Skip to main content Accessibility help

Determinants of takeaway and fast food consumption: a narrative review

  • Hayley G. Janssen (a1), Ian G. Davies (a1), Lucinda D. Richardson (a1) and Leonard Stevenson (a1)


Out-of-home foods (takeaway, take-out and fast foods) have become increasingly popular in recent decades and are thought to be a key driver in increasing levels of overweight and obesity due to their unfavourable nutritional content. Individual food choices and eating behaviours are influenced by many interrelated factors which affect the results of nutrition-related public health interventions. While the majority of research based on out-of-home foods comes from Australia, the UK and USA, the same issues (poor dietary habits and increased prevalence of non-communicable disease) are of equal concern for urban centres in developing economies undergoing ‘nutrition transition’ at a global scale. The present narrative review documents key facets, which may influence out-of-home food consumption, drawn from biological, societal, environmental, demographic and psychological spheres. Literature searches were performed and references from relevant papers were used to find supplementary studies. Findings suggest that the strongest determinants of out-of-home food availability are density of food outlets and deprivation within the built environment; however, the association between socio-economic status and out-of-home food consumption has been challenged. In addition, the biological and psychological drives combined with a culture where overweight and obesity are becoming the norm makes it ‘fashionable’ to consume out-of-home food. Other factors, including age group, ethnicity and gender demonstrate contrasting effects and a lack of consensus. It is concluded that further consideration of the determinants of out-of-home food consumption within specific populations is crucial to inform the development of targeted interventions to reduce the impact of out-of-home foods on public health.


Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Hayley G. Janssen, email


Hide All
1. Miura, K, Giskes, K & Turrell, G (2012) Socio-economic differences in takeaway food consumption among adults. Public Health Nutr 15, 218226.
2. Jaworowska, A, Blackham, TM, Long, R, et al. (2014) Nutritional composition of takeaway food in the UK. Nutr Food Sci 44, 414430.
3. Block, JP, Scribner, RA & DeSalvo, KB (2004) Fast food, race/ethnicity, and income: a geographic analysis. Am J Prev Med 27, 211217.
4. Richardson, AS, Boone-Heinonen, J, Popkin, BM, et al. (2011) Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: a national study. BMC Public Health 11, 543.
5. Bauer, KW, Hearst, MO, Earnest, AA, et al. (2012) Energy content of U.S. fast-food restaurant offerings: 14-year trends. Am J Prev Med 43, 490497.
6. Nago, ES, Lachat, CK, Dossa, RA, et al. (2014) Association of out-of-home eating with anthropometric changes: a systematic review of prospective studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 54, 11031116.
7. Lachat, C, Nago, E, Verstraeten, R, et al. (2012) Eating out of home and its association with dietary intake: a systematic review of the evidence. Obes Rev 13, 329346.
8. Butland, B, Jebb, SA, Kopelman, P, et al. (2007) Foresight Tackling Obesities: Future Choices Project. London: Foresight Programme of the Government Office for Science.
9. Marteau, TM, Hollands, GJ, Shemilt, I, et al. (2015) Downsizing: policy options to reduce portion sizes to help tackle obesity. BMJ 351, h5863.
10. Adams, J, Goffe, L, Brown, T, et al. (2015) Frequency and socio-demographic correlates of eating meals out and take-away meals at home: cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey, waves 1–4 (2008–12). Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 12, 5159.
11. Guthrie, JF, Lin, B-H & Frazao, E (2002) Role of food prepared away from home in the American diet, 1977–78 versus 1994–96: changes and consequences. J Nutr Educ Behav 34, 140150.
12. Orfanos, P, Naska, A, Trichopoulos, D, et al. (2007) Eating out of home and its correlates in 10 European countries. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Public Health Nutr 10, 15151525.
13. Kant, AK, Whitley, MI & Graubard, BI (2015) Away from home meals: associations with biomarkers of chronic disease and dietary intake in American adults, NHANES 2005–2010. Int J Obes 39, 820827.
14. Popkin, BM & Gordon-Larsen, P (2004) The nutrition transition: worldwide obesity dynamics and their determinants. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, S2S9.
15. Nguyen, BT & Powell, LM (2014) The impact of restaurant consumption among US adults: effects on energy and nutrient intakes. Public Health Nutr 17, 24452452.
16. Duffey, KJ, Gordon-Larsen, P, Steffen, LM, et al. (2009) Regular consumption from fast food establishments relative to other restaurants is differentially associated with metabolic outcomes in young adults. J Nutr 139, 21132118.
17. Jaworowska, A, Blackham, T, Stevenson, L, et al. (2012) Determination of salt content in hot takeaway meals in the United Kingdom. Appetite 59, 517522.
18. Smith, KJ, Blizzard, L, McNaughton, SA, et al. (2012) Takeaway food consumption and cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 66, 577584.
19. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (2014) Obesity: Identification, Assessment and Management of Overweight and Obesity in Children, Young People and Adults. NICE Public Health Guidance CG189. London: NICE.
20. World Health Organization (2016) Media Centre: Obesity and overweight. (accessed July 2016).
21. The London Food Board and Chartered Institute of Environmental Health (2012) TakeAways Toolkit. London: Greater London Authority.
22. Public Health England (2014) Healthy People, Healthy Places Briefing. Obesity and the Environment: Regulating the Growth of Fast Food Outlets. London: PHE.
23. Obesity Australia (2013) Action Agenda. Australia: PricewaterhouseCoopers.
24. US Food and Drug Association (2016) A Labeling Guide for Restaurants and Retail Establishments Selling Away-From-Home Foods – Part II (Menu Labeling Requirements in Accordance with 21 CFR 101.11): Guidance for Industry. Silver Spring, MD: FDA.
25. Dumanovsky, T, Huang, CY, Bassett, MT, et al. (2010) Consumer awareness of fast-food calorie information in New York City after implementation of a menu labeling regulation. Am J Public Health 100, 25202525.
26. Story, M, Kaphingst, KM, Robinson-O’Brien, R, et al. (2008) Creating healthy food and eating environments: policy and environmental approaches. Annu Rev Public Health 29, 253272.
27. Franchi, M (2012) Food choice: beyond the chemical content. Int J Food Sci Nutr 63, 1728.
28. Public Health England (2015) Update on Action to Tackle Obesity. London: PHE.
29. Monteiro, CA, Levy, RB, Claro, RM, et al. (2011) Increasing consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health: evidence from Brazil. Public Health Nutr 14, 513.
30. Albala, C, Vio, F, Kain, J, et al. (2002) Nutrition transition in Chile: determinants and consequences. Public Health Nutr 5, 123128.
31. Singh, A, Gupta, V, Ghosh, A, et al. (2015) Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition. BMC Nutr 1, 22.
32. Bahadoran, Z, Mirmiran, P, Golzarand, M, et al. (2012) Fast food consumption in Iranian adults; dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Arch Iran Med 15, 346351.
33. Fournier, T, Tibere, L, Laporte, C, et al. (2016) Eating patterns and prevalence of obesity. Lessons learned from the Malaysian Food Barometer. Appetite 107, 362371.
34. Keding, G (2016) Nutrition transition in rural Tanzania and Kenya. World Rev Nutr Diet 115, 6881.
35. Hu, FB, Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ, et al. (2000) Prospective study of major dietary patterns and risk of CHD in men. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 912921.
36. Popkin, BM (2006) Global nutrition dynamics: the world is shifting rapidly toward a diet linked with noncommunicable diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 289298.
37. Jaworowska, A, Blackham, T, Davies, IG, et al. (2013) Nutritional challenges and health implications of takeaway and fast food. Nutr Rev 71, 310318.
38. Food Standards Agency (2008) Consumer Attitudes to Food Standards: Wave 8. London: TNS.
39. Cheng, SL, Olsen, W, Southerton, D, et al. (2007) The changing practice of eating: evidence from UK time diaries, 1975 and 2000. Br J Sociol 58, 3961.
40. Burgoine, T, Lake, AA, Stamp, E, et al. (2009) Changing foodscapes 1980–2000, using the ASH30 Study. Appetite 53, 157165.
41. Fraser, LK, Edwards, KL, Cade, J, et al. (2010) The geography of fast food outlets: a review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7, 22902308.
42. Manzel, A, Muller, DN, Hafler, DA, et al. (2014) Role of “Western diet” in inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 14, 404.
43. Agyei-Mensah, S & de-Graft Aikins, A (2010) Epidemiological transition and the double burden of disease in Accra, Ghana. J Urban Health 87, 879897.
44. Bygbjerg, IC (2012) Double burden of noncommunicable and infectious diseases in developing countries. Science 337, 14991501.
45. Shetty, P (2013) Nutrition transition and its health outcomes. Indian J Pediatr 80, Suppl. 1, S21S27.
46. Anderson, AS, Key, TJ, Norat, T, et al. (2015) European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: obesity, body fatness and cancer. Cancer Epidemiol 39, Suppl. 1, S34S45.
47. Young, LR & Nestle, M (2002) The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. Am J Public Health 92, 246249.
48. Mente, A, de Koning, L, Shannon, HS, et al. (2009) Systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and CHD. Arch Intern Med 169, 659669.
49. Carrera-Bastos, P, Fontes-Villalba, M, O’Keefe, JH, et al. (2011) The Western diet and lifestyle and diseases of civilization. Res Rep Clin Cardiol 2, 1535.
50. van Dam, RM, Rimm, EB, Willett, WC, et al. (2002) Dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in US men. Ann Intern Med 136, 201209.
51. Pereira, MA, Kartashov, AI, Ebbeling, CB, et al. (2005) Fast-food habits, weight gain, and insulin resistance (the CARDIA study): 15-year prospective analysis. Lancet 365, 3642.
52. Public Health England (2014) International Comparisons. (accessed September 2015).
53. Popkin, BM, Adair, LS & Ng, SW (2012) Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutr Rev 70, 321.
54. Story, M & French, S (2004) Food advertising and marketing directed at children and adolescents in the US. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 1, 3.
55. Stevenson, C, Doherty, G, Barnett, J, et al. (2007) Adolescents’ views of food and eating: identifying barriers to healthy eating. J Adolesc 30, 417434.
56. Ioannou, S (2009) ‘Eating beans ... that is a “no-no” for our times’: young Cypriots’ consumer meanings of ‘healthy’ and ‘fast’ food. Health Educ J 68, 186195.
57. Stok, FM, de Vet, E, de Wit, JB, et al. (2014) The proof is in the eating: subjective peer norms are associated with adolescents’ eating behaviour. Public Health Nutr 18, 10441051.
58. Sawka, KJ, McCormack, GR, Nettel-Aguirre, A, et al. (2015) Associations between aspects of friendship networks and dietary behavior in youth: findings from a systematized review. Eat Behav 18, 715.
59. Bugge, A (2011) Lovin’ it? A study of youth and the culture of fast food. Food Cult Soc 14, 7189.
60. Srivastava, RK (2015) How differing demographic factors impact consumers’ loyalty towards national or international fast food chains. Br Food J 117, 13541376.
61. Cavazza, N, Graziani, AR & Guidetti, M (2011) Looking for the “right” amount to eat at the restaurant: social influence effects when ordering. Soc Influ 6, 274290.
62. Higgs, S & Thomas, J (2016) Social influences on eating. Curr Opin Behav Sci 9, 16.
63. Maubach, N, Hoek, J & McCreanor, T (2009) An exploration of parents’ food purchasing behaviours. Appetite 53, 297302.
64. Trapp, GS, Hickling, S, Christian, HE, et al. (2015) Individual, social, and environmental correlates of healthy and unhealthy eating. Health Educ Behav 42, 759768.
65. Zhai, FY, Du, SF, Wang, ZH, et al. (2014) Dynamics of the Chinese diet and the role of urbanicity, 1991–2011. Obes Rev 15, S16S26.
66. Smith, AD, Emmett, PM, Newby, PK, et al. (2013) Dietary patterns obtained through principal components analysis: the effect of input variable quantification. Br J Nutr 109, 18811891.
67. Adams, J & White, M (2015) Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis. Appetite 92, 185191.
68. Jackson, P & Viehoff, V (2016) Reframing convenience food. Appetite 98, 111.
69. Jacobs, DR (2006) Fast food and sedentary lifestyle: a combination that leads to obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 189190.
70. Pieroni, L & Salmasi, L (2014) Fast-food consumption and body weight. Evidence from the UK. Food Policy 46, 94105.
71. Lowry, R, Michael, S, Demissie, Z, et al. (2015) Associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among US high school students. J Obes 2015, 876524.
72. Jeffery, RW & French, SA (1998) Epidemic obesity in the United States: are fast foods and television viewing contributing? Am J Public Health 88, 277280.
73. Celnik, D, Gillespie, L & Lean, MEJ (2012) Time-scarcity, ready-meals, ill-health and the obesity epidemic. Trends Food Sci Technol 27, 411.
74. Devine, CM, Farrell, TJ, Blake, CE, et al. (2009) Work conditions and the food choice coping strategies of employed parents. J Nutr Educ Behav 41, 365370.
75. French, SA, Story, M & Jeffery, RW (2001) Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Annu Rev Public Health 22, 309335.
76. Jabs, J, Devine, CM, Bisogni, CA, et al. (2007) Trying to find the quickest way: employed mothers’ constructions of time for food. J Nutr Educ Behav 39, 1825.
77. Welch, N, McNaughton, SA, Hunter, W, et al. (2009) Is the perception of time pressure a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity among women? Public Health Nutr 12, 888895.
78. Malik, VS, Willett, WC & Hu, FB (2013) Global obesity: trends, risk factors and policy implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol 9, 1327.
79. Botonaki, A & Mattas, K (2010) Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption. Appetite 55, 629638.
80. Burgoine, T, Forouhi, NG, Griffin, SJ, et al. (2014) Associations between exposure to takeaway food outlets, takeaway food consumption, and body weight in Cambridgeshire, UK: population based, cross sectional study. BMJ 348, g1464.
81. Albuquerque, D, Stice, E, Rodríguez-López, R, et al. (2015) Current review of genetics of human obesity: from molecular mechanisms to an evolutionary perspective. Mol Genet Genomics 290, 11911221.
82. Allison, DB, Matz, PE, Pietrobelli, A, et al. (1999) Genetic and environmental influences on obesity. In Primary and Secondary Preventive Nutrition , pp. 147164 [A Bendrich and RJ Deckelbaum, editors]. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press Inc.
83. Speliotes, EK, Willer, CJ, Berndt, SI, et al. (2010) Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index. Nat Genet 42, 937948.
84. Tan, L-J, Zhu, H, He, H, et al. (2014) Replication of 6 obesity genes in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from diverse ancestries. PLOS ONE 9, e96149.
85. Reidpath, DD, Burns, C, Garrard, J, et al. (2002) An ecological study of the relationship between social and environmental determinants of obesity. Health Place 8, 141145.
86. Maguire, ER, Burgoine, T & Monsivais, P (2015) Area deprivation and the food environment over time: a repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990–2008. Health Place 33, 142147.
87. Feng, J, Glass, TA, Curriero, FC, et al. (2010) The built environment and obesity: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Health Place 16, 175190.
88. Moore, LV, Diez Roux, AV, Nettleton, JA, et al. (2009) Fast-food consumption, diet quality, and neighborhood exposure to fast food: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Am J Epidemiol 170, 2936.
89. Athens, JK, Duncan, DT & Elbel, B (2016) Proximity to fast-food outlets and supermarkets as predictors of fast-food dining frequency. J Acad Nutr Diet 116, 12661275.
90. Li, F, Harmer, P, Cardinal, BJ, et al. (2009) Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 169, 401408.
91. Li, FZ, Harmer, P, Cardinal, BJ, et al. (2009) Obesity and the built environment: does the density of neighborhood fast-food outlets matter? Am J Health Promot 23, 203209.
92. Turrell, G & Giskes, K (2008) Socioeconomic disadvantage and the purchase of takeaway food: a multilevel analysis. Appetite 51, 6981.
93. Giskes, K, van Lenthe, F, Avendano-Pabon, M, et al. (2011) A systematic review of environmental factors and obesogenic dietary intakes among adults: are we getting closer to understanding obesogenic environments? Obes Rev 12, e95e106.
94. Cerin, E, Mitáš, J, Cain, KL, et al. (2017) Do associations between objectively-assessed physical activity and neighbourhood environment attributes vary by time of the day and day of the week? IPEN adult study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 14, 34.
95. Polsky, JY, Moineddin, R, Dunn, JR, et al. (2016) Absolute and relative densities of fast-food versus other restaurants in relation to weight status: does restaurant mix matter? Prev Med 82, 2834.
96. Wilkinson, R & Pickett, K (2010) The Spirit Level: Why Equality is Better for Everyone. London: Penguin.
97. Drewnowski, A & Specter, SE (2004) Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 616.
98. Braveman, PA, Cubbin, C, Egerter, S, et al. (2010) Socioeconomic disparities in health in the United States: what the patterns tell us. Am J Public Health 100, Suppl. 1, S186S196.
99. Cummins, SC, McKay, L & MacIntyre, S (2005) McDonald’s restaurants and neighborhood deprivation in Scotland and England. Am J Prev Med 29, 308310.
100. Macdonald, L, Cummins, S & Macintyre, S (2007) Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation – substitution or concentration? Appetite 49, 251254.
101. National Obesity Observatory (2012) Obesity and the Environment: Fast Food Outlets. London: Public Health Observatories.
102. Pearce, J, Blakely, T, Witten, K, et al. (2007) Neighborhood deprivation and access to fast-food retailing: a national study. Am J Prev Med 32, 375382.
103. Utter, J, Denny, S, Crengle, S, et al. (2011) Socio-economic differences in eating-related attitudes, behaviours and environments of adolescents. Public Health Nutr 14, 629634.
104. Schneider, S & Gruber, J (2012) Neighbourhood deprivation and outlet density for tobacco, alcohol and fast food: first hints of obesogenic and addictive environments in Germany. Public Health Nutr 16, 11681177.
105. Smoyer-Tomic, KE, Spence, JC, Raine, KD, et al. (2008) The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets. Health Place 14, 740754.
106. Zenk, SN & Powell, LM (2008) US secondary schools and food outlets. Health Place 14, 336346.
107. Shi, Z, Lien, N, Kumar, BN, et al. (2005) Socio-demographic differences in food habits and preferences of school adolescents in Jiangsu Province, China. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 14391448.
108. Zeba, AN, Delisle, HF, Renier, G, et al. (2012) The double burden of malnutrition and cardiometabolic risk widens the gender and socio-economic health gap: a study among adults in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Public Health Nutr 15, 22102219.
109. Shafique, S, Akhter, N, Stallkamp, G, et al. (2007) Trends of under- and overweight among rural and urban poor women indicate the double burden of malnutrition in Bangladesh. Int J Epidemiol 36, 449457.
110. Hanandita, W & Tampubolon, G (2015) The double burden of malnutrition in Indonesia: social determinants and geographical variations. SSM - Popul Health 1, 1625.
111. Barton, KL, Wrieden, WL, Sherriff, A, et al. (2015) Trends in socio-economic inequalities in the Scottish diet: 2001–2009. Public Health Nutr 18, 29702980.
112. Miura, K, Giskes, K & Turrell, G (2009) Socioeconomic differences in takeaway food consumption and their contribution to inequalities in dietary intakes. J Epidemiol Community Health 63, 820826.
113. Lake, AA, Hyland, RM, Rugg-Gunn, AJ, et al. (2007) Healthy eating: perceptions and practice (the ASH30 study). Appetite 48, 176182.
114. Food and Agriculture Organization (1996) Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action. World Food Summit 13–17 November 1996. Rome: FAO.
115. Borch, A & Kjaernes, U (2016) Food security and food insecurity in Europe: an analysis of the academic discourse (1975–2013). Appetite 103, 137147.
116. Ramsey, R, Giskes, K, Turrell, G, et al. (2012) Food insecurity among adults residing in disadvantaged urban areas: potential health and dietary consequences. Public Health Nutr 15, 227237.
117. Whelan, A, Wrigley, N, Warm, D, et al. (2002) Life in a ‘food desert’. Urban Stud 39, 20832100.
118. Wrigley, N (2002) ‘Food deserts’ in British cities: policy context and research priorities. Urban Stud 39, 20292040.
119. Hendrickson, D, Smith, C & Eikenberry, N (2006) Fruit and vegetable access in four low-income food deserts communities in Minnesota. Agric Hum Values 23, 371383.
120. Anonymous (1999) Health literacy: report of the Council on Scientific Affairs. Ad Hoc Committee on Health Literacy for the Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association. JAMA 281, 552557.
121. Marmot, M; Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2007) Achieving health equity: from root causes to fair outcomes. Lancet 370, 11531163.
122. Nutbeam, D (2008) The evolving concept of health literacy. Soc Sci Med 67, 20722078.
123. Boulos, MN (2005) British Internet-derived patient information on diabetes mellitus: is it readable? Diabetes Technol Ther 7, 528535.
124. Public Health England (2015) Local Action on Health Inequalities; Health Literacy. London: PHE.
125. Cullen, T, Hatch, J, Martin, W, et al. (2015) Food literacy: definition and framework for action. Can J Diet Pract Res 76, 140145.
126. Carbone, ET & Zoellner, JM (2012) Nutrition and health literacy: a systematic review to inform nutrition research and practice. J Acad Nutr Diet 112, 254265.
127. Cha, E, Kim, KH, Lerner, HM, et al. (2014) Health literacy, self-efficacy, food label use, and diet in young adults. Am J Health Behav 38, 331339.
128. Zoellner, J, Krzeski, E, Harden, S, et al. (2012) Qualitative application of the theory of planned behavior to understand beverage consumption behaviors among adults. J Acad Nutr Diet 112, 17741784.
129. DeMaria, AN (2003) Of fast food and franchises. J Am Coll Cardiol 41, 12271228.
130. Glanz, K, Basil, M, Maibach, E, et al. (1998) Why Americans eat what they do. J Am Diet Assoc 98, 11181126.
131. Baker, P & Friel, S (2014) Processed foods and the nutrition transition: evidence from Asia. Obes Rev 15, 564577.
132. Davis, GC & Carlson, A (2014) The inverse relationship between food price and energy density: is it spurious? Public Health Nutr 18, 10911097.
133. Håkansson, A (2015) Has it become increasingly expensive to follow a nutritious diet? Insights from a new price index for nutritious diets in Sweden 1980–2012. Food Nutr Res 59, 26932.
134. Monsivais, P & Drewnowski, A (2007) The rising cost of low-energy-density foods. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 20712076.
135. Monsivais, P, McLain, J & Drewnowski, A (2010) The rising disparity in the price of healthful foods: 2004–2008. Food Policy 35, 514520.
136. Brooks, RC, Simpson, SJ & Raubenheimer, D (2010) The price of protein: combining evolutionary and economic analysis to understand excessive energy consumption. Obes Rev 11, 887894.
137. Jones, NR, Conklin, AI, Suhrcke, M, et al. (2014) The growing price gap between more and less healthy foods: analysis of a novel longitudinal UK dataset. PLOS ONE 9, e109343.
138. Rao, M, Afshin, A, Singh, G, et al. (2013) Do healthier foods and diet patterns cost more than less healthy options? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 3, e004277.
139. Green, R, Cornelsen, L, Dangour, AD, et al. (2013) The effect of rising food prices on food consumption: systematic review with meta-regression. BMJ 346, f3703.
140. Smith, KJ, McNaughton, SA, Gall, SL, et al. (2009) Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 6, 29.
141. Mercille, G, Richard, L, Gauvin, L, et al. (2016) The food environment and diet quality of urban-dwelling older women and men: assessing the moderating role of diet knowledge. Can J Public Health 107, eS34eS41.
142. Orfanos, P, Naska, A, Trichopoulou, A, et al. (2009) Eating out of home: energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes in 10 European countries. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, Suppl. 4, S239S262.
143. Vandevijvere, S, Lachat, C, Kolsteren, P, et al. (2009) Eating out of home in Belgium: current situation and policy implications. Br J Nutr 102, 921928.
144. Kearney, JM, Hulshof, KF & Gibney, MJ (2001) Eating patterns – temporal distribution, converging and diverging foods, meals eaten inside and outside of the home – implications for developing FBDG. Public Health Nutr 4, 693698.
145. O’Dwyer, NA, Gibney, MJ, Burke, SJ, et al. (2005) The influence of eating location on nutrient intakes in Irish adults: implications for developing food-based dietary guidelines. Public Health Nutr 8, 258265.
146. Kant, AK & Graubard, BI (2004) Eating out in America, 1987–2000, trends and nutritional correlates. Prev Med 38, 243249.
147. Smith, C, Gray, AR, Fleming, EA, et al. (2014) Characteristics of fast-food/takeaway-food and restaurant/café-food consumers among New Zealand adults. Public Health Nutr 17, 23682377.
148. Mohr, P, Wilson, C, Dunn, K, et al. (2007) Personal and lifestyle characteristics predictive of the consumption of fast foods in Australia. Public Health Nutr 10, 14561463.
149. Dunn, KI, Mohr, PB, Wilson, CJ, et al. (2008) Beliefs about fast food in Australia: a qualitative analysis. Appetite 51, 331334.
150. Dunn, KI, Mohr, P, Wilson, CJ, et al. (2011) Determinants of fast-food consumption. An application of the theory of planned behaviour. Appetite 57, 349357.
151. Lachat, C, Khanh le, NB, Khan, NC, et al. (2009) Eating out of home in Vietnamese adolescents: socioeconomic factors and dietary associations. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 16481655.
152. Neumark-Sztainer, D, Wall, M, Story, M, et al. (2004) Are family meal patterns associated with disordered eating behaviours among adolescents? J Adolesc Health 35, 350359.
153. Luszczynska, A, de Wit, JB, de Vet, E, et al. (2013) At-home environment, out-of-home environment, snacks and sweetened beverages intake in preadolescence, early and mid-adolescence: the interplay between environment and self-regulation. J Youth Adolesc 42, 18731883.
154. Dwyer, JT, Evans, M, Stone, EJ, et al. (2001) Adolescents’ eating patterns influence their nutrient intakes. J Am Diet Assoc 101, 798802.
155. Slining, MM, Mathias, KC & Popkin, BM (2013) Trends in food and beverage sources among US children and adolescents: 1989–2010. J Acad Nutr Diet 113, 16831694.
156. Hartmann, C, Dohle, S & Siegrist, M (2013) Importance of cooking skills for balanced food choices. Appetite 65, 125131.
157. Banks, J, Breeze, E, Crawford, R, et al. (2010) Financial Circumstances, Health and Well-Being of the Older Population in England: The 2008 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (Wave 4). London: The Institute for Fiscal Studies.
158. Zhang, D, van Meijgaard, J, Shi, L, et al. (2015) Does neighbourhood composition modify the association between acculturation and unhealthy dietary behaviours? J Epidemiol Community Health 69, 724731.
159. Dunn, RA, Sharkey, JR & Horel, S (2012) The effect of fast-food availability on fast-food consumption and obesity among rural residents: an analysis by race/ethnicity. Econ Hum Biol 10, 113.
160. Lawrence, JM, Devlin, E, Macaskill, S, et al. (2007) Factors that affect the food choices made by girls and young women, from minority ethnic groups, living in the UK. J Hum Nutr Diet 20, 311319.
161. Fraser, LK, Edwards, KL, Tominitz, M, et al. (2012) Food outlet availability, deprivation and obesity in a multi-ethnic sample of pregnant women in Bradford, UK. Soc Sci Med 75, 10481056.
162. El-Sayed, AM, Scarborough, P & Galea, S (2011) Ethnic inequalities in obesity among children and adults in the UK: a systematic review of the literature. Obes Rev 12, e516e534.
163. Burger, KS & Berner, LA (2014) A functional neuroimaging review of obesity, appetitive hormones and ingestive behavior. Physiol Behav 136, 121127.
164. de Castro, JM (2004) Genes, the environment and the control of food intake. Br J Nutr 92, Suppl. 1, S59S62.
165. Pradhan, G, Samson, SL & Sun, YX (2013) Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone. Curr Opin Clin Nutr 16, 619624.
166. Berridge, KC, Ho, CY, Richard, JM, et al. (2010) The tempted brain eats: pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders. Brain Res 1350, 4364.
167. Wang, GJ, Volkow, ND, Thanos, PK, et al. (2004) Similarity between obesity and drug addiction as assessed by neurofunctional imaging: a concept review. J Addict Dis 23, 3953.
168. Davis, C, Patte, K, Levitan, R, et al. (2007) From motivation to behaviour: a model of reward sensitivity, overeating, and food preferences in the risk profile for obesity. Appetite 48, 1219.
169. Garza, KB, Ding, M, Owensby, JK, et al. (2016) Impulsivity and fast-food consumption: a cross-sectional study among working adults. J Acad Nutr Diet 116, 6168.
170. Boettiger, CA, Mitchell, JM, Tavares, VC, et al. (2007) Immediate reward bias in humans: fronto-parietal networks and a role for the catechol-O-methyltransferase 158(Val/Val) genotype. J Neurosci 27, 1438314391.
171. Garber, AK & Lustig, RH (2011) Is fast food addictive? Curr Drug Abuse Rev 4, 146162.
172. Tiggemann, M & Kemps, E (2005) The phenomenology of food cravings: the role of mental imagery. Appetite 45, 305313.
173. Werle, COC, Trendel, O & Ardito, G (2013) Unhealthy food is not tastier for everybody: the ‘healthy=tasty’ French intuition. Food Qual Prefer 28, 116121.
174. Moss, M (2015) The extraordinary science of addictive junk food. In Expanding Addiction: Critical Essays, pp. 127143 [R Granfield and C Reinarman, editors]. New York: Routledge.
175. Chao, A, Grilo, CM, White, MA, et al. (2014) Food cravings, food intake, and weight status in a community-based sample. Eat Behav 15, 478482.
176. Gearhardt, AN, Rizk, MT & Treat, TA (2014) The association of food characteristics and individual differences with ratings of craving and liking. Appetite 79, 166173.
177. Corwin, RL (2011) The face of uncertainty eats. Curr Drug Abuse Rev 4, 174181.
178. Propper, C (2005) Why economics is good for your health. 2004 Royal Economic Society Public Lecture. Health Econ 14, 987997.
179. Cotti, C & Tefft, N (2013) Fast food prices, obesity, and the minimum wage. Econ Hum Biol 11, 134147.
180. Hillier-Brown, FC, Summerbell, CD, Moore, HJ, et al. (2017) The impact of interventions to promote healthier ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away or to be delivered) sold by specific food outlets open to the general public: a systematic review. Obesity Reviews 18, 227246.
181. World Health Organization (2013) Global Action Plan for NCDs 2013–2020. Geneva: WHO.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed