Hostname: page-component-594f858ff7-7tp2g Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-06-10T10:23:12.630Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "corePageComponentUseShareaholicInsteadOfAddThis": true, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) in the Aetiology of Kwashiorkor

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 December 2007

Beryl P. Kamalu
Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Research Article
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 1993



Akpan, J. O. & Gingerich, R. L. (1991). Association of hyperglycemia with dietary cyanogen and socioeconomic level. The study of rural communities in South-east Nigeria. Acta Diabetologica Latina 28, 2937.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alleyne, G. A. O., Hay, R. W., Picou, D. I., Stanfield, J. P. & Whitehead, R. G. (1977). Protein-energy Malnutrition. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
Andrianasolo, H., Fleury-Goyon, M. C., Charrie, A., Andriantsoa, J., Latour, P. & Rajaona, H. (1991). [Insulin secretion in non-diabetic cassava consumers.] Diabète et Métabolisme 17, 399403.Google Scholar
Anon. (1987). Dossier. Roots and tubers: their role in food security. Courier No. 101, 6294.Google Scholar
Autret, M. & Behar, M. (1954). Sindrome policarencial infantil (Kwashiorkor) and its prevention in Central America. (FAO Nutritional Studies No. 13). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
Bailey, K. V. (1961). Rural nutrition studies in Indonesia. 2. Clinical studies of hunger oedema in the cassava areas of Java. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 13, 234254.Google Scholar
Baker, D. H. & Speer, V. C. (1983). Protein-amino nutrition of nonruminant animals with emphasis on the pig: past, present and future. Journal of Animal Science 57 (Suppl. 2), 284299.Google ScholarPubMed
Barej, W., Ostaszewski, P. & Szczygiel, M. (1981). Could the plasma amino acid concentrations indicate the body protein turnover in sheep? VIth International Symposium on Amino Acid Metabolism, Serock, Poland, pp. 214223.Google Scholar
Barnard, E. A. (1969). Biological function of pancreatic ribonuclease. Nature 221, 340344.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barrett, M. D., Hill, D. C., Alexander, J. C. & Zitnak, A. (1977). Fate of orally dosed linamarin in the rat. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 55, 134136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barry, T. N., Duncan, S. J., Sadler, W. A., Millar, K. R. & Sheppard, A. D. (1983). Iodine metabolism and thyroid hormone relationships in growing sheep fed on kale (Brassica oleracea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) – clover (Trifolium repens) fresh-forage diets. British Journal of Nutrition 49, 241253.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boccas, B. (1987). Cassava, staple food crop of prime importance in the tropics. Courier No. 101, 7273.Google Scholar
Brock, J. F. & Autret, M. (1952). Kwashiorkor in Africa (World Health Organization Monograph Series No. 8). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
Chin, S. E., Shepherd, R. W., Thomas, B. J., Cleghorn, G. J., Patrick, M. K., Wilcox, J. A., Ong, T. H., Lynch, S. V. & Strong, R. (1992). The nature of malnutrition in children with end-stage liver disease awaiting orthotopic liver transplantation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56, 164168.Google ScholarPubMed
Cooke, R. & Cock, J. (1989). Cassava crops up again. New Scientist 122 (1669), 6368.Google Scholar
Crace, C. J., Swenne, I., Kohn, P. G., Strain, A. J. & Milner, R. D. G. (1990). Protein-energy malnutrition induces changes in insulin sensitivity. Diabète et Métabolisme 16, 484491.Google Scholar
Crace, C. J., Swenne, I. & Milner, R. D. G. (1989). Long-term follow-up after early protein-calorie malnutrition in young rats: sex difference in glucose tolerance and serum insulin levels. Metabolism 38, 933938.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delange, F., Bourdoux, P., Colinet, E., Courtois, P., Hennart, P., Lagasse, R., Mafuta, P., Seghers, P., Thilly, C., Vanderpas, J., Yunga, Y. & Ermans, A. M. (1983). Nutritional factors involved in the goitrogenic action of cassava. In Cassava Toxicity and Thyroid: Research and Public Health Issues. Proceedings of a Workshop, Ottawa. 1982 (International Development Research Centre Monograph 207e). pp. 1726 [Delange, F. and Ahluwalia, R., editors]. Ottawa, Canada: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
Escriva, F., Kergoat, M., Bailbe, D., Pascual-Leone, A. M. & Portha, B. (1992). Increased insulin action in the rat after protein malnutrition early in life. Diabetologia 34, 559564.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Felig, P., Owen, O. E., Wahren, J. & Cahill, G. F., (1969). Amino acid metabolism during prolonged starvation. Journal of Clinical Investigation 48, 584594.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Food and Agriculture Organization (1970). Amino-acid content of foods and biological data on proteins (FAO Nutritional Studies No. 24). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
Giesecke, D. (1985). Species differences relevant to nutrition and metabolism research. In Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Research, Proceedings of the 7th Congress of European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, Munich, 1985, pp. 311328 [Dietze, G., Grunert, A., Kleinberger, G. & Wolfram, G., editors]. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
Glynn, I. M. (1964). The action of cardiac glycosides on ion movements. Pharmacological Reviews 16, 381407.Google ScholarPubMed
Golden, M. (1988). The effects of malnutrition in the metabolism of children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 82, 36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gomez, G., Tellez, G. & Caicedo, J. (1987). Effects of the addition of vegetable oil or animal tallow to broiler diets containing cassava root meal. Poultry Science 66, 725731.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grimble, R. F., Sawyer, M. B. & Whitehead, R. G. (1969). Time relationships between the elevation of the serum amino acid ratio and changes in liver composition in malnourished rats. British Journal of Nutrition 23, 879888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grimble, R. F. & Whitehead, R. G. (1969). The relationship between an elevated serum amino acid ratio and the development of other biological abnormalities in the experimentally malnourished pig. British Journal of Nutrition 23, 791804.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grimble, R. F. & Whitehead, R. G. (1970 a). Changes in the concentration of specific amino acids in the serum of experimentally malnourished pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 24, 557564.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grimble, R. F. & Whitehead, R. G. (1970 b). Fasting serum-aminoacid patterns in kwashiorkor and after administration of different levels of protein. Lancet i, 918920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grodsky, G. M. & Bennett, L. L. (1966). Cation requirements for insulin secretion in the isolated perfused pancreas. Diabetes 15, 910913.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamaker, B. R., Rivera, K., Morales, E. & Graham, G. G. (1991). Effect of dietary fiber and starch on fecal composition in preschool children consuming maize, amaranth or cassava flours. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 13, 5966.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hanson, R. W. & Garber, A. J. (1972). Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. 1. Its role in gluconeogenesis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 25, 10101021.Google Scholar
Harper, H. A., Rodwell, V. W. & Mayes, P. A. (1979). Review of Physiological Chemistry, 17th edn. Los Altos, CA: Lange Medical Publications.Google Scholar
Hendrickse, R. G. (1984). The influence of aflatoxins on child health in the tropics with particular reference to kwashiorkor. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 78, 427435.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, D. C. (1977). Physiological and biochemical responses of rats given potassium cyanide or linamarin. In Cassava as Animal Feed, Proceedings of a Workshop, University of Guelph. 1977 (International Development Research Centre Monograph 095e), pp. 3342 [Nestel, B. and Graham, M., editors]. Ottawa, Canada: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
Howlett, W. P., Brubaker, G. R., Mlingi, N. & Rosling, H. (1990). Konzo, an epidemic upper motor neuron disease studied in Tanzania. Brain 113, 223235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ibebunjo, C., Kamalu, B. P. & Ihemelandu, E. C. (1992). Comparison of the effects of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) organic cyanide and inorganic cyanide on muscle and bone development in a Nigerian breed of dog. British Journal of Nutrition 68, 483491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kamalu, B. P. (1991 a). The effect of a nutritionally-balanced cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) diet on endocrine function using the dog as a model. 1. Pancreas. British Journal of Nutrition 65, 365372.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kamalu, B. P. (1991 b). Digestibility of a nutritionally balanced cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) diet and its effect on growth in young male dogs. British Journal of Nutrition 66, 199208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kamalu, B. P. (1993). Pathological changes in growing dogs fed on a balanced cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) diet. British Journal of Nutrition 69, 921934.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kamalu, B. P. & Agharanya, J. C. (1991). The effect of a nutritionally balanced cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) diet on endocrine function using the dog as a model. 2. Thyroid. British Journal of Nutrition 65, 373379.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koskelo, E.-K., Saarinen, U. M. & Siimes, M. A. (1990). Skeletal muscle wasting and protein-energy malnutrition in children with newly diagnosed acute leukemia. Cancer 66, 373376.3.0.CO;2-C>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuykendall, R. C., Rowlands, B. J., Taegtmayer, H. & Walker, W. E. (1987). Biochemical consequences of protein depletion in the rabbit heart. Journal of Surgical Research 43, 6267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maduagwu, E. N. (1989). Metabolism of linamarin in rats. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 27, 451454.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matsui, H. & Schwartz, A. (1967). ATP-dependent binding of H3-digoxin to a Na+-K+-ATPase from cardiac muscle. Federation Proceedings 26, 398.Google Scholar
Millward, D. J. (1979). Protein deficiency, starvation and protein metabolism. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 38, 7788.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mondon, C. E., Burton, S. D., Grodsky, G. M. & Ishida, T. (1968). Glucose tolerance and insulin response of potassium-deficient rat and isolated liver. American Journal of Physiology 215, 779787.Google Scholar
Montgomery, R. D. (1980). Cyanogens. In Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs, 2nd edn, pp. 143160 [Liener, I. E., editor]. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Moran, E. F. (1976). Manioc deserves more recognition in tropical farming. World Crops 28, 184188.Google Scholar
Narendranathan, M., Sharma, K. N. & Sosamma, P. I. (1989). Serum rhodanese in goitre and calcific pancreatitis of the tropics. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 37, 648649.Google Scholar
Nartey, F. (1968). Studies on cassava, Manihot utilissima Pohl. I. Cyanogenesis: the biosynthesis of linamarin and lotaustralin in etiolated seedlings. Phytochemistry 7, 13071312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nestel, B. (1973). Current utilization and future potential for cassava. In Chronic Cassava Toxicity, Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Workshop, London, England, 1973 (International Development Research Centre Monograph 010e), pp. 1126 [Nestel, B. and Maclntyre, R., editors]. Ottawa, Canada: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
Nicol, B. M. (1952). The nutrition of Nigerian peasants, with special reference to the effects of deficiencies of the vitamin B complex, vitamin A and animal protein. British Journal of Nutrition 6, 3455.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nicol, B. M. & Phillips, P. G. (1978). The utilization of proteins and amino acids in diets based on cassava (Manihot utilissima), rice or sorghum (Sorghum sativa) by young Nigerian men of low income. British Journal of Nutrition 39, 271287.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Okitolonda, W., Brichard, S. M. & Henquin, J. C. (1987). Repercussions of chronic protein-calorie malnutrition on glucose homeostasis in the rat. Diabetologia 30, 946951.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ononogbu, I. C. & Emole, I. (1978). The effect of garri on rat plasma cholesterol. Atherosclerosis 31, 101104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Owen, O. E., Morgan, A. P., Kemp, H. G., Sullivan, J. M., Herrera, M. G. & Cahill, G. F. (1967). Brain metabolism during fasting. Journal of Clinical Investigation 46, 15891595.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Padmaja, G. & Panikkar, K. R. (1989). Pattern of enzyme changes in rabbits administered linamarin or potassium cyanide. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 27, 551555.Google ScholarPubMed
Philbrick, D. J., Hill, D. C. & Alexander, J. C. (1977). Physiological and biochemical changes associated with linamarin administration to rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 42, 539551.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Phillips, T. P. (1983). An overview of cassava consumption and production. In Cassava Toxicity and Thyroid: Proceedings of a Workshop, Ottawa, 1982 (International Development Research Centre Monograph 207e). pp. 8388 [Delange, F. and Ahluwalia, R., editors]. Ottawa, Canada: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
Pimstone, B. L., Becker, D. & Hendricks, S. (1973). In Endocrine Aspects of Malnutrition, p. 243 [Gardner, L. I. and Amacher, P., editors]. Santa Ynez, CA: Kroc Foundation.Google Scholar
Podolsky, S., Zimmerman, H. J., Burrows, B. A., Cardarelli, J. A. & Pattavina, C. G. (1973). Potassium depletion in hepatic cirrhosis. A reversible cause of impaired growth hormone and insulin response to stimulation. New England Journal of Medicine 288, 644648.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prost, J. & Belleville, J. (1988). [Evidence for several storage and excretion ways for pancreatic digestive enzymes during protein malnutrition followed by refeeding.] Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses Filiales 182, 8693.Google Scholar
Radwan, M. A. H., Partridge, G. G., Allan, S. J. & Fordyce, R. A. (1989). Cassava root meal in diets for growing rabbits. Tropical Animal Health and Production 21, 3236.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robbins, S. L. & Cotran, R. S. (1979). Pathologic Basis of Disease, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
Rossouw, J. E. (1989). Kwashiorkor in North America. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 588592.Google ScholarPubMed
Sandhyamani, S. (1991). Cardiovascular effects in bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) of a cassava-based protein-deficient diet. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 33, 429430.Google ScholarPubMed
Saunière, J. R., Sarles, H., Attia, Y., Lombardo, A., Yoman, T. N., Laugier, R., Manlan, K. & Sahel, J. (1986). Exocrine pancreatic function of children from the Ivory Coast compared to French children. Effect of kwashiorkor. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 31, 481486.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sihombing, D. T. H., Cromwell, G. L. & Hays, V. W. (1971). Effect of added thiocyanate and iodine to cornsoybean meal diets on performance and thyroid status of pigs. Journal of Animal Science 33, 1154.Google Scholar
Singh, G. R., Malathi, K. E., Kasliwal, R. R., Ommar, A., Padmavati, S. & Ramji, S. (1989). An evaluation of cardiac function in malnourished children by non-invasive methods. Indian Pediatrics 26, 875881.Google ScholarPubMed
Söling, H.-D. & Kleincke, J. (1976). Species dependent regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis in higher animals. In Gluconeogenesis: its Regulation in Mammalian Species, pp. 369462 [Hanson, R. W. and Mehlman, M. A., editors]. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
Tietz, N. W. & Siggaard-Anderson, O. (1982). Acid-base and electrolyte balance. In Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry [Tietz, N., editor]. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
Tolboom, J. J. M., Ralitapole-Maruping, A. P., Kabir, H., Molatseli, P. & Anderson, J. (1986). Severe protein energy malnutrition in Lesotho, death and survival in hospital, clinical findings. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 38, 351358.Google ScholarPubMed
Turner, C. D. & Bagnara, J. T. (1971). General Endocrinology, 5th edn. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
Viteri, F., Béhar, M., Arroyave, G. & Scrimshaw, N. S. (1964). Clinical aspects of protein malnutrition. In Mammalian Protein Metabolism. vol. 2, pp. 523568 [Munro, H. N. & Allison, J. B., editors]. New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waterlow, J. C. & Vergara, A. (1956). Protein Malnutrition in Brazil (FAO Nutritional Studies No. 14). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
Webb, J. G., Kiess, M. C. & Chan-Yan, C. C. (1986). Malnutrition and the heart. Canadian Medical Association Journal 135, 753758.Google ScholarPubMed
Welt, L. G. (1970). Agents affecting volume and composition of body fluids. In The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 4th edn, pp. 773804 [Goodman, L. S. and Gilman, A., editors]. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Whitehead, R. G. & Lunn, P. G. (1979). Endocrines in protein energy malnutrition. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 38, 6976.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zinn, R. A. & De Peters, E. J. (1992). Comparative feeding value of tapioca pellets for feedlot cattle. Journal of Animal Science 69, 47264733.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed