen Zeitalter nach den Quellen der rabbinischen, apokalyptischen und apokryphen Literatur dargestellt (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1934) 29 .

38 E.g. 1 Enoch 103.3–4; Collins, ‘Afterlife’, 124.

39 A concept introduced by Ryle, G., The Concept of Mind (New York: Hutchinson, 1949) 16 (repr. University of Chicago Press, 2000).

40 Most dates below are from OCD 4.

41 Philodemus, De pietate 131 (52.5–17 Gomperz) = P.Herc. 1609 col. v. Cf. Edelstein, E. J. and Edelstein, L., Asclepius: Collection and Interpretation of the Testimonies (2 vols.; Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1945) T. 73.

42 Ps.-Eratosthenes, Catasterismi 1.6D (BT Mythographi Graeci iii/1.7.6–13 Olivieri). Cf. Geus, K., Eratosthenes von Kyrene: Studien zur hellenistischen Kultur- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte (Munich: Beck, 2002) 211–14, who argues that Ps.-Eratosthenes’ astronomical mythological text is a second-century ce summary of Eratosthenes’ Ἀστρονομία ἢ Καταστηριγμοί that transmits a core of the original. Cf. Suda Ε 2898.

43 Most are in Edelstein and Edelstein, Asclepius, and I will not burden the footnotes here.

44 Palaephetus, De incredibilibus 26.

45 Agatharchides, De mari Erythraeo §7. Cf. Photius, Bibl. 250.7, 443b (CUF Photius vii.140 Henry). Aeneas of Gaza lists many other resurrections accomplished by Heracles. Cf. Aeneas of Gaza, Theophrastus ( Colonna, M. E., ed., Teofrasto (Naples: Iodice, 1958)) 63.13–19 = Eudoxus fr. 372 ( Lasserre, F., ed., trans. and comm., Die Fragmente des Eudoxos von Knidos (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1966) 126 ).

46 Proclus, In Platon. rem publ. 614b (ii.113 Kroll). I have consulted the translations in Festugière, A. J., Proclus: Commentaire sur la République, vol. iii (Paris: Vrin, 1970).

47 Proclus, In Platon. rem publ. 614b (ii.115 Kroll). In Phlegon's (De mir. 2.1.6–7) version, Polycritus describes himself a ‘ghost’ (φάσματι) and ‘dead in body’ (τῷ μὲν σώματι τέθνηκα).

48 Proclus, In Platon. rem publ. 614b (ii.115 Kroll).

49 Proclus, In Platon. rem publ. 614b (ii.115–16 Kroll).

50 Proclus, In Platon. rem publ. 614b (ii.113 Kroll). Bremmer, The Rise and Fall, 94 includes Naumachius’ account of Eurynous in his chapter on ‘Near-Death Experiences’, even though he translates the relevant text as ‘he was seen to be much more just after his resurrection than before’.

51 He ruled ca. 2246–2152 bce.

52 Pyramid Texts, Recitation 690; trans. Allen, J. P., The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (Atlanta: SBL, 2015 2) 287 (a text referred to by Griffiths, J. G., The Origins of Osiris and his Cult (SHR 40; Leiden: Brill, 1980) 64 ).

53 Pyramid Texts, Recitation 466; trans. Allen, Pyramid, 128.

54 Mettinger, T. N. D., The Riddle of Resurrection: ‘Dying and Rising Gods’ in the Ancient Near East (CB.OT 50; Stockholm: Almqvist, 2001) 172–3 (with images).

55 Plutarch, Is. Os. 35.364f.

56 Plutarch, Is. Os. 35.364e–f. Cf. Griffiths, J. G., ed., trans. and comm., Plutarch's De Iside et Osiride (Cardiff: University of Wales, 1970) 363–5, 435 (with reference to Is. Os. 20.59b and 43.368b–c). Griffiths (ibid., 434) compares this text with De E ap. Delph. 9.389A.

57 Diod. Sic. 1.25.6; trans. Oldfather, C. H., ed. and trans., Diodorus Siculus: Library of History (LCL; 12 vols.; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1933–67) i.81.

58 Wedderburn, Baptism, 193, with reference to Cicero, Nat. D. 3.58 Dionysos multos habemus …

59 Philodemus, De pietate 3.44.4–8 (16 Gomperz) = P.Herc. 247 col. iii. Cf. Diod. Sic. 3.62.6; Origen, C. Cels. 4.17 (‘being torn apart by them (the Titans), and after all that being put back together and apparently coming back to life and ascending into heaven (οἱονεὶ ἀναβιώσκοντος καὶ ἀναβαίνοντος εἰς οὐρανόν)’); and Justin, Dial. 69.2 διασπαραχθέντα καὶ ἀποθανόντα ἀναστῆναι, εἰς οὐρανόν τε ἀνεληλυθέναι (‘torn apart, and dying, he rose again, and ascended into heaven’).

60 Plutarch, Is. Os. 35.364f–365a; trans. Babbitt, F. C. et al. , eds. and trans., Plutarch: Moralia (LCL; 15 vols.; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1927–69) v.87. Nilsson, M., The Dionysiac Mysteries of the Hellenistic and Roman Age (New York: Arno, 1975) 3841 was apparently sceptical of the antiquity of the tradition.

61 Nilsson, Dionysiac Mysteries, 39–40.

62 REG 17 (1904) 203, 1b.

63 Nilsson, Dionysiac Mysteries, 41. Pausanias 2.31.2 recounts Dionysus’ rescue of Semele from Hades.

64 See West, M. L., The Orphic Poems (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983) 151 and 161–2. Firmicus Maternus, Err. 6.4; Proclus, In Plat. Tim. comm. 35a (ii.145 Diehl); Clement of Alexandria, Prot. 2.18.1–2 (the heart still palpitates, but Apollo buries the limbs of Dionysus in Parnassus (cf. the reference to Orpheus in 2.17.2)); Scholia in Lycophr. 355; and Proclus, Hymni 7.11–14: (11) κραδίην ἐσάωσας (Athena: ‘saving his heart’); (13–4) νέος … | ἐκ Σεμέλης περὶ κόσμον ἀνηβήσῃ Διόνυσος (‘… from Semele, around the cosmos, would grow again a new Dionysus’).

65 Proclus, In Plat. Tim. comm. 24d (BT i.168 Diehl). Cf. Proclus, In Plat. Cratyl. 406bc, §182 (BT 106 Pasquali): ἐπεὶ καὶ ἐν τῇ διασπαράξει τῶν Τιτάνων μόνη ἡ καρδία ἀδιαίρετος μεῖναι λέγεται, τουτέστιν ἡ ἀμερὴς τοῦ νοῦ οὐσία. See Orphei hymni 53 for the trieteric ‘awakening’ of chthonic Dionysos (χθόνιον Διόνυσον | ἐγρόμενον) and the comment in Nilsson, Dionysiac Mysteries, 40.

66 Theocritus, Id. 15.129–43.

67 Theocritus, Id. 15.136–7.

68 Schol. in Theocr. Id. 3.48d.

69 Lucian, De dea Syria 6; trans. Lightfoot, J. L., ed., trans. and comm., Lucian: On the Syrian Goddess (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003) 251 . After πέμπουσι Lightfoot, ibid., 250 inserts a period with Seyrig, H., ‘La résurrection d'Adonis et le texte de Lucien’, Syria 49 (1972) 97100 , esp. 99. Lightfoot (pp. 184–208) convincingly defends the authorship of Lucian.

70 Lightfoot, Lucian, 311. See Ps.-Nonnos, Scholia Mythologica Oratio 5, historia 5 (CCSG 27.269–70 Nimmo Smith).

71 Soyez, B., Byblos et la fête des Adonies (EPRO 60; Leiden: Brill, 1977) 38 , with reference to Roux, G., ‘Sur deux textes relatifs à Adonis’, RPh 41 (1967) 259–64, esp. 262–4.

72 Lightfoot, Lucian, 311. She refers to Lucian, Dial. d. 19.1 ἐξ ἡμισείας ἀφείλετό με τὸν ἐρώμενον (‘you have taken away half of my beloved’). The resurrection tradition corresponds to later Christian witnesses (some only mention the finding of Adonis): Origen, Sel. in Ezech. 8.14 (PG 13.797–800) χαίρουσιν ἐπ’ αὐτῷ ὡς ἀπὸ νεκρῶν ἀναστάντι; Jerome, Ezech. 3.8 ad 8.14 (CCSL 75.99.285–301 Glorie); Cyril of Alexandria, Is. 18.1–2 (PG 70.441); Procopius, Is. 18.2 (PG 87/2.2140). Cf. PGM iv.2902–3.

73 See e.g. the bilingual inscription from second century bce in Malta that mentions Heracles and Melqart in Greek and Phoenician. Amadasi, M. G. G., Le iscrizioni fenicie e puniche delle colonie in Occidente (Roma: Istituto di studi del Vicino Oriente, 1967) §1 and 1 bis, pp. 15–16 = IG xiv.600.

74 On Menander of Ephesus, cf. Barclay, J. M. G., trans. and comm., Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary, vol. x: Against Apion (Leiden: Brill, 2007) 72 (his date and identity are uncertain). Suda 2898 Ἐρατοσθένης (‘Menander’ was one of Eratosthenes’ pupils).

75 Josephus, A.J. 8.145–6 = FGrH 783 F1; trans. Thackeray, H. St. J., Marcus, R. et al. , eds. and trans., Josephus: Jewish Antiquities (LCL; 10 vols.; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1926–65) v.649–51 (Marcus).

76 Josephus, C. Ap. 1.118–19; trans. Barclay, Josephus, 73.

77 Barclay, Josephus, 73. Cf. Cassiodorus, Ios. c. Ap. 1.18.119 (fecit erectionem mense Peritio; CSEL 37.27.1 Boysen). Thackeray (Thackery, Marcus et al., Josephus, i.211) also translated the text with ‘erected’. L (codex Laurentianus plut. 69 cod. 22, eleventh century ce) adds εἶτα τὸ τῆς Ἀστάρτης after μηνί and omits ἔγερσιν. Eusebius, Chron. ( Schoene, A., ed., Eusebi chronicorum libri duo (Berlin: Weidmann 1875) i.118) has ἔγερσιν. On the text, see Niese, B., ed., Flavii Iosephi Opera, vol. v (Berlin: Weidmann 1889) 21 , apparatus criticus. Niese retains L's πρῶτον (an adverbial use).

78 Barclay, Josephus, 73–4, with reference to Athenaeus, Deipn. 9.392DE and 1 Kings 18.27–8. Mettinger, Riddle, 90 makes a similar argument: ‘it would be nonsensical to say that Hiram was the first who built the temple X in the month of Y, while it makes excellent sense to say that the king was the first to celebrate a certain festival in a certain month’.  See the extensive analysis by Clermont-Ganneau, C., ‘L'Égersis d'Héraclès et le réveil des dieux’, Recueil d'archéologie orientale 8 (1924) 149–67.

79 Lipiński, É., ‘La fête de l'ensevelissement et de la résurrection de Melqart’, Actes de la xviie rencontre assyriologique internationale (Ham-sure-Heure: Comité belge de recherches en Mesopotamie, 1970) 3058 , esp. 30 translates the word as ‘resurrection’.

80 IGLSyr xxi/2.29. Lipiński, ‘La fête’, 31, 56 translates the word as ‘resuscitator’ as does Bonnet, C., Melqart: Cultes et mythes de l'Héraclès tyrien en Méditerranée (Studia Phoenicia 8; Leuven: Peeters, 1988) 144–8 (on the proper reconstruction and interpretation of the offices listed). Cf. Mettinger, Riddle, 90–1. An inscription from Ramlah also mentions an ‘awakener/resuscitator’ (ἐγερσ[είτου]), probably of Heracles. Cf. Clermont-Ganneau, C., ‘Inscriptions grecques de Palestine’, Recueil d'archéologie orientale 7 (1906) 174–8, esp. 175; idem, L'inscription grecque d'Amman’, Recueil d'archéologie orientale 8 (1924) 121–5, esp. 125; Bonnet, Melqart, 131–2. Lipiński, ‘La fête’, 56–7 notes that the Ramlah inscription refers to the cult of Heracles, because of the function (resuscitator).

81 Bonnet, Melqart, 104–13.

82 Athenaeus, Deipn. 9.392DE = Eudoxus, fr. 284a Lasserre. Cf. Zenobius (second century ce), Epit. 5.56 = Eudoxus, fr. 284b Lasserre.

83 Pausanias 7.17.10–12 (text from 12); trans. Jones, W. H. S., ed. and trans., Pausanias: Description of Greece (LCL; 4 vols.; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1918–35) iii.269.

84 See Bremmer, J. N., ‘Attis: A Greek God in Anatolian Pessinous and Catullan Rome’, Mnemosyne 57 (2004) 534–73, esp. 542–4 (who emphasises Alexander Polyhistor's use of Timotheus as a source; cf. FrGH 273 F 74), reprinted in his Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible and the Ancient Near East (Leiden: Brill, 2008) 267302 .

85 Arnobius, Nat. 5.7 (CSLP 256 Marchesi); trans. McCracken, G. E., trans. and comm., Arnobius of Sicca: The Case Against the Pagans (ACW 8; 2 vols.; Westminster, MD: Newman, 1949) ii.417.

86 Smith, Drudgery Divine, 133.

87 Diod. Sic. 3.59.4 Ἄττιν, ὕστερον δ’ ἐπικληθέντα Πάπαν (‘Attis, later called Papas’).

88 The cautionary quotes indicate the problematic nature of the concept.

89 Hippolytus, Haer. 5.8.23–4; trans. modified from Legge, F., Philosophumena or the Refutation of All Heresies … (London: SPCK, 1921) 135 .

90 Firmicus Maternus, Err. 3.1–2; trans. slightly modified from Forbes, C. A., trans. and annot., Firmicus Maternus: The Error of the Pagan Religions (ACW 37; New York: Newman, 1970) 47–8.

91 Bremmer, ‘Attis’, 547 = Bremmer, Greek Religion, 280. I would amend this statement in the case of Attis to ‘second century’, the date of Lucian, who probably wrote De dea Syria.

92 Smith's Drudgery Divine is a case in point, and see the response of Bremmer (‘Resurrection’, 106 = Rise and Fall, 54).

93 Hippolytus, Haer. 5.8.23.

94 Homer, Il. 2.695–710.

95 Philostratus, Heroik. 2.7–11. See Lucian, Dial. mort. 28.1–2.

96 Philostratus, Heroik. 2.10–11; trans. Maclean, J. K. Berenson and Aitken, E. Bradshaw, Flavius Philostratus: Heroikos, trans. with intro. and notes (SBLWGRW 1; Atlanta: SBL, 2001) 911 . Cf. 58.1–2 on the inviolable secret of how he returned to life.

97 Burgess, J. S., The Death and Afterlife of Achilles (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009) 110 , with reference to Heroik. 11.7–8.

98 Philostratus, Heroik. 7.3; trans. Maclean and Aitken, Philostratus: Heroikos, 19–21.

99 Stramaglia, A., Res inauditae, incredulae: storie di fantasmi nel mondo greco-latino (Bari: Levante, 1999) 317 . Mantero, T., Ricerche sull’Heroikos di Filostrato (Genova: Istitute di Filologia Classica e Medioevale, 1966) 81 refers to Philostratus, Heroik. 43.3 where Protesilaus is called a daemon. I thank Professor Stramaglia for his comments to me on this problem (30 March 2015, personal communication).

100 Philostratus, Heroik. 9.1.

* I am grateful for comments on the article made by the NTS reviewer, by historians of religion Jan Bremmer and Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley, and by philosopher Ian Morton. At the 2015 SBL meeting in Atlanta, I read an earlier version in the Corpus Hellenisticum Novi Testamenti section. Abbreviations for Latin texts below are from the OLD and A. Blaise's Dictionnaire latin-français des auteurs chrétiens. Abbreviations for Greek patristic texts are from LPGL.

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