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Caffeine and blood pressure: a critical review perspective

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 April 2019

Rachele De Giuseppe*
Affiliation:
Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Ilaria Di Napoli
Affiliation:
Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Francesca Granata
Affiliation:
UOC Medicina Generale, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano; Dipartimento Medicina Interna, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
Antonia Mottolese
Affiliation:
Scuola di Specializzazione in Scienza dell’Alimentazione, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
Hellas Cena
Affiliation:
Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Service, Unit of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, ICS Maugeri IRCCS, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
*
*Corresponding author: Dr Rachele De Giuseppe, email rachele.degiuseppe@unipv.it

Abstract

The WHO reported that high blood pressure (BP) is one of the primary causes of death worldwide. Hypertension (HPT) is a major risk factor for CVD and related diseases as well as for diseases, leading to a considerable increase in cardiovascular risk. Since BP response could also be influenced by caffeine, which is widely consumed with coffee and other items, it is important to define the possible effects associated with caffeine intake. The most recent findings aimed at clarifying the role of caffeine consumption on BP and HPT risk/incidence are conflicting and difficult to interpret. Therefore, in the present narrative review, we aimed to examine various methodological inaccuracies/aspects and factors that make studies difficult to be compared, in order to obtain a single consensus on the effects of caffeine intake on the risk of BP and HPT. We observed that this heterogeneity in results could be due to the presence of: (i) several variables affecting BP (such as age, sex, genetic and lifestyle aspects); (ii) different caffeine content of food and beverages; and (iii) caffeine metabolism. Moreover, different methodological aspects in the evaluation of daily dietary caffeine intake and in the BP measurement could add some other bias in the interpretation of results. Therefore, it is mandatory to consider all methodological aspects and confounding factors to generate a standardised methodology in order to increase cross-study consistency and minimise confounding effects of different variables on the relationship between BP response and HPT risk/incidence after caffeine intake.

Type
Review Article
Copyright
© The Authors 2019 

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Footnotes

Contributed equally.

References

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