Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 22
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ares Segura, Susana Arena Ansótegui, José and Marta Díaz-Gómez, N. 2016. The importance of maternal nutrition during breastfeeding: Do breastfeeding mothers need nutritional supplements?. Anales de Pediatría (English Edition), Vol. 84, Issue. 6, p. 347.e1.


    Ares Segura, Susana Arena Ansótegui, José and Díaz-Gómez, N. Marta 2016. La importancia de la nutrición materna durante la lactancia, ¿necesitan las madres lactantes suplementos nutricionales?. Anales de Pediatría, Vol. 84, Issue. 6, p. 347.e1.


    Donangelo, C.M. and Bezerra, F.F. 2016. Encyclopedia of Food and Health.


    Morisset, Anne-Sophie Weiler, Hope A. Dubois, Lise Ashley-Martin, Jillian Shapiro, Gabriel D. Dodds, Linda Massarelli, Isabelle Vigneault, Michel Arbuckle, Tye E. and Fraser, William D. 2016. Rankings of iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in relation to maternal characteristics of pregnant Canadian women. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Vol. 41, Issue. 7, p. 749.


    Normando, Paula Diogenes, Maria Eduarda L. Cabello, Pedro H. Cabello, Giselda M. Donangelo, Carmen M. and Bezerra, Flávia F. 2016. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy interacts with polymorphisms in the promoter region of the VDR gene to affect postpartum bone mass of Brazilian adolescent mothers: A randomized controlled trial. Nutrition,


    O’Brien, Kimberly O. and Best, Cora M. 2016. Nutritional Influences on Bone Health.


    Olmedo-Requena, Rocío Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary Mozas-Moreno, Juan Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora and Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan 2016. Association Between Low Dairy Intake During Pregnancy and Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants. Maternal and Child Health Journal, Vol. 20, Issue. 6, p. 1296.


    Rozenberg, Serge Body, Jean-Jacques Bruyère, Olivier Bergmann, Pierre Brandi, Maria Luisa Cooper, Cyrus Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre Gielen, Evelien Goemaere, Stefan Kaufman, Jean-Marc Rizzoli, René and Reginster, Jean-Yves 2016. Effects of Dairy Products Consumption on Health: Benefits and Beliefs—A Commentary from the Belgian Bone Club and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases. Calcified Tissue International, Vol. 98, Issue. 1, p. 1.


    Cetin, Irene Mandò, Chiara and Cardellicchio, Manuela 2015. Human Placental Trophoblasts.


    Dubé, Evemie and Lafond, Julie 2015. Human Placental Trophoblasts.


    McCormick, Nicholas H. King, Janet Krebs, Nancy Soybel, David I. and Kelleher, Shannon L. 2015. Redistribution of tissue zinc pools during lactation and dyshomeostasis during marginal zinc deficiency in mice. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 29, p. 170.


    Valentine, Christina Lehman, Joy and Wagner, Carol 2015. Nutrition Support for the Critically Ill Patient.


    2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for calcium. EFSA Journal, Vol. 13, Issue. 5, p. 4101.


    Andrade, Marco Túlio Soares Ciampo, Luiz Antonio Del Ciampo, Ieda Regina Lopes Del Ferraz, Ivan Savioli and Junior, Fernando Barbosa 2014. Breast Milk Micronutrients in Lactating Mothers from Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brazil. Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 05, Issue. 13, p. 1196.


    Ettinger, Adrienne S Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor Mercado-García, Adriana Kordas, Katarzyna Wood, Richard J Peterson, Karen E Hu, Howard Hernández-Avila, Mauricio and Téllez-Rojo, Martha M 2014. Effect of calcium supplementation on bone resorption in pregnancy and the early postpartum: a randomized controlled trial in Mexican Women. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 13, Issue. 1,


    Galthen-Sørensen, M. Andersen, L. B. Sperling, L. and Christesen, H. T. 2014. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and fetal bone growth assessed by ultrasound: a systematic review. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 44, Issue. 6, p. 633.


    2014. Scientific Opinion on the essential composition of infant and follow-on formulae. EFSA Journal, Vol. 12, Issue. 7, p. 3760.


    Brembeck, Petra Winkvist, Anna and Olausson, Hanna 2013. Determinants of vitamin D status in pregnant fair-skinned women in Sweden. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 110, Issue. 05, p. 856.


    Prentice, A. 2013. Standing on the shoulders of giants: Understanding calcium and vitamin D requirements. Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 38, Issue. 3, p. 323.


    Sawo, Y Jarjou, L M A Goldberg, G R Laskey, M A and Prentice, A 2013. Bone mineral changes after lactation in Gambian women accustomed to a low calcium intake. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 67, Issue. 11, p. 1142.


    ×

Calcium economy in human pregnancy and lactation

  • Hanna Olausson (a1), Gail R. Goldberg (a1) (a2), M. Ann Laskey (a1), Inez Schoenmakers (a1), Landing M. A. Jarjou (a2) and Ann Prentice (a1) (a2)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954422411000187
  • Published online: 02 July 2012
Abstract

Pregnancy and lactation are times of additional demand for Ca. Ca is transferred across the placenta for fetal skeletal mineralisation, and supplied to the mammary gland for secretion into breast milk. In theory, these additional maternal requirements could be met through mobilisation of Ca from the skeleton, increased intestinal Ca absorption efficiency, enhanced renal Ca retention or greater dietary Ca intake. The extent to which any or all of these apply, the underpinning biological mechanisms and the possible consequences for maternal and infant bone health in the short and long term are the focus of the present review. The complexities in the methodological aspects of interpreting the literature in this area are highlighted and the inter-individual variation in the response to pregnancy and lactation is reviewed. In summary, human pregnancy and lactation are associated with changes in Ca and bone metabolism that support the transfer of Ca between mother and child. The changes generally appear to be independent of maternal Ca supply in populations where Ca intakes are close to current recommendations. Evidence suggests that the processes are physiological in humans and that they provide sufficient Ca for fetal growth and breast-milk production, without relying on an increase in dietary Ca intake or compromising long-term maternal bone health. Further research is needed to determine the limitations of the maternal response to the Ca demands of pregnancy and lactation, especially among mothers with marginal and low dietary Ca intake, and to define vitamin D adequacy for reproductive women.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Calcium economy in human pregnancy and lactation
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Calcium economy in human pregnancy and lactation
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Calcium economy in human pregnancy and lactation
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Ann Prentice, fax +44 1223 437515, email ann.prentice@mrc-hnr.cam.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

3A Prentice (2003) Pregnancy and lactation. In Pediatric Bone: Biology and Diseases, pp. 249269 [J Pettifor , H Juppner and F Glorieux , editors]. London: Academic Press.

4CS Kovacs & HM Kronenberg (1997) Maternal-fetal calcium and bone metabolism during pregnancy, puerperium, and lactation. Endocr Rev 18, 832872.

8MA Laskey & A Prentice (1999) Bone mineral changes during and after lactation. Obstet Gynecol 94, 608615.

10TJ Parsons , A Prentice , EA Smith , . (1996) Bone mineral mass consolidation in young British adults. J Bone Miner Res 11, 264274.

12U Ulrich , PB Miller , DR Eyre , . (2003) Bone remodeling and bone mineral density during pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet 268, 309316.

13KE Naylor , P Iqbal , C Fledelius , . (2000) The effect of pregnancy on bone density and bone turnover. J Bone Miner Res 15, 129137.

14M Sowers (1996) Pregnancy and lactation as risk factors for subsequent bone loss and osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 11, 10521060.

15JZ Ilich & JE Kerstetter (2000) Nutrition in bone health revisited: a story beyond calcium. J Am Coll Nutr 19, 715737.

17SC Marks Jr & PR Odgren (2002) Structure and development of the skeleton. In Principles of Bone Biology, pp. 315 [JP Bilezikian , LG Raisz and GA Rodan , editors]. San Diego: Academic Press.

19MA Laskey (1996) Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and body composition. Nutrition 12, 4551.

20ES Orwoll (2003) Towards an expanded understanding of the role of the periosteum in skeletal health. J Bone Miner Res 18, 949954.

28C Molgaard , BL Thomsen , A Prentice , . (1997) Whole body bone mineral content in healthy children and adolescents. Arch Dis Child 76, 915.

29MS Fewtrell British Paediatric and Adolescent Bone Group (2003) Bone densitometry in children assessed by dual X ray absorptiometry: uses and pitfalls. Arch Dis Child 88, 795798.

30MA Laskey , PR Murgatroyd & A Prentice (2004) Comparison of narrow-angle fan-beam and pencil-beam densitometers: in vivo and phantom study of the effect of bone density, scan mode, and tissue depth on spine measurements. J Clin Densitom 7, 341348.

32A Johansen & MD Stone (1997) The effect of ankle oedema at the heel. Osteoporos Int 7, 4447.

33MA Laskey & A Prentice (2004) Do appendicular bone measurements reflect changes in the axial skeleton?: the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and ultrasound measurements during lactation. J Clin Densitom 7, 296301.

34A Stewart & DM Reid (2000) Precision of quantitative ultrasound: comparison of three commercial scanners. Bone 27, 139143.

35CF Njeh , D Hans , J Li , . (2000) Comparison of six calcaneal quantitative ultrasound devices: precision and hip fracture discrimination. Osteoporos Int 11, 10511062.

36GM Blake , M Naeem & M Boutros (2006) Comparison of effective dose to children and adults from dual X-ray absorptiometry examinations. Bone 38, 935942.

37CF Njeh , T Fuerst , D Hans , . (1999) Radiation exposure in bone mineral density assessment. Appl Radiat Isot 50, 215236.

38WA Kalender (1992) Effective dose values in bone mineral measurements by photon absorptiometry and computed tomography. Osteoporos Int 2, 8287.

39AJ Black , J Topping , B Durham , . (2000) A detailed assessment of alterations in bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, and bone density in normal pregnancy. J Bone Miner Res 15, 557563.

40GN Kent , RI Price , DH Gutteridge , . (1993) Effect of pregnancy and lactation on maternal bone mass and calcium metabolism. Osteoporos Int 3, Suppl. 1, S44S47.

41N Kolthoff , P Eiken , B Kristensen , . (1998) Bone mineral changes during pregnancy and lactation: a longitudinal cohort study. Clin Sci (Lond) 94, 405412.

42C More , P Bettembuk , HP Bhattoa , . (2001) The effects of pregnancy and lactation on bone mineral density. Osteoporos Int 12, 732737.

43J Wisser , I Florio , M Neff , . (2005) Changes in bone density and metabolism in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 84, 349354.

47R Hannon & R Eastell (2000) Preanalytical variability of biochemical markers of bone turnover. Osteoporos Int 11, Suppl. 6, S30S44.

48J Riordan & KG Auerbach (1993) Breastfeeding and Human Lactation. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers Inc.

49A Gasser , A Celada , B Courvoisier , . (1979) The clinical measurement of urinary total hydroxyproline excretion. Clin Chim Acta 95, 487491.

50M Kaur , IM Godber , N Lawson , . (2003) Changes in serum markers of bone turnover during normal pregnancy. Ann Clin Biochem 40, 508513.

52CM Weaver (2006) Clinical approaches for studying calcium metabolism and its relationship to disease. In Calcium in Human Health, pp. 6582 [CM Weaver and RP Heaney , editors]. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

53CJ Boushey (2006) Nutritional epidemiology: dietary assessment methods. In Calcium in Human Health, pp. 3964 [CM Weaver and RP Heaney , editors]. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

55GR Goldberg (2003) Assessment of dietary intake and nutritional status. In Nutritional Aspects of Bone Health, pp. 91109 [S New and J-P Bonjour , editors]. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.

59CM Weaver , AP Rothwell & KV Wood (2006) Measuring calcium absorption and utilization in humans. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 9, 568574.

61NF Butte , KJ Ellis , WW Wong , . (2003) Composition of gestational weight gain impacts maternal fat retention and infant birth weight. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189, 14231432.

63D Pearson , M Kaur , P San , . (2004) Recovery of pregnancy mediated bone loss during lactation. Bone 34, 570578.

64M Kaur , D Pearson , I Godber , . (2003) Longitudinal changes in bone mineral density during normal pregnancy. Bone 32, 449454.

65BL Drinkwater & CH III Chesnut (1991) Bone density changes during pregnancy and lactation in active women: a longitudinal study. Bone Miner 14, 153160.

66D Holmberg-Marttila , H Sievanen , . (1999) Changes in bone mineral density during pregnancy and postpartum: prospective data on five women. Osteoporos Int 10, 4146.

68M Gambacciani , A Spinetti , R Gallo , . (1995) Ultrasonographic bone characteristics during normal pregnancy: longitudinal and cross-sectional evaluation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 173, 890893.

69MK Javaid , SR Crozier , NC Harvey , . (2005) Maternal and seasonal predictors of change in calcaneal quantitative ultrasound during pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 51825187.

70WW To , MW Wong & TW Leung (2003) Relationship between bone mineral density changes in pregnancy and maternal and pregnancy characteristics: a longitudinal study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 82, 820827.

71A Akesson , M Vahter , M Berglund , . (2004) Bone turnover from early pregnancy to postweaning. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 83, 10491055.

72A Yamaga , M Taga , H Minaguchi , . (1996) Changes in bone mass as determined by ultrasound and biochemical markers of bone turnover during pregnancy and puerperium: a longitudinal study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81, 752756.

74AL Tranquilli , SR Giannubilo & A Corradetti (2004) Ultrasound measurement of pregnancy-induced changes in maternal bone mass: a longitudinal, cross-sectional and biochemical study. Gynecol Endocrinol 18, 258262.

75W Pluskiewicz (2004) Drozdzowska B & Stolecki M Quantitative ultrasound at the hand phalanges in pregnancy: a longitudinal study. Ultrasound Med Biol 30, 13731378.

76F Aguado , M Revilla , ER Hernandez , . (1998) Ultrasonographic bone velocity in pregnancy: a longitudinal study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 178, 10161021.

77B Specker & T Binkley (2005) High parity is associated with increased bone size and strength. Osteoporos Int 16, 19691974.

78MA Laskey & A Prentice (1997) Effect of pregnancy on recovery of lactational bone loss. Lancet 349, 15181519.

79M Sowers , J Randolph , B Shapiro , . (1995) A prospective study of bone density and pregnancy after an extended period of lactation with bone loss. Obstet Gynecol 85, 285289.

80C Karlsson , KJ Obrant & M Karlsson (2001) Pregnancy and lactation confer reversible bone loss in humans. Osteoporos Int 12, 828834.

82F Polatti , E Capuzzo , F Viazzo , . (1999) Bone mineral changes during and after lactation. Obstet Gynecol 94, 5256.

83HJ Kalkwarf , BL Specker , DC Bianchi , . (1997) The effect of calcium supplementation on bone density during lactation and after weaning. N Engl J Med 337, 523528.

85P Affinito , GA Tommaselli , C di Carlo , . (1996) Changes in bone mineral density and calcium metabolism in breast feeding women: a one year follow-up study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81, 23142318.

86HJ Kalkwarf & BL Specker (1995) Bone mineral loss during lactation and recovery after weaning. Obstet Gynecol 86, 2632.

87NA Cross , LS Hillman , SH Allen , . (1995) Changes in bone mineral density and markers of bone remodeling during lactation and postweaning in women consuming high amounts of calcium. J Bone Miner Res 10, 13121320.

89M Sowers , G Corton , B Shapiro , . (1993) Changes in bone density with lactation. JAMA 269, 31303135.

90H Dobnig , F Kainer , V Stepan , . (1995) Elevated parathyroid hormone-related peptide levels after human gestation: relationship to changes in bone and mineral metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80, 36993707.

91SM Chan , EA Nelson , SS Leung , . (2005) Bone mineral density and calcium metabolism of Hong Kong Chinese postpartum women - a 1-y longitudinal study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 868876.

92A Honda , T Kurabayashi , T Yahata , . (1998) Lumbar bone mineral density changes during pregnancy and lactation. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 63, 253258.

93T Yasumizu , Y Nakamura , K Hoshi , . (1998) Bone metabolism after human parturition and the effect of lactation: longitudinal analysis of serum bone-related proteins and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine. Endocr J 45, 679686.

94JM Lopez , G Gonzalez , V Reyes , . (1996) Bone turnover and density in healthy women during breastfeeding and after weaning. Osteoporos Int 6, 153159.

95HJ Kalkwarf , BL Specker & M Ho (1999) Effects of calcium supplementation on calcium homeostasis and bone turnover in lactating women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84, 464470.

96HJ Kalkwarf (1999) Hormonal and dietary regulation of changes in bone density during lactation and after weaning in women. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 4, 319329.

98D Holmberg-Marttila , H Sievanen , TL Jarvinen , . (2000) Vitamin D and estrogen receptor polymorphisms and bone mineral changes in postpartum women. Calcif Tissue Int 66, 184189.

99MF Sowers , T Scholl , L Harris , . (2000) Bone loss in adolescent and adult pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol 96, 189193.

102D Holmberg-Marttila , H Sievanen , P Laippala , . (2000) Factors underlying changes in bone mineral during postpartum amenorrhea and lactation. Osteoporos Int 11, 570576.

103RP Heaney & TG Skillman (1971) Calcium metabolism in normal human pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol 33, 661669.

105KE Naylor , A Rogers , RB Fraser , . (2003) Serum osteoprotegerin as a determinant of bone metabolism in a longitudinal study of human pregnancy and lactation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 53615365.

106BK Yoon , JW Lee , DS Choi , . (2000) Changes in biochemical bone markers during pregnancy and puerperium. J Korean Med Sci 15, 189193.

107H Uemura , T Yasui , M Kiyokawa , . (2002) Serum osteoprotegerin/osteoclastogenesis-inhibitory factor during pregnancy and lactation and the relationship with calcium-regulating hormones and bone turnover markers. J Endocrinol 174, 353359.

108SN Zeni , CR Ortela Soler , A Lazzari , . (2003) Interrelationship between bone turnover markers and dietary calcium intake in pregnant women: a longitudinal study. Bone 33, 606613.

109C More , HP Bhattoa , P Bettembuk , . (2003) The effects of pregnancy and lactation on hormonal status and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 106, 209213.

110SJ Gallacher , WD Fraser , OJ Owens , . (1994) Changes in calciotrophic hormones and biochemical markers of bone turnover in normal human pregnancy. Eur J Endocrinol 131, 369374.

111A Rodin , A Duncan , HW Quartero , . (1989) Serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes and osteocalcin in normal pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 68, 11231127.

113A Prentice , LM Jarjou , DM Stirling , . (1998) Biochemical markers of calcium and bone metabolism during 18 months of lactation in Gambian women accustomed to a low calcium intake and in those consuming a calcium supplement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83, 10591066.

115GN Kent , RI Price , DH Gutteridge , . (1990) Human lactation: forearm trabecular bone loss, increased bone turnover, and renal conservation of calcium and inorganic phosphate with recovery of bone mass following weaning. J Bone Miner Res 5, 361369.

116E Casanueva , ME Flores-Quijano , E Frike , . (2004) Bone mineral density and bone turnover in adolescent mothers after lactation. Adv Exp Med Biol 554, 341343.

117M Sowers , D Eyre , BW Hollis , . (1995) Biochemical markers of bone turnover in lactating and nonlactating postpartum women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80, 22102216.

118RM Carneiro , L Prebehalla , MB Tedesco , . (2010) Lactation and bone turnover: a conundrum of marked bone loss in the setting of coupled bone turnover. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 17671776.

119SM O'Sullivan , AB Grey , R Singh , . (2006) Bisphosphonates in pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 17, 10081012.

120M Rousiere , A Kahan & C Job-Deslandre (2001) Postnatal sacral fracture without osteoporosis. Joint Bone Spine 68, 7173.

121HE Gruber , DH Gutteridge & DJ Baylink (1984) Osteoporosis associated with pregnancy and lactation: bone biopsy and skeletal features in three patients. Metab Bone Dis Relat Res 5, 159165.

123JF Aloia , AN Vaswani , JK Yeh , . (1983) Determinants of bone mass in postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 143, 17001704.

124PJ Feldblum , J Zhang , LE Rich , . (1992) Lactation history and bone mineral density among perimenopausal women. Epidemiology 3, 527531.

125MM Hreshchyshyn , A Hopkins , S Zylstra , . (1988) Associations of parity, breast-feeding, and birth control pills with lumbar spine and femoral neck bone densities. Am J Obstet Gynecol 159, 318322.

126LJ III Melton , SC Bryant , HW Wahner , . (1993) Influence of breastfeeding and other reproductive factors on bone mass later in life. Osteoporos Int 3, 7683.

127PF Schnatz , KG Barker , KA Marakovits , . (2010) Effects of age at first pregnancy and breast-feeding on the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Menopause 17, 11611166.

128L Lissner , C Bengtsson & T Hansson (1991) Bone mineral content in relation to lactation history in pre- and postmenopausal women. Calcif Tissue Int 48, 319325.

130PH III Henderson , M Sowers , KE Kutzko , . (2000) Bone mineral density in grand multiparous women with extended lactation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 182, 13711377.

132CJ Chantry , P Auinger & RS Byrd (2004) Lactation among adolescent mothers and subsequent bone mineral density. Arch Ped Adol Med 158, 650656.

134S Hoffman , JA Grisso , JL Kelsey , . (1993) Parity, lactation and hip fracture. Osteoporos Int 3, 171176.

135TA Hillier , JH Rizzo , KL Pedula , . (2003) Nulliparity and fracture risk in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Miner Res 18, 893899.

136K Michaelsson , JA Baron , BY Farahmand , . (2001) Influence of parity and lactation on hip fracture risk. Am J Epidemiol 153, 11661172.

138N Kreiger , A Gross & G Hunter (1992) Dietary factors and fracture in postmenopausal women: a case–control study. Int J Epidemiol 21, 953958.

139RG Cumming & RJ Klineberg (1993) Breastfeeding and other reproductive factors and the risk of hip fractures in elderly women. Int J Epidemiol 22, 684691.

141J Lenora , S Lekamwasam & MK Karlsson (2009) Effects of multiparity and prolonged breast-feeding on maternal bone mineral density: a community-based cross-sectional study. BMC Women's Health 9, 19.

142ARP Walker , B Richardson & F Walker (1972) The influence of numerous pregnancies and lactations on bone dimensions in South African Bantu and Caucasian mothers. Clin Sci 42, 189196.

143C Cure-Cure , P Cure-Ramirez , E Teran , . (2002) Bone-mass peak in multiparity and reduced risk of bone-fractures in menopause. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 76, 285291.

145JM Gertner , DR Coustan , AS Kliger , . (1986) Pregnancy as state of physiologic absorptive hypercalciuria. Am J Med 81, 451456.

146RM Pitkin (1985) Calcium metabolism in pregnancy and the perinatal period: a review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151, 99109.

149A Prentice (2000) Calcium in pregnancy and lactation. Annu Rev Nutr 20, 249272.

150CS Kovacs (2005) Calcium and bone metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 10, 105118.

151K Lippuner , HJ Zehnder , JP Casez , . (1996) PTH-related protein is released into the mother's bloodstream during lacation: evidence for beneficial effects on maternal calcium-phosphate metabolism. J Bone Miner Res 11, 13941399.

156SJ Fomon & SE Nelson (2002) Body composition of the male and female reference infants. Annu Rev Nutr 22, 117.

158WW Koo , AJ Bush , J Walters , . (1998) Postnatal development of bone mineral status during infancy. J Am Coll Nutr 17, 6570.

159WW Koo , J Walters , AJ Bush , . (1996) Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry studies of bone mineral status in newborn infants. J Bone Miner Res 11, 9971002.

160A Horsman , SW Ryan , PJ Congdon , . (1989) Bone mineral content and body size 65 to 100 weeks' postconception in preterm and full term infants. Arch Dis Child 64, 15791586.

161K Godfrey , K Walker-Bone , S Robinson , . (2001) Neonatal bone mass: influence of parental birthweight, maternal smoking, body composition, and activity during pregnancy. J Bone Miner Res 16, 16941703.

162NC Harvey , MK Javaid , JR Poole , . (2008) Paternal skeletal size predicts intrauterine bone mineral accrual. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93, 16761681.

163AJ Sawyer , LK Bachrach & EB Fung (editors) (2007) Bone Densitometry in Growing Patients. Guidelines for Clinical Practice. Totawa, NJ: Humana Press.

165WW Koo , LR Massom & J Walters (1995) Validation of accuracy and precision of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for infants. J Bone Miner Res 10, 11111115.

167MA Laskey , A Prentice , J Shaw , . (1990) Breast-milk calcium concentrations during prolonged lactation in British and rural Gambian mothers. Acta Paediatr Scand 79, 507512.

168LMA Jarjou , GR Goldberg , WA Coward , . (2012) Calcium intake of rural Gambian infants: a quantitative study of the relative contributions of breast-milk and complementary foods at 3 and 12 months of age. Eur J Clin Nutr 66, 673677.

170H Uemura , T Yasui , N Yoneda , . (1997) Measurement of N- and C-terminal-region fragments of parathyroid hormone-related peptide in milk from lactating women and investigation of the relationship of their concentrations to calcium in milk. J Endocrinol 153, 445451.

171K Seki , T Kato , S Sekiya , . (1997) Parathyroid-hormone-related protein in human milk and its relation to milk calcium. Gynecol Obstet Invest 44, 102106.

174R Kumar , WR Cohen , P Silva , . (1979) Elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plasma levels in normal human pregnancy and lactation. J Clin Invest 63, 342344.

176MS Ardawi , HA Nasrat & HS BA'Aqueel (1997) Calcium-regulating hormones and parathyroid hormone-related peptide in normal human pregnancy and postpartum: a longitudinal study. Eur J Endocrinol 137, 402409.

178EO Reiter , GD Braunstein , A Vargas , . (1979) Changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135, 227229.

179KN Evans , JN Bulmer , MD Kilby , . (2004) Vitamin D and placental-decidual function. J Soc Gynecol Investig 11, 263271.

181JM Gomez (2006) The role of insulin-like growth factor I components in the regulation of vitamin D. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 7, 125132.

182DJ Hosking (1996) Calcium homeostasis in pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 45, 16.

183JJ Wysolmerski & AF Stewart (1998) The physiology of parathyroid hormone-related protein: an emerging role as a developmental factor. Annu Rev Physiol 60, 431460.

184MJ Horwitz , MB Tedesco , SM Sereika , . (2005) Continuous PTH and PTHrP infusion causes suppression of bone formation and discordant effects on 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D. J Bone Miner Res 20, 17921803.

185CS Kovacs (2001) Calcium and bone metabolism in pregnancy and lactation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 23442348.

187RM Pitkin , WA Reynolds , GA Williams , . (1979) Calcium metabolism in normal pregnancy: a longitudinal study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133, 781790.

188S Khosla (2001) Minireview: the OPG/RANKL/RANK system. Endocrinology 142, 50505055.

189K Yano , O Shibata , A Mizuno , . (2001) Immunological study on circulating murine osteoprotegerin/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OPG/OCIF): possible role of OPG/OCIF in the prevention of osteoporosis in pregnancy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 288, 217224.

192L Hillman , S Sateesha , M Haussler , . (1981) Control of mineral homeostasis during lactation: interrelationships of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, prolactin, and estradiol. Am J Obstet Gynecol 139, 471476.

194T Dahlman , HE Sjoberg & E Bucht (1994) Calcium homeostasis in normal pregnancy and puerperium. A longitudinal study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 73, 393398.

196MF Sowers , BW Hollis , B Shapiro , . (1996) Elevated parathyroid hormone-related peptide associated with lactation and bone density loss. JAMA 276, 549554.

197V Grill , J Hillary , PM Ho , . (1992) Parathyroid hormone-related protein: a possible endocrine function in lactation. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 37, 405410.

198KJ Mather , CL Chik & B Corenblum (1999) Maintenance of serum calcium by parathyroid hormone-related peptide during lactation in a hypoparathyroid patient. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84, 424427.

199PW Howie , AS McNeilly , MJ Houston , . (1982) Fertility after childbirth: post-partum ovulation and menstruation in bottle and breast feeding mothers. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 17, 323332.

201E Bergel & JM Belizan (2004) Commentary: Maternal calcium intake and offspring cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Epidemiol 33, 13091310.

202E Bergel & AJD Barros (2007) Effect of maternal calcium intake during pregnancy on children's blood pressure: a systematic review of the literature. BMC Pediatrics 7, 15.

203GJ Hofmeyr , L Duley & A Atallah (2007) Dietary calcium supplementation for prevention of pre-eclampsia and related problems: a systematic review and commentary. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 114, 933943.

206LMA Jarjou , MA Laskey , Y Sawo , . (2010) Effect of calcium supplementation in pregnancy on maternal bone outcomes in women with a low calcium intake. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 450457.

207Z Liu , L Qiu , YM Chen , . (2011) Effect of milk and calcium supplementation on bone density and bone turnover in pregnant Chinese women: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gynecol Obstet 283, 205211.

210V Janakiraman , A Ettinger , A Mercado-Garcia , . (2003) Calcium supplements and bone resorption in pregnancy: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Prev Med 24, 260264.

217RM Ortega , RM Martinez , ME Quintas , . (1998) Calcium levels in maternal milk: relationships with calcium intake during the third trimester of pregnancy. Br J Nutr 79, 501507.

218A Prentice , B Dibba , LM Jarjou , . (1994) Is breast milk calcium concentration influenced by calcium intake during pregnancy? Lancet 344, 411412.

220TJ Aspray , A Prentice , TJ Cole , . (1996) Low bone mineral content is common but osteoporotic fractures are rare in elderly rural Gambian women. J Bone Miner Res 11, 10191025.

221A Prentice , J Shaw , MA Laskey , . (1991) Bone mineral content of British and rural Gambian women aged 18–80+ years. Bone Miner 12, 201214.

223WW Koo , JC Walters , J Esterlitz , . (1999) Maternal calcium supplementation and fetal bone mineralization. Obstet Gynecol 94, 577582.

224GM Chan , K McElligott , T McNaught , . (2006) Effects of dietary calcium intervention on adolescent mothers and newborns: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 108, 565571.

226A Ganpule , CS Yajnik , CH Fall , . (2006) Bone mass in Indian children - relationships to maternal nutritional status and diet during pregnancy: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 29943001.

228S Hawkesworth , Y Sawo , AJC Fulford , . (2010) Effect of maternal calcium supplementation on offspring blood pressure in 5- to 10-y-old rural Gambian children. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 741747.

229A Prentice (2008) Vitamin D deficiency: a global perspective. Nutr Rev 66, 153164.

233PM Brannon & MF Picciano (2011) Vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation in humans. Annu Rev Nutr 31, 89115.

236FR Greer , BW Hollis , DJ Cripps , . (1984) Effects of maternal ultraviolet B irradiation on vitamin D content of human milk. J Pediatr 105, 431433.

237BW Hollis (1983) Individual quantitation of vitamin D2, vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in human milk. Anal Biochem 131, 211219.

238LA Basile , SN Taylor , CL Wagner , . (2006) The effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on serum vitamin D levels and milk calcium concentration in lactating women and their infants. Breastfeed Med 1, 2735.

240CL Wagner , TC Hulsey , D Fanning , . (2006) High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in a cohort of breastfeeding mothers and their infants: a 6-month follow-up pilot study. Breastfeed Med 1, 5970.

241FR Greer , BW Hollis & JL Napoli (1984) High concentrations of vitamin D2 in human milk associated with pharmacologic doses of vitamin D2. J Pediatr 105, 6164.

242A Prentice , L Yan , LM Jarjou , . (1997) Vitamin D status does not influence the breast-milk calcium concentration of lactating mothers accustomed to a low calcium intake. Acta Paediatr 86, 10061008.

244F Cockburn , NR Belton , RJ Purvis , . (1980) Maternal vitamin D intake and mineral metabolism in mothers and their newborn infants. Br Med J 281, 1114.

246JJ McGrath , D Keeping , S Saha , . (2005) Seasonal fluctuations in birth weight and neonatal limb length; does prenatal vitamin D influence neonatal size and shape? Early Hum Dev 81, 609618.

247R Namgung , RC Tsang , BL Specker , . (1994) Low bone mineral content and high serum osteocalcin and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in summer- versus winter-born newborn infants: an early fetal effect? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 19, 220227.

249CA Mannion , K Gray-Donald & KG Koski (2006) Association of low intake of milk and vitamin D during pregnancy with decreased birth weight. Can Med Assoc J 174, 12731277.

250H Weiler , S Fitzpatrick-Wong , R Veitch , . (2005) Vitamin D deficiency and whole-body and femur bone mass relative to weight in healthy newborns. Can Med Assoc J 172, 757761.

251R Morley , JB Carlin , JA Pasco , . (2006) Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations and offspring birth size. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 906912.

253MK Javaid , SR Crozier , NC Harvey , . (2006) Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study. Lancet 367, 3643.

254OG Brooke , IR Brown , CD Bone , . (1980) Vitamin D supplements in pregnant Asian women: effects on calcium status and fetal growth. Br Med J 280, 751754.

255OG Brooke , F Butters & C Wood (1981) Intrauterine vitamin D nutrition and postnatal growth in Asian infants. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 283, 1024.

256EE Delvin , BL Salle , FH Glorieux , . (1986) Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: effect on neonatal calcium homeostasis. J Pediatr 109, 328334.

257BL Specker , ML Ho , A Oestreich , . (1992) Prospective study of vitamin D supplementation and rickets in China. J Pediatr 120, 733739.

258RK Marya , S Rathee , V Lata , . (1981) Effects of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 12, 155161.

260E Mallet , B Gugi , P Brunelle , . (1986) Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy: a controlled trial of two methods. Obstet Gynecol 68, 300304.

261P Congdon , A Horsman , PA Kirby , . (1983) Mineral content of the forearms of babies born to Asian and white mothers. Br Med J 286, 12331235.

262SA Abrams (2011) Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. J Bone Miner Res 26, 23382340.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nutrition Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 0954-4224
  • EISSN: 1475-2700
  • URL: /core/journals/nutrition-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: